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York. Thus war hath given thee peace, for thou art

still. • Peace with his soul, heaven, if it be thy will! [Exit.

Enter young CLIFFORD. * Y. Clif. Shame and confusion! all is on the rout;8 * Fear frames disorder, and disorder wounds * Where it should guard. O war, thou son of hell, * Whom angry heavens do make their minister, * Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part * Hot coals of vengeance !?—Let no soldier fy: * He, that is truly dedicate to war, * Hath no self-love; nor he, that loves himself, * Hath not essentially, but by circumstance, * The name of valour.-0, let the vile world end,

[Seeing his dead Father. * And the premised flames? of the last day

« Lord Clifford and lord Stafford all abreast

Charg'd our main battle's front; and breaking in,

“ Were by the swords of common soldiers slain.” Percy. For this inconsistency the elder poet must answer; for these lines are in The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of York, &c. on which, as I conceive, The Third Part of King Henry VI was founded. Malone

8 Shame and confusion! all is on the rout; &c.) Instead of this long speech, we have the following lines in the old play:

Y. Clifford. Father of Cumberland!
“Where may I seek my aged father forth?
“O dismal sight! see where he breathless lies,
“ All smear'd and welter'd in his luke-warm blood!
“Ah, aged pillar of all Cumberland's true house!
“Sweet father, to thy murder'd ghost I swear
“ Immortal hate unto the house of York;
“ Nor never shall I sleep secure one night,
66 Till I have furiously reveng'd tby death,
" And left not one of them to breathe on earth.

[He takes him up on his back.
" And thus as old Anchises' son did bear
“ His aged father on his manly back,
And fought with him against the bloody Greeks,
“Even so will I;-but stay, here's one of them,

“ To whom my soul hath sworn immortal hate.” Malone. 9 Hot coals of vengeance !'] This phrase is scriptural. So, in the 140th Psalm : « Let hot burning coals fall upon them.”

Steevens. 1 And the premised flames -] Premised, for sent before their time. The sense is, let the flames reserved for the last day be sent now


* Knit earth and heaven together!
* Now let the general trumpet blow his blast,
* Particularities and petty sounds
* To cease!2-Wast thou ordain’d, dear father,
* To lose thy youth in peace, and to achieve 3
* The silver livery of advised age;
* And, in thy reverence,s and thy chair-days, thus
* To die in ruffian battle ?--Even at this sight,
* My heart is turn’d to stone:6 and, while 'tis mine,
* It shall be stony.? York not our old men spares;
* No more will I their babes: tears virginal
* Shall be to me even as the dew to fire;
* And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims,
* Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax.8
* Henceforth, I will not have to do with pity:
* Meet I an infant of the house of York,
* Into as many gobbets will I cut it,
* As wild Medea young Absyrtus did:9


2 To cease!) Is to stop, a verb active. So, in Timon of Athens :

be not ceas'd
“With slight denial " Steevens.

to achieve - ] Is, to obtain. Fohnson. 4 The silver livery of advised age;] Advised is wise, experienced.

Malone. Advised is cautious, considerate. So before in this play:

" And bid me be advised how I tread.” Steevens. 5 And, in thy reverence,] In that period of life, which is enti. tled to the reverence of others. Our author has used the word in the same manner in As you Like it, where the younger brother says to the elder, (speaking of their father) “ thou art indeed nearer to his reverence.Malone. 6 My heart is turn'd to stone:] So, in Othello: ".

my heart is turn'd to stone; I strike it, and it hurts my hand.” Malone. 7 It shall be stony.] So again, in Othello:

“ Thou dost stone my heart." And, in King Richard III, we bave “ stone-hard heart."

Steevens to my flaming wrath be oil and flax.] So, in Hamlet : “ To flaming youth let virtue be as wax,

" And melt in her own fire.” Steevens. 9 As wild Medea &c.] When Medea fled with Jason from Col-clos, she murdered her brother Absyrtus, and cut his body into: several pieces, that her father might be prevented for some time from pursuing her. See Ovid, Trist. Lib. III, El. 9:

* In cruelty will I seek out my fame.
. Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford's house;

[Taking up the Body. • As did Æneas old Anchises bear, • So bear I thee upon my manly shoulders;2 * But then Æneas bare a living load, * Nothing so heavy as these woes of mine. [Exit. Enter RICHARD PLANTAGENET and SOMERSET,

fighting, and SOMERSET is killed. Rich. So, lie thou there; • For, underneath an ale-house' paltry sign, The Castle in Saint Albans, Somerset Hath made the wizard famous in his death.2.

divellit, divulsaque membra per agros
“ Dissipat, in multis invenienda locis:
“Ut genitor luctuque novo tardetur, et artus

“ Dum legit extinctos, triste moretur iter." Malone. 1 The quarto copy has these lines:

“ Even so will I.-But stay, here's one of them,

" To whom my soul hath sworn immortal hate." Enter Richard, and then Clifford lays down his father, fights with

him, and Richard flies away again. “ Out, crook-back'd villain! get thee from my sight! « But I will after thee, and once again “ (When I have borne my father to his tent) “I'll try my fortune better with thee yet.” [Exit young Clifford with his father.

