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$77,000,000 or $78,000,000 to complete the works that are under way, leaving available an uncommitted balance of around $7,000,000 in the Arkansas; is that correct?

Colonel HERB. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. On the White we have approved about $178,000,000 of work and have authorized about $94,000,000, and we have placed under construction about $89,000,000, and have available an uncommitted balance of about four and one-half or five million dollars.

What amounts do you think in the public interest should be considered for increased authorization both for the Arkansas and White, or for each?

Colonel HERB. We would like to have about $40,000,000 additional for the Arkansas basin and a similar anount for the White River basin.

The CHAIRMAN. What projects would you have in mind?

Colonel HERB. The Arkansas River has its source in the Rocky Mountains in central Colorado and flows 1,450 miles southeasterly through Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas to the Mississippi River. From the source to Pueblo, Colo., 170 miles, it is a typical mountain stream. ' At Pueblo it enters the Great Plains and flows over a sandy bed with low banks to Hutchinson, Kans., a distance of 460 miles, with an average slope of nearly 7 feet to the mile. The flow in this section is erratic. While destructive floods occur, portions of the stream bed run dry for considerable periods. Low areas adjacent to this section are under irrigation. From Hutchinson to Little Rock, Ark., a distance of 641 miles, the river flows through the rolling prairies of Kansas and Oklahoma and the rugged section of western Arkansas. The average slope through this section is about 2 feet per mile. Below Little Rock the valley is broad and merges into that of the Mississippi River. The length of this section is 176 miles and the average slope 0.6 foot per mile. The total drainage area of the Arkansas is 160,500 square miles, which is 12 percent of the entire Mississippi River watershed. The average annual rainfall is about 12 inches in the western part of the basin, about 28 inches in the central part, and 50 inches in the eastern part. The channel capacity of the main stream and also of the tributary is generally insufficient to carry storm run-off. The stream flow at Little Rock fluctuates from 1,000 to 830,000 cubic feet per second and averages about 41,000 cubic feet per second. The population of the basin is about 3,700,000. The largest cities are Oklahoma City, Tulsa, and Muskogee in Oklahoma; Wichita, Kans.; Pueblo, Colo.; and Little Rock and Fort Smith in Arkansas. Agriculture is the chief industry. The basin has valuable mineral resources, including petroleum and natural gas.

The Arkansas River Basin is subject to serious floods in spite of its relatively undeveloped status. There are about 4,000,000 acres subject to overflow. The average annual damage is estimated at about $4,500,000, including damages to cities and towns. Major floods have occurred in 1908, 1916, 1927, 1935, 1941, 1943, 1944, and 1945. The floods of 1943, 1944, and 1945 caused damage estimated at $60,247,800 and the loss of 47 lives. The flood of 1943 was the most damaging.

The Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936, authorized by name several reservoirs in the Arkansas River Basin which form a part of the

comprehensive plan later adopted for that basin. The reservoirs speeifically authorized are as follows: Conchas, N. Mex., John Martin, Colo., Fort Supply, Okla., Great Salt Plains, Okla., Optima, Okla., Hulah, Okla. The Flood Control Act of June 28, 1938, approved the comprehensive plan for flood control and other purposes in the Arkansas River Basin as contained in Flood Control Committee Document No. 1, Seventy-fifth Congress, first session, and authorized the amount of $21,000,000 for the initiation and partial accomplishment of that plan. The Flood Control Act of August 18, 1941, modified the comprehensive plan adopted in the 1938 Act to include the reservoirs in the Grand (Neosho) River Basin and in the Verdigris River Basin in accordance with House Documents Nos. 107 and 440, 76th Congress, 1st session, and authorized an additional $29,000,000 for the further prosecution of the plan. The Flood Control Act of December 22, 1914 authorized an additional $35,000,000 for the further prosecution of the plan.

