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(8.) ILL, a river of Germany, which runs into ing under the 12th order, Holoracea. The calyx the Rhine near Feldkirch.

is pentaphyllous, and cartilaginous ; there is no * ILLACHRYMABLE, adj. (illachrymabilis, corolla ; the ftigma is fimple; the capsule quinLat.) Incapable of weeping. Dia...!!!Y quevalved, and monospermous. There are several

ILLAHON, a town of Egypt; 12 miles E. of species, of which the moft remarkable are

1. ILLECEBRUM CAPITATUM, and ? Both have * ILLAPSE. n. S. [illapfus, Lat.] 1. Gradu- 2. ILLECE BRUM PARONYCHIA. trailing al emiffon or entrance of one thing into another, ftalks pear two feet long, which spread on the -As a piece of iron red hot, by reafon of the ground, garnished with small leaves like those of illapse of the fire into it, appears all over like fire'; knot-grafs. The heads of the flowers come out so the souls of the blessed, .by the illapse of the from the joints of the stalks, having neat filvery divine effeace into them, shall be all over divine. bractea furrounding them, which make a pretty Norris. 2. Sudden attack; casual coming. appearance. Their flowers appear in June, and Life is oft preserved

there is generally a succession of them for at least By the bold swimmer in the swift illapse two months. When the autumn proves warm, Of accident disastrous. Tbomjon's Summer. they ripen their feeds in O&tober. The seeds

*TO ILLAQUEATE. v.a. [illaqueo, Lat.] To should be fown in a bed of light earth in the beentangle ; to entrap; to ensnare.-I am illaqueated, ginning of April : the plants come up in May, but not truly captivated into your conclufion. when they should be kept clean from weeds tím More's Divine Dialogues.

they are fit to remove. Some should be planted * ILLAQUEATION. n. : [from illaqueate.) in small pots, and the rest in a warm border, obs. The act of catching or en faring:The word serving to water and shade them till they have tain Matthew doth not only fignify

suspension, or ken new root. These plants are fometimes killed pendulous illaqucation, but also suffocation. in severe winters; for which reason fome of them Brown. 2. A snare: any thing to catch another; should be planted in pots, that they may be shela noole.

tered. (1.) ILLASI, a pleasant valley of Italy, in the * ILLEGAL. adj. [in and legalis, Lat.) Conci-devant prov. of the Veronese included in the trary to law.-No patent can oblige the subject department of the Mincio.. It extends to the ter, against law, unless an illegal patent pafted in one ritory of Vicenza, and contains s parishes. 1 kingdom can bind another, and not itself. Swift.

(20 3:). ILLASI, a town and rivulet in the above * ILLEGALITY. ni . [from illegal} Con. valley, among the hills.'

trariety to law. He wished them to consider what ILLATION. n. f. (illatio, Lat.). Inference; votes they had passed, of the illegality of all those conclufion drawn from premises. Herein there commissions, and of the unjustifiableness all Seems tojbe a very erroneous Mlation from the in- the proceedings by virtue of them, Clarendon. dulgence of God unto Cain; concluding an im. * ILLEGALLY. adv. (from illegal.] In a man, munity unto himself. Brown: Illation to orders ner contrary to law. the intermediate ideas as to discover what con- * ILLEGIBLE. adj. (in and legibilis, from lego, nection there is in each link of the chain, where. Lat.] What cannot be read. The secretary by the extremes are held together. Locke. poured the ink-box all over the writings, and so

* ILLATIVE. adj. (illatus, Lat.] Relating to defaced them, that they were made altogether il. illation or conclusion. In common discourse or legible. Howel. writing such casual particles as for, because, ma- ** ILLEGITIMACY. n. f. [from (illegitimate.) pifest the act of reasoning as well as the illative State of bastardy. particles then and therefore. Wattsa

ILLEGITIMATE. adj. (in and legitimus, Lat.) * ILLAUDABLE. adj. [illaudabilis, Lat.] Un. Unlawfully begotten ; not begotten in wedlock. worthy of praise or commendation.