Steeoens. This is to be added to all the other circumstances which have been urged to show that the quarto play was the production of an elder writer than Shakspeare. The former's description of Æneas is different. See p. 272, n. 8. Malone. 2 So, lie thou there ; For, underneath an ale-house' paltry sign, The castle in Saint Albans, Somerset

Hath made the wizard famous in his death.] The particle for in the second line seems to be used without any very apparent inference. We might read:

Fall’n underneath an ale-house' paltry sign, &c. Yet the alteration is not necessary; for the old reading is sense, though obscure. Johnson.

Dr. Johnson justly observes that the particle for seems to be used here without any apparent inference. The corresponding passage in the old play induces me to believe that a line has been omitted, perhaps of this import:

Behold, the prophecy is come to pass ;
66 For, underneath &c.

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* Sword, hold thy temper; heart, be wrathful still:
* Priests pray for enemies, but princes kill. [Exit.
Alarums: Excursions. Enter King HENRY, Queen

MARGARET, and Others, retreating.
Q. Mar. Away, my lord!3 you are slow; for shame,

away! * K. Hen. Can we outrun the heavens? good Marga

ret, stay. * Q. Mar. What are you made of? you 'll nor fight,

nor fly: * Now is it manhood, wisdom, and defence,

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We have had already two similar omissions in this play.

Malone: Thus the passage stands in the quarto:

Rich. So lie thou there, and tumble in thy blood!
“What's here? the sign of the Castle ?
“ Then the prophecy is come to pass;
“ For Somerset was forewarned of castles,
“ The which he always did observe; and now,
“ Behold, under a paltry ale-house sign,
" The Castle in saint Albans, Somerset

“ Hath made the wizard famous by his death." I suppose, however, that the third line was originally written:

Why, then the prophecy is come to pass.” Steevens. The death of Somerset here accomplishes that equivocal prediction given by Jourdain, the witch, concerning this duke; which we met with at the close of the first act in this play:

6 Let him shun castles :
- Safer shall he be upon the sandy plains,

“ Than where castles, mounted stand.” i. e. the representation of a castle, mounted for a sign. Theobald. 3 Away, my lord! &c.] Thus, in the old play:

Queen. Away, my lord, and fly to London straight; Make haste, for vengeance comes along with them ; • Come, stand not to expostulate: let's go.

King. Come then, fair queen, to London let us haste, “ And summon a parliament with speed, To stop the fury of these dire events.”

[ Exeunt King and Queen. Previous to the entry of the King and Queen, there is the following stage-direction:

Alarums again, and then enter three or four bearing the Duke of Buckingham wounded to his tent. Alarums still, and then enter the king and queen.” See p. 145, n. 8, and p. 152, n. 5.

Malone. 4 Now is it manhood, wisdom, &c.] This passage will serve to countenance an emendation proposed in Macbeth. See Vol. VII, p. 192, n. 9. Steevens.

* To give the enemy way; and to secure us By what we can, which can no more but fly.

[Alarum afur off * If you

be ta'en, we then should see the bottom * Of all our fortunes :5 but if we haply scape, *(As well we may, if not through your nglect,) * We shall to London get; where you are lov’d; * And where this breach, now in our fortunes made, * May readily be stopp’d.

Enter young CLIFFORD. * Y. Clif. But that my heart 's on future mischief set, * I would speak blasphemy ere bid you fly; * But fly you must; uncurable discomfit

Reigns in the hearts of all our present parts.6



5 If you be ta'en, we then should see the bottom

Of all our fortunes:] Of this expression, which is undoubtedly Shakspeare's, he appears to have been fond. So, in King Henry IV, P.I:

for therein should we read
“ The very bottom and the soul of hope,
“The very list, the very utmost bound

Of all our fortunes.” Again, in Romeo and Juliet:

“Which sees into the bottom of my grief.” Again, in Measure for Measure:

“ To look into the bottom of my place." Malone.
all our present parts.] Should we not read ?--party.

Tyrwhitt: The text is undoubtedly right. So, before :

“ Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part

« Hot coals of vengeance." I have met with part for party in other books of that time. So, in the Proclamation for the apprehension of John Cade, Stowe's Chronicle, p. 646, edit. 1605: “ – the which John Cade also, after this, was sworne to the French parts, and dwelled with them," &c.

Again, in Hall's Chronicle, King Henry VI, fol. 101: “. clusion King Edward so corageously comforted his men, refreshing the weary, and helping the wounded, that the other part [i. e. the adverse army] was discomforted and overcome.” Again, in the same Chronicle, EDWARD IV, fol. xxii: “. vided a kynge, for to extinguish both the faccions and partes si. e. parties) of Kyng Henry the VI, and of Kyng Edward the fourth.” Again, in Coriolanus :

if I cannot persuade thee, “ Rather to show a noble grace to both parts, “ Than seek the end of one,"

in con- .

to bee pro

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