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The CHAIRMAN. Now, the levees on both sides of the river from Greenwood, and above Greenwood, south principally, on the west side of the river, and that leaves there, General Crawford, valuable areas of lands that are subjected to these floods that debouch from the hills and spread over all that territory so that the lands east of the river are flooded to an extent comparable to that when there were no levees at alland the reservoirs were not constructed.

Now, then, under the adopted project, those people are, as they are generally, they live behind levees or flood walls, and they are protected by them. What I say with respect to this project is applicable to others. Those people are being misled. They were flooded this year because they thought that this project was going to protect them. What has been said about those streams is applicable to these other streams. What would you say about that, General?


MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION—Resumed General CRAWFORD. It does not provide for protection of those streams.

The CHAIRMAN. What would you say as to your recommendation for the proper protection when you convinced yourself that the protection should be made?

General CRAWFORD. Some of the streams can be improved greatly in their water-carrying capacity, and some of those streams already have levees along the streams, and the levees could be enlarged.

The CHAIRMAN. And under the tributary money you have provided some works?

General CRAWFORD. Under emergency money we have done considerable work. Particularly this last year Colonel Sauer 'worked a good deal on some of those streams. The silt and debris from the hills, in these flash streams, fill up the beds very quickly, and as soon as they fill up their beds they flow all over the countryside.

The CHAIRMAN. And the solution of those problems would involve channelization in some cases, would involve silt basins? General CRAWFORD. That has been tried.

The CHAIRMAN. It might involve cut-offs in others as well as supplemental levees?

General CRAWFORD. I think each individual stream would have to be studied, and the solution would have to be different for different streams.

The CHAIRMAN. And, as you have indicated in response to questions that we have previously asked you, you have studied, and the Committee has requested reports with respect to at least some of those streams, and what you are investigating with respect to those streams, would be applicable to the other? General CRAWFORD. That is correct.

The CHAIRMAN. And, as I understand your recommendation, it would be a modification of the adopted project to authorize you in your discretion, or in the discretion of the Chief of Engineers or the President of the Mississippi River Commission, to construct what works would be economically justified along those areas?

General CRAWFORD. That is correct. That would be the only approach that we could get any immediate relief on.

The CHAIRMAN. The Canadian River report we have before us here is not submitted by you, it is submitted by the Chief of Engineers ? General CRAWFORD. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, General Crawford, we are glad to have you with us. It is the first time that we have had the benefit of extended hearings from the President of the Mississippi River Commission over a period of years for so long a time, and so helpful and constructive, and if in the revision of your remarks—we have asked you for statistics, for information, and for the additional authorization-we will ask you to insert what you think should be the additional authorization. As I have understood you, you feel that this Memphis, and this Vicksburg project could be embraced in the main Mississippi River project and that these tributary streams could be embraced in the Yazoo project, and that these other streams, both in Arkansas and Louisiana, and Mississippi, and as well as the St. Johns and Southeast Missouri, could be as amendments to the adopted projects ? General CRAWFORD. That is correct.

The CHAIRMAN. And if you have any other suggestions or recomInendations, we will be glad to have you submit them.

For the record, Colonel Sauer, would you give the reporter your name and how long you have been district engineer at Vicksburg?

Colonel SAUER. Lt. Col. R. W. Sauer, district engineer, Vicksburg engineer district, Vicksburg, Miss.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, Colonel Sauer, you have the immediate supervision of the reservoirs in that area, and as I recall, Congress made a deficiency appropriation to initiate the Grenada and the Enid Reservoirs and what progress is being made regarding that at the present time?

Colonel SAUER. That is correct. There is approximately $4,000,000 in the deficiency bill for the initiation of these two reservoirs, and it is expected that bids will be received for them very shortly.

The CHAIRMAN. They will be on the way?
Colonel SAUER. Right, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. And when those two reservoirs are constructed what other works are to follow in order to provide for protection?