Grieve not at your state ; Strength from truth divided, and from juft, . For all the world is illegitimate.. Cleaveland. Iloudable, nought merits but dispraife. Milton. Being illegitimate, I was deprived of that en.

ILLAUDABLY. adv. [from illaudable.). Uns dearing tendernefs and uncommon fatisfaction, worthily ; without deserving praise. It is natural which a good man finds in the love and conversa. for all people to form, not illaudably, too favour- tion of a parent. Addison's Spectator, able a judgment of their own country, Broome. * ILLEGITIMATELY. adv. (from illegiti

(1.) ILLE, a river of France, which rises in mate.) Not begotten in wedlock. the dept. of Ille and. Vilaine, near Dinge, and ILLEGITIMATION. n. f. [from illegitijoins the Vilaine near Rennes.

mate.] The state of one not begotten in wedlock. (2.) ILLE, a town of France, in the dept. of Richard III. had a resolution, out of his hatred the Éaftern Pyrenees, io miles from Perpignan. to both his brethren, to disable their issues, upon Lon. 3. 5. E. Lat. 42. 35. N..!

false and incompetent pretexts, the one of attain, (3.) ILLE AND

VILAINE, a department of France, der, the other of illegitimation. Bacon. comprehending part of the ci-devant prov. of ILLENAS, a town of Hispaniola.. Bretagne; bounded on the E. by the dep. of ILLENQIS. See ILLINOIS. Maine ; S. by that of Lower Loire; w.. by those ILLER, a river of Germany, which rises in of Morbihan and the North Coasts,' and 'N. by the mountains of Tyrol, runs N. through Suabia, the British Channel, and the dep. of the Channel. and palling by Kempten, Memmingen, and Kirch

ILLECEBRUM, in botany; A genus of the berg, falls into the Danube at Ulm. monogynia order, belonging to the pentandria ILLESCAS, a town' of Spain, in New Castile, class of plants; and in the natural method rank between Madrid and Toledo,



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ILLEVIABLE. adv. (lever, Fr.) What can that closely covers and involves it is broken, exDot be levied or exacted. He rectified the me, hibits a kernel that is white, fleshy, foft, and of a thod of collecting his revenue, and removed ob yapid takte. The bonzes, or priets of China and folete and illeviable parts of charge. Hale. Japan, persuade the inhabitants that the gods are

* İLLFAVOURED. adj. Deformed. delighted with this free. Hence they generally 3. O, what a world of vile illfavour'd faults: place before their idols garlands and bundles made Look handsome in three hundred pounds ac of the branches. The bark of the anife-tree, reyear!

Sbak. duced to powder, and equally burnt, the public * ILLFAVOUREDLY. adv. 1. With Defor- watchmen in Japan, by a very curious cantrivance mity, 2. Roughly; ruggedly: in ludicrous lan- described by Kempfer, render useful in the meaguage. He thook him very ilfavouredly for the furing of time during the darkness of the night. time, saging through the very bowels of his coun- The same powder is frequently burnt in brazen try, and plundering all wherefoever he came. vefsels on the Japanese altars; as incense is in Howel.

other countries, from a belief that the idols in * JLLFAVOUREDNESS. *. f Deformity. whore honour the ceremony is performied 'are

* ILLIBERAL. adj. (illiberalis, Lat.] 1. Not greatly refreshed with the agreeable fragrancy of poble ; not ingenuous. The charity of moft men its odour. A branch of this tree added to the is grown fo cold, and their religion so illiberale decoction of the poifonous fish, termed by the King Charles. 2. Not munificent; not generous; Dutch de ophiajer (a fish the most delicate for eat: Iparing.-Yet fubfift they did, and well too: an ing, if the poisonous matter be firli properly ex, argument that that carth did not deal out their nou, pelled), increases its poxious quality, and exafperishment with an oversparing or illiberal hand. rates the poison to an astonidhing degree of actiNatural

vity. FILLIBERALTIY. 2:7' illiberalitas, Lat. from S. ILLICIUM FLORIDANUM, with red flowers, illiberal.] 1. Meaopcfs of mind. 2. Parlimony; and very odorous fruit. It is a native of China. niggardliness; want of munificence:-The illibes ILLIERS, a town of France, in the dep. of rality of parents, in allowance' towards their chil- Eure and Loire ; 12 'miles SW. of Chartres. dren, is an harmful error; and acquaints them * TO ILLIGHTEN. v. n. (in and lighten.) To with fhifts. Bacon.