The comprehensive plan for the Arkansas River Basin consists of a system of reservoirs for the control of floods and other purposes. Excluding the reservoirs specifically authorized in the 1936 Flood Control Act, the plan consists of a system of 13 reservoirs at a total cost of $153,286,000. The principal features of the reservoirs are as follows:

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On the Arkansas River we would probably use the additional authorization for the completion of the Markham Ferry Reservoir and for the initiation of the two additional projects, possibly the Toronto and Oologah Reservoirs.


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The White River, classed as a clear-water stream, rises in the Boston Mountains in Madison County, Ark., then flows northerly into southwest Missouri. Its course assumes a northeasterly direction, then southerly, and finally a general easterly direction crossing the Missouri-Arkanas State line several times in a series of short looping bends. At the last of these bends it assumes a southeasterly direction to its confluence with the Black River, its largest tributary, and then flows southerly to its junction with the Mississippi River 45 miles upstream from Arkansas City, Ark. White River has a total length of 720 miles and drains an area of 28,000 square miles. The basin

the flood foot of large as 1,000,0001927, whi

has a total population of 750,000. The principal occupation is farming.

Floods are comparatively freqüent and severe in the basin and flood damages have been very considerable. Major floods of record have occurred in 1915, 1916, 1927, 1935, 1938, 1943, 1944, and 1945. The greatest flood of record was that of April 1927, which caused direct damages estimated at more than $14,000,000. The recent floods of 1943 and 1945 were nearly as large as the greatest flood of record coming within about 1 foot of the flood' heights reached at some places during the flood of 1927. Estimates of the damages caused during the recent floods of 1943, 1944, and 1945 amount to $10,705,400 and cost the lives of five persons. The principal flood damages are caused in several small communities along the White River such as Calico Rock, Batesville, Newport, Clarendon, and Augusta in Arkansas, and in extensive agricultural areas located in the flood plains of the White River and principal tributaries.

The Flood Control Act of June 28, 1938, approved the general comprehensive plan for flood control and other purposes in the White River Basin as set forth in Flood Control Committee Document No. 1, Seventy-fifth Congress, first session, and authorized $25,000,000 for. reservoirs, for initiation, and partial accomplishment of the plan. The Flood Control Act of August 18, 1941, authorized $24,000,000 in addition to the previous authorization for the prosecution of the comprehensive plan, including projects recommended in House Document No. 917, Seventy-sixth Congress, third session, and the modifications in the Norfork Reservoir recommended in House Document No. 290, Seventy-seventh Congress, first session. The 1944 Flood Control Act authorized $45,000,000 for continuation of the plan.

The approved plan provides for a system of six reservoirs on tributaries of the White River, and two reservoirs on the main stream. The principal features of the reservoirs are as follows:

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On the White River we would probably use additional authorizations for the completion of Bull Shoals Reservoir and for the construction of Table Rock Reservoir, both of those being on the main stream of the White River. .

The. CHAIRMAN. Are there any opponents of any other projects that have been considered up to date? Are there any other witnesses present who have not been heard or any other projects in any other regions in the United States that you desire to present to the attention of the Committee on Flood Control?

The committee will be adjourned until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning. (April 19, 1946)

SKAGWAY RIVER AND HARBOR, ALASKA The CHAIRMAN. General Crawford, there has been presented the report in connection with the improvement for Skagway, Alaska. What is the problem, and under what authority is the report submitted, and what is proposed to be done?

General CRAWFORD. May I ask Colonel Herb to present the report? · The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Skagway is one of the principal towns in Alaska.

Colonel HERB. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. That is a report which was submitted under the authority of a House Flood Control Committee resolution adopted in 1944.

Colonel HERB. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. What is your problem?


WORKS DIVISION, OFFICE, CHIEF OF ENGINEERS Colonel HERB. Skagway Harbor, Alaska, is about 950 miles north of Seattle, Wash., and is located in a small indentation on Taiya Inlet. Taiya Inlet joins the Lynn Canal forming a narrow strip of waterway extending into the mainland of southeastern Alaska.

