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The chief mistakes made in 1850 were those which have led to the ruin of many associations in France, viz. beginning with large numbers of members and starting with borrowed capital. No society of workmen can succeed without great determination, perseverance, frugality, and mutual confidence. Now these qualifications are never met with among a large body of men brought together by a vague expectation of bettering their condition. The only mode of founding a healthy association is for a few earnest men who thoroughly trust in each other to combine their small means and begin on a commensurate scale, from time to time increasing their numbers and their business as opportunity offers; following, indeed, the example of the Rochdale flannel weavers, and the founders of the now flourishing Parisian associations. A little society in London—the Gilders' Association of Red Lion-Square - adopted this excellent plan. The idea originated with the member to whom the management is now entrusted; he selected four associates
-journeymen gilders like himself. Each contributed 2s. per week, until a capital of 81. was realized, when a workshop was taken; after providing this with the requisite benches and fittings, the magnificent sum of 4s. 6d. remained as floating capital. Work being obtained from upholsterers and framemakers, operations began.' The members received wages at the usual rates, and the profits were left to increase the capital. Although they took no credit, the society could not avoid sometimes giving it; and they sustained some losses, and at one time were a little in debt. This, however, has been long paid off, and they have now accumulated a surplus capital of about 2001. They have always managed to keep in steady work, which is not usual among gilders, and have, consequently, on the whole, received more in the shape of wages than they would have done as ordinary journeymen. No profits have as yet been paid out (except to one man who left the society); but five per cent. is credited upon the accumulated capital belonging to each member. It is intended that when there is a surplus profit after paying the interest, it shall be divided equally among the members. The workshop is roomy and commodious, and the men have a pleasant, respectable aspect. As—Londoner-likethey live at considerable distances from their work, they mess together in the workshop, one of the body officiating as cook. A friendly spirit prevails among them, and quarrels are unknown. There is no economical reason why societies like this should not be multiplied to any extent.
There are several working associations in the metropolis, but
as they are registered (if at all) as joint-stock companies, it would be difficult or impossible to obtain satisfactory statistics.
The same remark applies to the co-operative manufacturing concerns, into which channel the workmen's association movement in England has chiefly flowed. Their number, however, is very considerable. In Bury alone, three years ago, it was believed that as much as 600,0001, had been invested in this manner. The Inspectors of Factories at that time mention the numerous mills building and built by societies of working men, speaking highly of their management and obedience to the factory laws. In some of these establishments shopping, provided with machinery driven by the steam engine, is let to individuals, who work there with their families, thus reproducing the old system of domestic manufactures, but combining with it all the advantages of the most improved fittings and commodious work-rooms. All more or less resemble the manufacturing association of Rochdale; some give the workmen, as such, a share in the profits, but many appropriate the whole to the capital.
The cotton famine has subjected the soundness of these enterprises to a severe test, but they have generally stood it well. Few, we believe, have succumbed, while many have been able to continue working when most other mills had stopped ; and if the members are wise enough to eschew speculation, and conduct their affairs as nearly as may be on ready money principles, there is every reason to expect that they will be permanently successful. Thus a class comes into being who, while remaining workpeople, must necessarily acquire much of the spirit and feelings of employers—and will consequently fill up the great gap between the two bodies.
The movement is eminently conservative in its tendency. Henri Quatre wished that every peasant in France could have a fowl in his pot. If every working man in England had a little property, a provision against misfortune and old age, a something to leave to his children, a stake in the country, in fact, becoming thus necessarily a supporter of order,—our institutions would be placed on so sound a basis that, humanly speaking, nothing could shake them.
ART. V.-1. Correspondence respecting Affairs in Japan. Pre
sented to Parliament in 1862 and 1863. 2. The Capital of the Tycoon: a Narrative of a Three Years'
Residence in Japan. By Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B., Her Majesty's Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary in Japan.
London, 1863. 3. Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and Japan
in the Years 1857, 1858, 1859. London, 1859. 4. Japanese Sketches. By Captain Sherard Osborn. London,
1862. 5. A Residence in Nagasaki and Hakodadi in 1859-1860. By C.
Pemberton Hodgson, late Her Majesty's Consul for those
Ports. London, 1861. 6. Ten Weeks in Japan. By George Smith, D.D., Bishop of
Victoria. London, 1861. 7. Niphon and Pe-che-li; or, Two Years in Japan and Northern
China. By Edward Barrington Fonblanque. London, 1862. 8. Yedo and Peking: a Narrative of a Journey to the Capitals of
Japan and China, with Notices of the Natural Productions, Agriculture, Horticulture, and Trade of those Countries. By Robert Fortune, Honorary Member of the Agricultural Society
of India. With Map and Illustrations. London, 1863. 9. Japan und China Reiseskizzen. Von Dr. Hermann Maron.