enlighten; to illuminate. A word, I believe, ona * ILLIBERALLY. adv. (from illiberal.] Dif. ly in Raleigb.---Corporeal light cannot be, be. ingenuqully; meanly.-One that had been boun- cause then it would not pierce the ait, nor diazifully only upon furprise and incogitancy, illibe- phonous bodies; and yet every day we fee the air rally retracte. Decay of Pietg

illigbtened. Raleighein

Ili to ILLIBERIS, a town of Gaul, through which *ILLIMITABLE. adj. (in and times, Latin.} Hannibal palied as be marched into Italy. It ds That which cannot be bounded or dimited. All now called ELVIRA.

though' in 'adoration of idols, turto the fubriter ILLICE, an ancient town of Spain, with a bay heads, the worship perhaps might be fymbolical; and harbour, now called Elche. Pliny.

yet was the idolatry direct in the people, whole * ILLICIT. adj. [illicitus, Lat. illicite, Fr.] credulity is illimitable, and who may be made be. Unlawful; as, an illicit trade.

lieve that any thing is God. Brotun. Es ILLICIUM, in botany: A genus of the penta. O

With what an awful world revolving power, gynia order, belonging to the dodecandria class · Were first th' unwieldy planets launch'd along of plants; and in the natural method ranking with The illimitable void ! Du Thomson. those of which the order is doubtful. The calyx * ILLIMITABLY.adv. [from illimătable.} is tetraphyllous, and deciduous; there are 8 pe. Without susceptibility of bounds. tals, and 8 ipetaloid fubulated nectaria. There - ILLIMITED. adj. Lin and! limes, Latin ; ilare 16 stamina with bifid antheræ ; the capsules limité, Fr.] Unbounded ;n interminable are ovate, compressed, and monofpermous. There * ILLIMITEDNESS. n. 1. {from illimited.] are two:species, viz. ।

Exemption from all bounds. The absoluteners 1. ILLICIUM ANISATU M, a native of the woods and illimitedness of his commission was generally of China and Japan. It rifes with an erect branch, much spoken of. Clarendon..!! ed item to the height of a cherry tree ; and is co-ILLINISSA, a mountain of the ANDES, ... vered with an ash coloured bark, under which is ILLINOIA, one of the 10 New States of N. another bark that is green, Aeshy; somewhat America, into which the North Welteru Tetri, mucous, and of an aromatic taste, combined with tory is proposed to be divided.?! a small degree of aftringency. The wood is hard (1.) ILLINOIS, a people of N. America, inand brittle ; the pitch small in quantity, fungous, habitịng a country lying near a large lake of the and of a green herbaceous colour. The leaves same name.!!:(See No:30) The country is fertile ; resemble thofe of laurel; the flowers those of nar. and the people plant Indian corn, on which they ciffus. Thefe laft generally ftand single, are of a chiefly fubfift. They are civil, active, lively, and pale white, and confift of 16 petals, which differ robuft ; and are muck:lefs cruel in their dispofiin their form. The extremity of the flower-stalk tions than the other Indian nations. They are, being continued into the germen or feed bud of however, said to be great libertines, and to marry the Power, forms 8 conjoined capsules, or one a number of wives; but the inhabitants of some deeply disided into 8 parts. Of these capsules, of their villages have embraced Chriftianity. some frequently decay; the 'reft inclofe each z.) ILLINOIs, a largel navigable river of the finge Teed, somewhat resembling that of palma United States in the North Western Territory, Chrifti, and which, when the hardish corticle formed by the conflux of the plein and Theakiki,

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in Lon. 880 42' W. and Lat. 41° 47' N. After run. It might be one of those ilnatu-ed Beings who bing a ferpentine course through an extensive are at enmity

with mankind, and do thereforetake country, where it receives the waters of many pleafure in filling tlem with groundiefs turfors. rivers for 280 miles, it approaches within 5 miles Atterbury. 2. Philips applies it to land Uniractof the Missippi; then turning E. about iż miles able ; . not yielding to culture...; Walin it falls into that rives, by a mouth 400 yds. wide;

The fondly studious of increase, in Lon! 90° 17. W. and Lat. 38° 40' N.” Its Rich foreign mold on their illnatured land whole length, from the source of the THTÄKIKI,

Philips. is 480 miles.

