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Existing projects: Levees were built in Mandan many years ago around the railroad shops and a mill there.

The CHAIRMAN. Built by the local authorities?
General Pick. Yes, sir.

There are also other small levees built around there. In 1935 there was a Civilian Conservation Corps camp there, and a levee was put around that. This levee, and a levee around the State training school, located just in the southwest outskirts of Mandan, were built by local interests cooperating with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Works Progress Administration. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration spent $5,625 there, and the Works Progress Administration spent $166,099. The sponsor of those projects contributed $26,000.

The State and local authorities have suggested the construction of the Heart-Butte Dam and Reservoir upstream about 90 miles from Mandan, and a levee project at Mandan for local flood protection.

During the period from 1881 to 1944 there were 22 floods known to have occurred in the basin, of which 21 caused overflow at or below Mandan.

Mandan and the area downstream therefrom are subject to floods caused by ice jams on the Missouri River proper and also ice jams on the Heart River, and by the spring thaw floods both on the Heart and Missouri Rivers. The highest discharge of record at Mandan is 21,400 cubic feet per second, which was on the 27th of March 1943. The most severe floods at Mandan were those of 1881, 1887, and 1943. The 1881 and 1887 floods were caused principally by ice jams on the Missouri River below Bismarck. The 1943 flood resulted from high discharge of the Heart River iself.

Past flood damages which are definitely known amount to $1,047,500 for the period from 1881 to 1944. The average annual damage for the period 1881 to 1944 is $16,367. For the period 1921 to 1944 the average damage has been about $40,000 annually. The 1943 flood caused damages totaling $734,000.

Mr. Chairman, I was there at Mandan the day after the water went down.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the proposed solution? General Pick. The proposed solution is the building of local protection works at Mandan.

The CHAIRMAN. That is the recommendation of the Chief of Engineers ? General Pick. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. The division engineer and the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors recommended the construction of this dam you referred to. What is the status of that dam?

General Pick. That dam known as the Heart Butte Dam is included in the comprehensive plan and is to be built by the Bureau of Reclamation.

The CHAIRMAN. The dam which you recommended is to be constructed under the act of 1944 ? General PICK. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. By the Bureau of Reclamation? General Pick. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. What do the local protection works consist of that you recommend ?

General Pick. In addition to the reduction of the flood flows authorized by the Heart Butte multiple-purpose reservoir to be built by the Bureau of Reclamation, the plan of improvement provides for the construction of levees, railroad grade changes, highway and highway bridge alterations, and sewer and drainage modifications. The project will provide protection against a flood 20 percent greater than the 1943 flood.

General Pick. The estimated Federal cost is $246,000, and the nonFederal cost is estimated at $87,000, or a total of $333,000.

The CHAIRMAN. That is with the usual requirement for local participation? General Pick. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. We are glad to have had your statement. Mr. Robertson, a member of this committee, has been most diligent. Do you desire to ask the General any questions or make any statement?

Mr. ROBERTSON. I will withold my statement until the Good Friday session. I am heartily in accord with the outline made by General Pick.

I have a witness here today, Mr. Frederickson, representing the North Dakota Resources Board, that I would like to have granted permission to say a few words at this time.

The CHAIRMAN. With your permission, General Pick, we will be glad to hear from the witness, Mr. Frederickson, at this time.

The CHAIRMAN. Give us your name and official position, keeping in mind that we have gone into the economic and engineering features.

Mi Valley City, Board, andiation. I


THE NORTH DAKOTA RESOURCES BOARD Mr. FREDRICKSON. My name is Fred J. Fredrickson, and my home is in Valley City, N. Dåk. I am the executive director of the North Dakota Resources Board, and the Washington representative of the Greater North Dakota Association. Both of these organizations are supported by voluntary memberships, are State-wide in their activities, and their main purpose is to promote the development of the land, water, and mineral resources of the State.