Colonel SAUER. There is some additional channel rectification work required on the Yalobusha River. There are some crevasses in the vicinity of Swan Lake that will have to be closed. There are two cut-offs above Greenwood on the Tallahatchie River that are yet to be completed and two on the Yazoo near Greenwood at Fort Pemberton and Fort Loring, and then a system of levees along the PanolaQuitman Floodway and on the Yazoo River from Greenwood down to Yazoo City on both banks.

The CHAIRMAN. If any additional cut-offs are required, you have the authority, without any additional legislation, as to whether those cut-offs, or in the vicinity of Yazoo City, as General Crawford has previously referred to, a probable cut-off there or elsewhere you have the authority to make them?

Colonel SAUER. That is right, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, Colonel, these reservoirs are to be supplemented, as you say, by the channelization work that you have done, and what would you say about the increased carrying capacity of the river for a length of 3 or 4 miles as a result of that channelization work?

Colonel SAUER. That will increase the capacity of the channel some 25 or 30 percent, on the average.

The CHAIRMAN. In the upper stretches it will be a good deal more in many cases, and you have given us the average for the average length.

Now, Colonel, what about your high water there? Did you have an overflow?

Colonel SAUER. Yes, sir; we had a very serious flood extending all the way from the headwaters of the Coldwater down to Yazoo City. It was particularly bad in the vicinity below Greenwood, Miss.

The CHAIRMAN. Almost a record flood ?

Colonel SAUER. In the vicinity of from 8 to 10 miles below Greenwood it was the record flood..

The CHAIRMAN. Now then, the local interests are organized, and they are offering you to furnish the rights-of-way to the levees, and under the adopted project you have the discretion where it is required to build levees when funds are available to supplement the levees?

Colonel SAUER. That is correct, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. And the order of their construction is with you, and the president of the Mississippi River Commission, and the supervision of the Chief of Engineers

Colonel SAUER. Right, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. And 'ordinarily you begin at the headwater and come down, and that has been the course? Colonel SAUER. That is right.

The CHAIRMAN. We are glad to have your statement and glad to have you attend the hearing.

General Crawford, before you leave I have this further question. You have, in utilizing German war prisoners, a project in the vicinity of Jackson, Miss., known as the Clinton project? General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. And you have stated to the committee that it is necessary for you to have some additional-that that land where that project has been constructed, where you have got an experimental laboratory for the Ohio and other streams of the United States, ought to be conveyed to the Engineers—am I right or wrong?

General CRAWFORD. It should be conveyed—it belongs to the Army, and we need the entire installation there for our experimental activi· ties. We have a piece of the land in which we have the model of the entire Mississippi Basin on a scale similar to that now on the small part of Pittsburgh, about, I should say, probably over-all 40 to 50 percent complete. They discovered that there was some legal obstacle to transferring those lands to the civil works without an act of Congress.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, that work has been done during the war by the first German prisoners, the African Corps, brought to this country, and that is invaluable in connection with the experimental laboratory, and you feel that there should be authority for those lands to be transferred to the Corps of Engineers?

General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

Mr. Chairman, the same thing applies at Grenada. The Army Air Field at Grenada, section 10 of that airfield, occupies a portion of our dam site; and naturally we don't want the Army to go out and sell that and then have to buy it back out of flood-control appropria

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tions. We would rather have it transferred to us. They will give it to us on permit. There is no objection on the part of the Army; it is merely that the Judge Advocate General's Office feels that under the law they cannot transfer it to us.

The CHAIRMAN. At Garrison large expenditures are being made for railways and highways—and what you are saying now is that there as an airfield in the vicinity of one of these reservoirs, the Grenada, and that is presently not being used, and that airfield would be of benefit and could be occupied by the workers on the dam and you would like to have it. General CRAWFORD. The actual dam is going to be built right on it. The CHAIRMAN. Can you think of anything else? General CRAWFORD. No, sir. I understand I may submit something on that in our draft.

The CHAIRMAN. We will be glad to have it, sir.
We have been glad to have you and Colonel Sauer attend.
The committee will be in recess for 20 minutes.
(A short recess was taken.)