ILLNATUREDLY. adv. (from illnatured.) 13.)Illinois, 'a lake of the United States; form. In a peevish, forward manner. ed by a dilatation of the above river, about 24b İLLNATUREDNESS. n. S. (from dłnatared.) miles below the source of the Theákiki. It com. Want of a kindly disposition, municates with Jake Michigan by the Chicago. ILLNESS. *. f. [from ill.] Tu Badness or in. It is zo miles long, and is broad in the middle: convenience of any kind, natural or moral.-lle ILLIPOLA MAJOR, two ancient towns of that has his chains knocked off, and the prison ILLIPULA MINOR, 5 Spain....I doors fet open, is perfectly at diberty, though his

* ILLITERATE. ad aliteratus, Lat.] Un- preference be determined to Atay, by the illlettered ; uitaught ; unlearned ; unenlightened ways of the weather. Locke. 9. Sickness; malady; by science.-The duke was illiterate, yet had disorder of health.-On the Lord's day which imlearned at court to supply his own defeaś, by the 'mediately preceded his illness, he had received the drawing unto him of the best inftruments of ex. facrament. Atterburg:--Since the account her maperience. Wotton.

jesty teceived of the infolent faction during her Th' illiterate writer, empírick like, applies fate illness at Windfor, the hath been willing to fte Tominds difeas'd unsafe chance remedies : them deprived of power to do mischief. Swift The tearn'd in schools, where knowledge tirnt sz. Wickedness. bigan,

Thou would be greatz... Studies with care thanatomiy of man;

Art not without ambition, but without Sees virtue, vice, and pallions in their causa, The illness Thould attend ita

Shak. And fame from science, not from fortune draws. ILLOCK, a town of Sclavonia.

Dryden. ILLOGAN, ST, a town of Cornwall, N. of - In the first ages of Christianity not only the Redruth. learned and the wise, but the ignorant and illite- - ILLOGICAL. adj. [in and logical.}1. Ignorate, embraced torinents and death. Tillotson. ränt or negligent of the rules of reasoning.-Orie * ILĻITERATENESS. n. f. [from alliteratei

] of the differiters appeared to Dr Sanderson so bola Want of learning; ignorance of science. -Many, and illogical in the dispute, as forced him to fay, acquainted with chymistry but by report, have, he had never met with a man of more pertinacifrom the Illiterateness and impoftures of those that ons confidence, and less abilities. Walton. 2.Coripretend skill in it, entertained an ill opinion of the trary to the rules of reason.-Reason cannot dirart. Bojle

pute and make an inference fo utterly illogical. * ILLITERATURE. n.y. [in and literature.] Decay of Piety. Want of learning, a word not much used. The * ILLOGICALLY. adv. [from illogical.] In more usual caufes of this deprivation are want of a manner contrary to the laws of argutient. holy orders, illiterature, or inability for the dif- * T. ILLUDE. v, å. [illudo, Latin.) - Todecharge of that facred function, and irreligion. ceive ; to mock; to impose on; to play upon; to Ayliffe

, ; .

torment by 'fome contemptuous artifice or mooILLITURGIS,ILITURGIS, or ILIRGIA, a city kery: of ancient Spain, on the 'Bætis, destroyed by Sometimes athwart, fometimes he-ftrook him Scipio, for having revolted to the Carthaginians. ftrait, (Liry. 1. 13. c. 49.) It food near the site of An- And falsed oft his blow, t' iude him with such dujar.