I appear in behalf of the additional authorizations under the comprehensive plan on the Missouri River and also in behalf of House Report No. 294, Seventy-ninth Congress, for local protection works for Mandan, N. Dak., as recommended therein.

Our State water conservation commission, of which the Honorable Fred G. Aandahl, Governor of North Dakota, is the chairman, has twice approved this report, House Resolution 294, Seventy-ninth Congress, and the works therein proposed, the first time in October 1944 and again in June 1945. That agency is anxious to have the project authorized.

Mandan, N. Dak., a city of some 6,000 population, is an important division point on the transcontinental line of the Northern Pacific Railroad. It is at Mandan that the West begins and where the railroad changes to the heavy locomotives on its westward journey over mountainous routes. Previous floods at that point have seriously disrupted the railroad transportation for several days at a time, resulting not only in great loss and injury to the railroad company,

but jeopardizing the national security and defense, and caused heavy losses to the city, including loss of life.

I hope your committee will recommend these additional authorizations.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much. We are glad to have had your statement.

Any other statement you desire to make with respect to that project, Mr. Robertson?

Mr. ROBERTSON. No, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. There has been submitted to the chairman of the committee a telegram from the State water conservation commission urging the prompt approval of this project. I will pass that telegram to the reporter and ask him to insert it in the record at this point in connection with the statement of Mr. Robertson. (The referred to telegram is as follows:)

BISMARCK, N. DAK., April 9, 1946. Representative WILLIAM M. WHITTINGTON,

Chairman, House Flood Control Committee, Washington, D. C.: The State water conservation commission requests the favorable consideration of your committee on flood control for the construction of levees and related work for the protection of Mandan and State training school as submitted and recommended by the chief of engineers, United States Army, as shown in House Document No. 294, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, and urges your committee to appropriate adequate funds to be made available to the United States Army engineers for construction of necessary works to protect Mandan from future destrucctive floods. No city in Missouri Valley had a greater per capita loss in 1943 flood than did Mandan.

STATE WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION. Mr. ROBERTSON. I have a telegram from the State water conservation commission also which I would like to offer for the record.

The CHAIRMAN. You may pass that to the reporter and it will be included in connection with your statement. (The referred-to telegram is as follows:)

BISMARCK, N. DAK., April 10, 1946. Congressman CHARLES R. ROBERTSON,

Washington, D. C. We wired Representative Whittington, chairman of Flood Control Committee, today the following:

"The State Water Conservation Commission requests the favorable consideration of your Committee on Flood Control for the construction of levees and related work for the protection of Mandan and State training school as submitted and recommended by the Chief of Engineers United States Army as shown in House Document No. 294, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, and urges your committee to appropriate adequate funds to be made available to the United States Army engineers for construction of necessary works to protect Mandan from future destructive floods. No city in Missouri Valley had a greater per capita loss in 1943 flood than did Mandan.” Urge you to do everything possible to obtain favorable action.

STATE WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION. The CHAIRMAN. Are there any other advocates or opponents of this project?

Are there any questions from Mr. Allen?
Mr. ALLEN. No questions.

The CHAIRMAN. Any questions by Mr. Elliott?
Mr. ELLIOTT. No questions.
The CHAIRMAN. Any questions by Mr. Davis ?
Mr. Davis. No questions.

(April 19, 1946)



Mr. ROBERTSON. I want to offer a statement for the record on the Missouri River Basin, and I will give my statement to the reporter.

Flood waters uncontrolled constitute nature's most destructive force; but when impounded and regulated they are her most precious gift to man.

The Seventy-eighth Congress approved, and partly authorized, à most far-reaching program for developing a major river basin when it enacted the 1944 Flood Control Act containing the Army engineers-Bureau of Reclamation coordinated and comprehensive plan for the control of the Missouri River flood waters, and for the development of its entire basin. This plan provides a new approach to problems in a program for the greatest utilization of all the natural resources in an area one-sixth the size of the entire United States. All the work contemplated under the plan will be accomplished by existing Federal agencies working in close cooperation with State and local interests.