RED RIVER BELOW DENISON DAM The CHAIRMAN. The committee will be in order. As I understand, General Crawford, you reported on the Red River project submitted to us, did you not? STATEMENT OF MAJ. GEN. R. W. CRAWFORD, PRESIDENT OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION AND DIVISION ENGINEER OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY DIVISION General CRAWFORD Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. That report is now before the committee? General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. It covers what part of the Red River ? General CRAWFORD. It covers the Red River below Denison Dam. The CHAIRMAN. How far is that from its mouth? General CRAWFORD. Around 720 miles.

The CHAIRMAN. And the Red River takes its course in New Mexico, and generally how long is that river? General CRAWFORD. It must be 1,500 miles, the whole length.

The CHAIRMAN. I think you can make it 1,600 and go along and be fairly safe, and sometimes it is a little longer than that.

When you get down below the Denison reservoir, that reservoir is in construction and operation at Fulton, and from there to the mouth of the river that is under your supervision. General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. And there are local protective works constructed above Shreveport, largely by the local interests, and from Shreveport on down to Alexandria, largely by the local interests, and they consist of levees. We have levees that are high in Bossier Parish, in the vicinity of Shreveport, and levees in Alexandria are higher than those along the Sacramento, and as high as the lower Mississippi River levees in the vicinity of New Orleans not as large or as strong. You are doing some revetment work.

nd sometimeou can makeiles, the whole

29. just a curred, by ihou have alre.

General CRAWFORD. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. What other projects have you along there at present?

General CRAWFORD. At the present time we are doing revetment work at Shreveport, La., and levee work from Hotwell, down to Moncla.

The CHAIRMAN. As you have already stated one of the largest floods. that ever occurred, by that I mean, overflows, occurred during the year 1945, just a year ago. General CRAWFORD. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. By what authority are you submitting the report to which you are directing the attention of the committee at present?

General CRAWFORD. The resolution of the Committee of Flood Control of the House of Representatives, adopted on April 19, 1945.

The CHAIRMAN. Submitted, as I recall, by Mr. Allen, and concurred in by Mr. Brooks, and Mr. Allen is interested because he represents a part of it, and our valued colleagues from Louisiana represent Louisiana on this committee generally in that area.

What is the problem under consideration in the proposed solution? General CRAWFORD. The problem is one of protection of the valley from floods.

The report covers only the main stem. It is an interim report, with a comprehensive report covering all tributaries to be submitted some time later this year. We hope by the end of September of this year.

The CHAIRMAN. And this is an interim report on the main stem?
General CRAWFORD. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. What do you propose to do?

General CRAWFORD. The proposal is to control floods on that river by a system of six reservoirs and levees.

The CHAIRMAN. Along what streams? General CRAWFORD. The reservoirs will be located—I will give their names: Boswell Dam on the Boggy River; Hugo Dam on the Kiamichi River; Millwood Dam on the Little River; Texarkana Dam on the Sulphur River; Ferrells Bridge Dam on Cypress Creek; Mooringsport Dam on Cypress Creek.

The CHAIRMAN. How far, General, is the farthest of those from the main stem?

General CRAWFORD. I would say Texarkana was the farthest one away from the main stem. And that would be about 20 miles.

The CHAIRMAN. And the nearest one to the main stem is what?
General CRAWFORD. The nearest would be Millwood, I believe.
The CHAIRMAN. Where is the Denison Reservoir ?
General CRAWFORD. The blue in the upper left-hand corner.

The CHAIRMAN. And all these reservoirs are indicated there in
green, are they?
General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. How many are there?
General CRAWFORD. Six proposed reservoirs.
The CHAIRMAN. And what else besides reservoirs do you propose ?
General CRAWFORD. Levees, as indicated. The plan is for raising
and strengthening the levees as indicated on the chart in yellow,

The CHAIRMAN. What is the total estimated cost of the reservoirs and levees?

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