Fairy Queen. ILLNATURE. n. f. (ill and nature.) Habi- In vain we measure this amazing sphere, tual maleyolence; want of humanity-Tliniature While its circumference, scorning to be brought inclines a man to thofe actions that thwart and Ev'n into fancy'd space, illudes our vanquish'd four and disturb the conversation, and confifts of thought.

Prior. a pronenefs to do’ill turns, attended with a secret *TO ILLUME. v. 'a. (illuminer, Fr.] 1. To joy upon the light of any mischief that befals an. enlighten : toʻilluminate.other, and of an utter infenlibility of any kindner's When yon fame far, that's westward from done him. Soutb.

the pole, * ILLNATURED. 'adj. (from illnature] . Had made his course, t'illumine that part of Habitually malevolent; wanting kindness or good heav'n : will; mischievous; desirous of another's evil.4 'Where now it barns

Sbak. Thefe ill qualities denominate a person illnatured, 4.To brighten'; to they being such as make him grievous and'unealy ;**

The mountain's brow, to all whom he deals and associates himself with. Illum'd with fluid gold, his near approach "South,


Thomson. Stay, filly bird, th' illnatura talk refufe; TO ILLUMINATE. v.a. illuminer, French; Nor be the bearer of unwelcome news. Tumen, Latin.) 1. To enlighten; to supply with Addison. "light.


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Do thou vouchsafes with thy love-kindling ertions in making converts ; of the abfolute de light, er

potism and complete System of ESPIONAGE, efTilluminate myldim and dulled eyn. Spenfer. tablished throughout the order; of its different -No painting canibe seen in full perfection, but degrees of Novices, Minervals, Minor and Major as all nature is illuminated by a single light. Wots. Illuminees ; Epopts or Priests, Regents, Magi, and He made the stars,

Man-kings; of the Recruitors, or Infinuators, And let them in the firmament of heav'ng with, their various fubtile methods of inlinuat. T' illuminate the earth and rule the night. ing into all characters and companies; of the

Milton. blind obedience exacted of the Novices; and Reason our guide, what can she more reply the absolute power of life and death assumed by ị Than that the sun illuminates the sky;

the order, and conceded by the Novices; of the Than that the night rises from his absent ray, dictionary, geography, kalendar; and cypher of the

And his returning luftre kiodles-day? Prior. order ; of the new names assumed by the mem2. To adorn with feftal lamps or bonfires. 3. To bers, such as Spartacus by Weishaupt, because he enlighten intelle&tublly with knowledge or grace. pretended to wage war against oppressors ; Cato Satan had no power to abuse the illuminated by. Zwack, Ajax by, Malienhaufen, &Co of the world with his impostures. Sandys's Travels.- Minerval Academy and library, of the questions When he illuminates the mind with supernatural proposed to the candidates for degrees, and the - light, he does not extinguish that which is natu- various ceremonies of admillion to each; and of ral. Lacke. 4. To adorn with pictures or initial the pretended morality, real blasphemies, and absoletters of various colours. - s. To illustrate,-My lute atheism, of the founder, and his tried friends. health is insufficient to amplify these remarks, and Such of our readers as wish to be fully informed to illuminate the several pages with variety of ex- 'of these matters, we must refer to the Abbé Bar. . amples. Watts.

ruel's works, and to Prof. Robison's Proofs of a (1.) ILLUMINATI, (Lat. i... Enlightened.) a Conspiracy agains all the Religions and Governments name assumed by a secret fociety, founded on the of Europe. But while we give full credit to the

ift of May: 1776, by Dr. Adam Weishaupt, pro general facts related in these works, we cannot feffor of canon law in the University of Ingold, help expressing some doubts respecting the ultistad. The avowed object of this order was," to mate object of Dr Weishaupt and his associates in diffuse from secret societies, as from so many cen- this conspiracy. That men of their principles tres, the light of science over the world; to pro. should secretly conspire to overthrow all the relipagate the purest principles of virtue; and to re- gions and governments at present in Europe, is inttate mankind in the happiness which they en- by no means incredible : that they should even joyed during the golden age fabled by the poets.” prevail on many well-meaning philanthropists, who Such a philanthropic object was doubtless well are no enemies to rational religion or good govern-adapted to make a deep impression on the minds of ment, to join them, is also very credible: for it

