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Mr. WARNE. I think the law clearly states that.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any further questions by members of the committee?

Does either one of your associates desire to submit a statement ? Mr. WARNE. No, sir, I believe not.

The CHAIRMAN. We are glad to have had you gentlemen here. We will be glad to have any further communications you desire to submit to us.

Mr. WARNE. Just before I leave I would like to say that with regard to the Keyhole Reservoir and the Bixbee and Green Grass Reservoirs we anticipate in the relatively near future asking for authorization. We have not formally done that as yet, but they are on the high priority list of the Department. We are very sympathetic with the position taken by Mr. Case.

The CHAIRMAN. We are glad to have had your statement. Are there any other advocates or opponents of any of the matters we have had the hearings about this morning desiring to be heard? If not, the committee stands adjourned until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning.

(Whereupon the committee adjourned at 11:45 a. m., pursuant to reconvening the following day at 10 a. m.)


FRIDAY, APRIL 12, 1946


Washington, D.C.


The committee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to adjournment, Hon. Will M. Whittington (chairman) presiding.

The CHAIRMAN. The committee will be in order. We have under consideration today, General Wheeler, you and your associates, the matter of the additional authorizations for the Great Lakes Basin and the upper Mississippi River Basin, with respect to projects and improvements previously approved where appropriations were made for the partial construction of the projects.

As I understand it, the only individual project on which we have a report that has either been transmitted to the Congress or submitted to the Budget is the Clinton River, Mich., project, local protection for Mount Clemens and vicinity. Is that correct? General WHEELER. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Colonel Herb, with respect to the upper Mississippi and the region mentioned, as I recall, there are at present approved plans for projects estimated to cost approximately $128,000,000, and there has been authorized for the partial construction of these projects $19,300,000. Also, the works completed and underway will require an expenditure of approximately $14,800,000. So there is about $4,500,000 of authorizations that have not been allocated. Is that right?

Colonel HERB. Yes, sir; that is correct.

The CHAIRMAN. Generally, what do your improvements in that region consist of at present ?

Colonel HERB. The improvements in the upper Mississippi consist of reservoirs and local protection works.

The CHAIRMAN. Reservoir where?
Colonel HERB. Well, they spread throughout the basin.
The CHAIRMAN. On what streams?

Colonel HERB. The Meramec, Bourbeuse, Big River, Kaskaskia, Salt, Wapsipinicon, Iowa, Cedar, Des Moines, Black, and Sangamon Rivers.

The CHAIRMAN. The Meramec is in what State?
Colonel HERB. In the State of Missouri, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. The Bourbeuse is in what State?
Colonel HERB. The Bourbeuse is also in the State of Missouri, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. The Meramec empties into what?

Colonel HERB. The Meramec empties into the Mississippi.
The CHAIRMAN. Above St. Louis ?

Colonel HERB. No, sir. It flows into the Mississippi a few miles below St. Louis.

The CHAIRMAN. Those are streams that enter the Mississippi River above Cairo, Ill., and are not included in the Missouri River?

Colonel HERB. That is correct, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. What local protective works generally have been authorized and along what streams?

Colonel HERB. There are levees authorized along the Illinois River, the Mississippi River the Kaskaskia River, and the Sangamon River.

The CHAIRMAN. All right, Colonel Herb; you may extend your remarks.


WORKS DIVISION, OFFICE, CHIEF OF ENGINEERS Colonel HERB. The Mississippi River rises in northern Minnesota and flows in a general southerly direction for over 2,400 miles to the Gulf of Mexico. With its numerous tributaries it drains the great central basin of the North American Continent, an area of over 1,253,000 square miles, of which about 13,000 square miles lie in Canada and the remainder within the boundaries of the United States.

The upper Mississippi River Basin is that part of the watershed of the Mississippi lying above Cairo, Ill., exclusive of the Missouri River Basin. It includes the Mississippi River, itself, and numerous tributaries, among which are the Minnesota, St. Croix, Chippewa, Black, Wisconsin, Wapsipinicon, Rock, Iowa, Skunk, Des Moines, Illinois, Meramec, Kaskaskia, and Big Muddy. The area of the upper båsin is about 171,300 square miles. The discharge of the Mississippi River at St. Louis varied from a maximum of about 1,300,000 cubic feet per second to a minimum of 24,000 cubic feet per second.

The principal industry of the area is agriculture, with a number of scattered manufacturing and marketing industries of somewhat lesser importance.