Berlin, 1863. THE lamentable events which have recently occurred in
1 Japan, and which threaten to involve her in hostilities with the nations which have of late years sought, though somewhat roughly, her friendship and alliance, may dispose our readers to regard with attention the social and political condition of that singular region. Our acquaintance with it has greatly increased; for within the last four years foreign ministers and consuls who fixed their residence in Yeddo and the ports opened under the provisions of the treaties, have been enabled to give much more detailed and correct descriptions of the country, its manners, social habits, institutions, government, and resources, than was possible before.
The Japanese claim an origin distinct from that of any of the races of the neighbouring continent. They repudiate any community or connexion with the Chinese, for whom they profess unbounded contempt. The Japanese language is in some respects unlike the Chinese, and, indeed, all other known languages, in its structure; but it seems now to be very generally acknowledged that the people were originally derived from the same Mongol stock, the descendants of which people China. The Vol. 114.–No. 228.
that singular remin the last four in Yeddo and
peopling of Japan, however, must have been an event prior to the first Mongol invasion of China, for the features of the race differ considerably from the Chinese type. The civilisation of Japan has not been stagnant for ages, like that of China, but is quite distinct from that of any other Eastern nation, and indicates progress rather than immobility. There has been a gradual advancement in art and science; laws have been enacted in conformity with the wants of society; and the machinery of government has been brought to a perfection rarely exhibited even in a European State. Although in their mythology the Japanese, like some other Orientals, claim for their Sovereigns a direct intercourse with the Deity, they dwell complacently on the tradition that they were once only a community of humble fishermen, while they are indebted for their high civilisation to a heaven-descended lawgiver. They have derived nothing, they say, from other countries; but even at the present day, so far from disdaining their simple ancestors, it is the custom to send with all presents a small piece of dried fish, that their origin may be kept in perpetual remembrance. Society in Japan, left to its own development, probably at first assumed the tribal form, and may at one period have been not unlike that of New Zealand, where numerous chiefs long divided the country among them. The Japanese fix the date of the foundation of their monarchy at 660 B.C., when the government became theocratical. How a theocracy was first established it is impossible to discover, but it certainly subsisted as the dominant power for centuries, and it exists in a modified form to the present day. According to Japanese history the principalities into which the country was divided had but little connexion with each other. Japan is said to have contained at one period sixty-six separate provinces or petty kingdoms, which were afterwards subdivided into six hundred, each governed by a local chief. Under such a form of government the normal condition of society must have been one of war, such as we know it to be among the savage and semi-civilised tribes of Africa. Some more powerful chief obtained at length an ascendancy over the rest, and, by craft or superstition, established a spiritual empire. But this potentate—the Mikado, as he was termed-found himself unequal to the task of preserving order among the turbulent chiefs who had acquiesced in his pretensions ; and he accordingly took a step which, however it may have conduced to his peace, proved fatal to his authority. He delegated the power of the sword to one of the ablest of his generals, who had in reality become his master. The result was the complete pacification of Japan, and the transformation of a suc
cessful commander into the great officer of State termed the Tycoon. The Spiritual Emperor remained the supreme head of the Church, the fountain of honour, the high-priest of the nation, the defender of the faith; but the government of the army, the control of the finances, and the regulation of the external relations of the empire were vested in the Tycoon.
The political attributes of this great functionary have been often misconceived. He is frequently styled the temporal, as contrasted with the spiritual Emperor. The Japanese acknowledge but one Emperor, namely, the Mikado. The term Emperor, as applied to the Tycoon, is one to which the Japanese strongly object, although they do not deny that in him the temporal power is constitutionally lodged. His title is not always the same. In peace he is called the Tycoon; on the breaking out of war he assumes the title of the Ziogoon. Whether this change of name is connected with any great addition to his authority we have been unable to ascertain ; but it is not improbable that it may imply a temporary dictatorship, called into existence by the necessity of strengthening the executive power, on the occasion of any great public danger or national crisis.
The Mikado combines the dignity of a Sovereign with the infallibility of a Pope, and his spiritual councillors may be compared to a College of Cardinals. He has no army, however, to consume his revenues and to coerce his flock. The expenses of his Court are defrayed from the resources of a small principality, and from emoluments derived from indulgences, * benevolences, and fees. He canonizes great and holy men after death ; decides, without appeal, all theological questions, and issues irrevocable
bulls.' Shrouded in mystery, and seen by no mortal eyes but by those of his wives or occasionally by the Tycoon, many extravagant stories obtained currency respecting his peculiar establishment and mode of life. It was said that the Japanese not only revered him as a god, but considered themselves as unworthy to approach him even in thought. The great Solar Goddess was believed to be incarnate in his person. He passed, it was said, a certain number of hours every day seated on his throne in a state of perfect immobility, whereby the stability of the Japanese empire was maintained and its peace insured. He was pronounced too holy to be allowed to touch the ground with his feet. His hair, beard, and nails were cut only while he was asleep; and no article of dress, and no utensil to which he had once imparted a sanctity, could ever be used again. He was supposed never to die, but to dis
* Indulgences are sold at Miaco, as they once were in Rome.