ingenuous young men, and to such alone did Dr would be paying a poor compliment to our own Weifhaupt at firk address himself. But “the constitution in church and state, were we not to real object,” (we are assured by prof. Robison and acknowledge, that most of the other governments Abbé Barruel,)“ was, by clandestine arts to over- and religions in Europe, are so full of despotism turn every government and every religion ; to and superstition, that no true friend to mankind

bring the sciences of civil life into contempt; and would regret their overthrow, could it be accomto reduce mankind to that imaginary state of na. plished without bloodshed. But that a set of men ture, when they lived independent of each other of learning and abilities, such as Weishaupt and on the spontaneous productions of the earth."- his associates are allowed to be, should form a con. Free masonry being in high reputation all over spiracy to overturn, and with more than Gothic Europe, when Weishaupt first formed the plan of rage, utterly abolish the arts and sciences, and to his fociety, he availed himself of its secrecy, to in. restore the supposed original favage state of man, troduce his new order, of which he constituted appears to us a phenomenon in the history of the bimself general, after initiating fome of his pupils, human heart totally unaccountable. That" the whom he styled Areopagites, in its mysteries. And heart of man is deceitful above all things and deswhen report spread the news throughout Ger- perately wicked,” is a melancholy truth, which, many, of the inftitution of the order of ILLU- not fcripture alone, but the biftory of mankind MINEES, it was generally

considered as a mere in all ages and nations, affords full proof of; as college lodge, which could interest the students well as the Mocking biftory of the illuminati; but no longer than during the period of their studies. while pride and vanity have a place in the human Weishaupt's character too, which at this time was heart, to say nothing of our other paflions, which respectable for morality, as well as erudition, pre. are more or less interested in the preservation of vented all suspicion of his harbouring any fuch the discoveries and improvements in arts, sciences, dark designs as have fince come to light.-But it and their inseparable concomitant luxury, we are would far exceed the limits to which our work is perfuaded, no man or body of men, who have restricted, to give even an outline of the nature enjoyed the Tweets of civilized life, erer formed a and constitution of this extraordinary society; serious wish for the total abolition of the arts and of its secrets and mysteries ; of the deep diffimu- sciences. In the fury and rage of war, Goths, lation, consumate hypocrily, and thocking im- Vandals, and Turks may burn and deftroy menu. piety of its founder, and his affociates; of their ments of art, and repositories of feience; but Jesuitical art in concealing their real objects, when the wars are over, instead of returning to and their incredible industry and attonishing ex: the favage ftate, the barbarous conquerors mix and