Destructive floods occur at frequent intervals on the upper Mississippi as well as on all of its major tributaries. The floods of 1844, 1903, 1927, 1943, and 1944, and others caused serious damages in the basin. With increased development of lands adjacent to the rivers, repetition of past high flood stage will be even more destructive.

In 1943 and 1944 record high stages occurred in the upper Mississippi River Basin, causing damages estimated at over $66,000,000. The 1943 flood was the greatest ever recorded on the Illinois River downstream from Peoria. In April 1944 the Mississippi River at St. Louis crested at a stage of 39.1 feet, only 2.2 feet below the crest of the historic flood of 1844 and 0.2 foot above the crest of the severe flood of May 1943. The St. Croix River in Wisconsin, and the Skunk and Des Moines Rivers in Iowa, all set new records in the 1944 flood. During these floods all levees that had been constructed by the Federal Government to final grade and section performed satisfactorily. Many private levees built to lesser standards than those which had been adopted for Federal projects failed during the flood period.

The Flood Control Act of June 28, 1938, approved the comprehensive plan for flood control and other purposes in the upper Mississippi River Basin as contained in Flood Control Committee Document No. 1, Seventy-fifth Congress, first session, and for the initiation and partial accomplishment of that plan there were authorized the amounts of $6,600,000 for reservoirs and $2,700,000 for local protection works.

The Flood Control Act of December 22, 1944, authorized $10,000,000 in addition to the previous authorization for the prosecution of the plan approved in the 1938 act including the Red Rock Dam on the Des Moines River for flood control and other purposes.

The comprehensive plan for flood control and other purposes in the upper Mississippi River Basin consists of a system of reservoirs and local protection works. The status and location of the projects comprising the approved plan are shown in the following tabulation:

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Reservoirs are constructed entirely at Federal expense. For local protection projects local interests are required to (1) furnish lands, easements, and rights-of-way, (2) hold and save the United States free from claims for damage resulting from construction, and (3) maintain and operate all works after completion in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War.

In addition to the projects already completed and under construction the existing monetary authorization can be applied to the initiation of the Coralville Reservoir and the Grand Tower local protection project. Additional authorization is needed for the completion of the reservoir and local protection project selected as mentioned above

and for the initiation of construction of one more reservoir to be selected from the approved group.

nd it, your W

right to testing to testify lat

CLINTON RIVER, MICH. The CHAIRMAN. We have a report this morning respecting the Clinton River project.

We have with us Mr. Wolcott and witnesses, who would like to testify with respect to that project. We also have with us Mr. Dondero, a member of the Committee on Rivers and Harbors. Mr. Dondero, as I understand it, your witnesses would like to testify later in respect to this matter or reserve the right to testify.

Mr. DONDERO. They reserve the right to testify later. They are here as spectators and to listen in on the proceedings.

The CHAIRMAN. Give me the names of those witnesses.
Mr. DONDERO. I have given them to you.
I have been advised that the 18th is the date.

The CHAIRMAN. We will undertake to oblige you when we have reached and disposed of the previous matters set forth for that date.

Colonel Herb, will you indicate now and describe generally the area and the location, the name of the river, where it is formed, how long this river is, and the proposed solution of the problem with the local contribution required ?

Colonel HERB. The Clinton River is formed by the confluence of its' South, Middle, and North Branches at the Forks, and flows easterly 1012 miles to empty into Anchor Bay, an arm of Lake St. Clair, 20 miles north of Detroit. It flows through a part of Mount Clemens, which is 1 mile east of the Forks.

The CHAIRMAN. In other words, this Clinton River is formed by the three or four smaller streams?

Colonel HERB. That is right, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. It flows in what direction?
Colonel HERB. Due east, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. What is, the problem?

Colonel HERB. The problem is one of flood protection for Mount Clemens. Mount Clemens had a population in 1940 of about 14,400. It is purely a flood-control problem which can be taken care of by the construction of a diversion channel.

The CHAIRMAN. Indicate first the river and then the solution.

Colonel HERB. The diversion channel is shown in red on the map. It is similar to a cut-off which allows the water to flow into Lake St. Clair during high stages by a shorter route.

The CHAIRMAN. Do you divert or do you divide ? Colonel HERB. The water is divided during high stages. This diversion channel will take care of about 11,000 cubic feet per second. The existing river will take care of another 4,000 cubic feet per second. The peak flood of record had a flow of 15,000 cubic feet per second.

The CHAIRMAN. Mount Clemens is how far from the mouth of the river?

Colonel HERB. About 10 miles, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. How far south or southeast or east of Mount Clemens does this proposed diversion begin?

Colonel HERB. It starts right in the town of Mount Clemens.

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