Skagway River, which drains an area of about 125 square miles, rises in White Pass at the boundary between British Columbia and Alaska and flows southwestward in a narrow canyon that is not navi. gable to discharge into Taiya Inlet. The lower 4 miles of the canyon floor, 800 feet wide at the upper end and 3,000 feet wide at the mouth, is a delta formed of silt, sand, slate particles, and boulders.

Skagway is the northerly terminus of the inside passage ship route to Alaska; the ocean terminus of the White Pass & Yukon Route Railroad, which extends 111 miles to Whitehorse at the head of navigation on the Yukon River in Canada; and the terminus of the pipe line through which gasoline can be pumped in either direction between Skagway and Whitehorse. Skagway is essentially a transfer point between water and land transportation.

There is no existing flood-control project at that location.

There is a Federal navigation project at this locality. The floodcontrol work has consisted entirely of emergency repairs and protective work made by Army engineer troops after the 1943 and 1944 floods. The flood-control work performed under the supervision of the Northwest service command included emergency repair of the existing project dike, the reconstruction of approximately 2,500 feet of existing railroad dikes, and the construction of 7,800 feet of new dikes.

Floods at Skagway occur principally in September and October and in the Spring and result from either rainfall or the melting of snow. Unless the discharge reaches about 15,000 cubic feet per second very little flood damage results.

The district engineer estimates that the discharges of that amount or greater may be expected on an average of 1 in 7 years, and floods of 30,000 cubic feet per second or greater 1 in 15 years. The

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worst floods of record at Skagway were those in 1943 and 1944, with an estimated discharge of 35,000 and 30,000 cubic feet per second respectively.

The flood of 1943 resulted in an estimated damage of $235,000. Emergency dike work prevented the flooding of the city and averted much greater damage. The annual average flood damages are estimated at $14,800 at the city; $4,100 at the Sanatorium, which is about a mile upstream from Skagway, which during the war was used as an Army hospital and now has been turned back to the agency representing the Department of Interior; and other area damages, $6,340, making the total annual flood damage estimated at approximately $25,000.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the proposed solution, the estimated cost, and local contribution?

Colonel HERB. The plan of improvement provides for the restoration of the project breakwater to its original cross-section, adding two wedge-shaped rock groins thereto to protect it, and extend the breakwater 300 feet seaward; increasing the height of the existing project dike to provide a free-board of 3 feet above the 1943 flood; lowering and reinforcing the toe to protect it from undermining and extending it from Twenty-third Avenue to connect with the railroad track fill above the city so as to provide a continuous well-located line of protection for the city and to supersede the insecure existing rock cribs; and raising and strengthening the sanatorium dike to a height of 3.5 feet above the flood of 1943.

Local interests are required to furnish assurances satisfactory to the Secretary of War that they will provide without cost to the United States all necessary lands, easements, and rights-of-way and quarry rights; hold and save the United States free from damages due to improvements; and in lieu of maintenance of the project dike and breakwater and extension thereof, will contribute $500 annually toward maintenance of the reconstructed and extended city dike and harbor breakwater.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the ratio of costs to benefits?

Colonel HERB. The total cost is estimated to be $438,000; and the ratio of costs to benefits is 1.0 to 0.53.

In that connection the Board of Engineers, after considering the report of the division and district engineers finds that the estimated expenditures required for flood protection for the city of Skagway and for the preservation of the harbor for deep-draft commerce are fully justified especially in view of the importance of the port in encouragement of future development of the area. It was believed by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors that the proposed contribution by local interests of $500 annually in lieu of maintenance of the city dike and breakwater in prolongation thereof is appropriate under the circumstances.

The Board states that in view of the public need for the sanatorium and the tangible and intangible benefits which will result from its protection, the expenditure of the necessary funds for that purpose is considered justified.

The CHAIRMAN. And the Chief of Engineers approves the recommendation of the Board ?

Colonel HERB. Yes, sir. This report was also referred to the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary by letter dated the 12th of

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