amalgamate with the conquered, and become them with ornamented letters and paintings. themselves more or less civilized. Dr Weishaupt We often find blanks left in MSS. for the illumiis allowed to be influenced by a high degree of va. Dators, which were never filled up. Some of the nity; as an evidence of which he communicates, ancient MSS. are gilt and burnished in a style suas the last secret to his most favoured adepts, that the perior to later times. Their colours were excel. mysteries of ILLUMINISM, which, in going thro' lent, and their skill in preparing them must have the inferior degrees, had been succeslively attri- been very great. The practice of introducing orbuted to the most ancient patriarchs and philofo. naments, drawings, emblematical figures, and even phers, and even to Christ himself, owed its origin portraits, into MSS. is of great antiquity. Varro to no other than Adam Weishaupt, known in the wrote the lives of 700 illustrious Romans, which order by the name of Spartacus. The same vani. he enriched with their portraits, as Pliny attefs ty which leads the doctor to take this traditional in his Natural History (lib. xxxv. C. 2.) Pomponius method, while secrecy is deemed necessary, of se- , Atticus was the author of a work on the actions curing to himself the honour of having found. of the great men amongst the Romans, which he ed the society, would lead him, were the illumi. ornamented with their portraits. See Corn. Ne. nati actually victorious over all religions and go- pos, chap. 18. But these works have not been vernments, to wish to have his memory recorded transmitted to posterity. There are, however, in a more durable manner by writing or printing. 'many precious documents remaining, which exBut if these and all the other arts were to perith in hibit the advancement and decline of the arts in a mass, then the memory of the doctor and the different ages and countries. These inestimable important services he had done to the order, and paintings and illuminations display the manners, to SAVAGISM, must, within a centu at the ut- customs, habits, ecclefiaftical, civil, and military, moft, perish along with them. But if, in fact, the weapons and instruments of war, utensils and artotal annihilation of the arts and sciences, as well chitecture, of the ancients ; they are of the greatest as of all religion and government, be really the ob- use in illustrating many important facts relative jects of Weishaupt and his illuminees, then we to the history of the times in which they were exemay agree with the celebrated Mandeville, that cuted. In these treasures of antiquity are pre"human nature is the true Lybian desert, daily pro. served a great number of specimens of Grecian ducing new monsters," and that of these moniters and Roman art, which were executed before the the doctor and his associates are beyond a doubt arts and scienees fell into neglect. The MSS. the most extraordinary. Prof. Robison informs containing these specimens form a valuable part us, that “the order of illuminati was abolished in of the riches preserved in the principal libraries of 1786, by the elector of Bavaria, but revived im.' Europe :— the Royal, Cottonian, and Harleian lib. mediately after, under another name, and in a raries, those in the two universities in England, the different form, all over Germany. It was again Vatican at Rome, the imperial at Vienna, the ci. detected, and seemingly broken up; but it had by devant royal, now the National, at Paris, St Mark's this time taken so deep root, that it still fubfifts at Venice, and many others. A very ancient MS. without being detected, and has spread into all of Genelis, which was in the Cottonian library, the countries of Europe.". This assertion of the and almost destroyed by a fire in 1731, contained professor, though some suspicious circumstances led 250 curious paintings in water colours: 21 frag. to it, rests on no ground of solid proof, and muft, ments, which escaped the fire, are engraved by the we presume, be now given up as utterly false. fociety of antiquaries of London. Several 1peciWe cannot conclude without expresling our mens of curious paintings also appear in Lambedoubts of apother proposition advanced by the cius's catalogue of the imperial library at Vienna, Abbé, viz. that the French revolution originated particularly in Vol. III. where 48 drawings, of from ILLUMINISM. That great numbers of the nearly equal antiquity with those in the Cottonian principal agents in the revolution of France, were library, are engraven; and several others may be both Atheists and Illuminees, we readily admit; found in various catalogues of the Italian libraries, and that many of these had an active hand in the The drawings in the Vatican Virgil made in the horrid massacres and murders that took place in 4th century, before the arts were entirely neglectthe course of it, is also undeniable ; but the revo. ed, illustrate the different subjects treated of by lution of France took its origin from more im- the Roman poet. A miniature drawing is preportant causes—the despotic power of the French fixed to each of the gospels brought over to Engs kings, the tyranny of the nobles, the progress of land by St Aguftine in the 6th century, which is light, and the example of the American revolu. preserved in the library of Corpus Chrifti college, tion; and it would have taken place, although Cambridge : in the compartments of those drawsuch a wretch as the incestuous Weishaupt and his ings are depicted representations of several transa impious associates had never existed, though pro. actions in each gospel. The curious drawings, bably with less bloodshed.

and elaborate ornaments in St Cuthbert's gospels, (2, 3.) ILLUMINATI, in church hidory. See Ile made by St Ethelwald, and now in the Cottonian LUMINED, No 1, and 2.

library, exhibit a striking specimen of the fate of ILLUMINATING, . s. a kind of miniature the arts in England in the 7th century. The same painting, anciently much pra&tised for illuftrat. may be observed with respect to the drawings in ing and adorning books. Besides the writers of the ancient copy of the four gospels preserved in books there were artists called ILLUMINATORS, the cathedral church of Litchfield, and those in whose profesion was to ornament and paint the Codex Rushworthianus in the Bodleian li. manuscripts. The writers of books first finithed brary at Oxford. The life of St Paul the hermit, their part, and the illuminators embellished now remaining in Corpus Chrifti college, CamVOL. XII. PART I.



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