The initial stages of this river basin development program were given limited authorization concurrently with their approval. These dollar-value authorizations have now been reached or exceeded. In order to proceed as expeditiously as possible it appears necessary that the over-all program be fully authorized or that present authorizations be materially increased at this time. Only in that way can this gigantic development program, directly affecting the economy of 10 basin States, and indirectly affecting the welfare of the Nation, be carried forward as contemplated by the plan.

The representatives of both the Army engineers and of the Bureau of Reclamation who appeared before our committee showed the pressing need for additional authorizations in order to properly proceed with the program. Both the engineers and the Bureau suggested that dollar-value authorizations for their work be materially increased and they furnished ample justification for such requests.

Although I am greatly interested in each and every one of the many projects mentioned in the basin-wide plan, I am, naturally, especially interested in and concerned with the several developments proposed for my own State. Additional authorizations for the approved plan, as suggested by the two Federal agencies mentioned, will enable work to continue without interruption on a number of projects in North Dakota included in the initial stages. Among them are the Garrison Dam and Reservoir and appurtenant works, Heart Butte Reservoir, Dickinson Reservoir, Knife River improvements, Missouri River pumping units, and Missouri-Souris (North Dakota division) : Grenora pumping plant, Souris Canal, Crosby Reservoir, Des Lacs power plant, Des Lacs Reservoir, Devils Lake Canal, Devils Lake lateral, Sheyenne River Reservoir, James River feeder canal, James River Reservoir, Jamestown unit canal, Oakes pumping plant.

Irrigation, power, municipal and industrial water supplies, recreation, flood and silt control are much needed and important benefits to be derived from the foregoing projects.

voir, Jahiver Reservoir, Dal: Crosbyrth Da

Mr. Chairman, it is my most earnest and sincere plea that the additional authorizations requested by the Army engineers and Bureau of I Reclamation be recommended by our committee. The completion of this long-range program will ultimately mean the stabilization of a fluctuating economy to a greater degree than any other factor could accomplish in the affected areas. Again I urge our favorable action on this matter.

There is one other item, Mr. Chairman, which I hope our committee will view with favor. That is the authorization of local protection works for Mandan, N. Dak., as recommended in House Document No. 294, Seventy-ninth Congress.

This proposed project is designed to protect the city of Mandan from floods on the Heart River. The suggested plan of the protection works has twice been approved by the North Dakota State Water Conservation Commission, of which agency the Governor of that State is the chairman. It also has the approval of the local interests in the city of Mandan.

Floods from spring run-offs and early summer rains have menaced Mandan and surrounding community since their earliest history. Considerable funds, Federal, State, and local, have been expended in the past for levees and other protection works, all of which have proved inadequate.

The most recent flood at Mandan occurred in 1943 when the city experienced a very high water stage resulting in very heavy damages to property and improvements, and also loss of life. I am very familiar with these recurring floods at Mandan, as I once was in business there, and even now my home, in Bismarck, is only 6 miles from that city.

The Army engineers' report on this project, contained in House Document 294, Seventy-ninth Congress, describes the conditions and local situation in detail, and I feel I would be imposing upon this committee were I to repeat the details here. Suffice it to say that the engineers have recommended the project as feasible and economically justified. Local interests have indicated their willingness to furnish necessary cooperation. The project is before our committee for approval and authorization, and I sincerely hope that our committee will act favorably thereon.

(April 11, 1946–continued) The CHAIRMAN. We will now take up the general basin authorization.

MISSOURI RIVER BASIN, ARKANSAS AND MISSOURI General Pick. I would like to make a general statement as to the status on development under the comprehensive plan on developing the Missouri River as contained in the Flood Control Act of 1944.

The CHAIRMAN. You may proceed.

General Pick. Under the authority of the 1944 Flood Control Act the Corps of Engineers is charged with construction and operation of five dams on the main river, numerous dams on the major tribu. taries, and the construction of a levee line from Sioux City, Iowa, to the mouth of the Missouri River near St. Louis.

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