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York. Its population was 21,500 in 1940 and the assessed valuation of property was $23,249,000 as of 1945. Allegheny, a town of 1,400 inhabitants, is located just downstream, and Portville, population 1,000, just upstream from Olean. The drainage area of Allegheny River above the town of Allegheny is 1,229 square miles. The inhabitants are engaged principally in manufacturing, production, and refining of oil, production of natural gas, agricultural pursuits, lumbering, and transportation activities. Prior to 1942, local interests constructed an extensive system of local protection works in Olean, at an estimated cost of $460,000, for protection against floods in the Allegheny River, Olean Creek, Kings Brook, and Twomile Creek, all of which flow through the city. Since the flood of 1942, which breached the dikes at several points, an additional $150,000 has been expended for repairs, extensions, and replacements of the protective works. Minor local protective works have been constructed in Allepheny and Portville, The region is served by a well-developed system of railroads and highways.

3. The average annual precipitation in the upper Allegheny River basin is 41 inches. The region is subject to severe storms, which may cause damaging floods at any season of the year. The flood of July 1942, caused the maximum recorded river stage at Olean, flooded 1,812 acres within the city, and caused direct flood damage estimated at $3,721,000 in the part of Olean north of the Allegheny River, $663,000 in Portville, and $97,800 in Allegheny. A total of 21 industrial establishments, 210 commercial properties, and 2,600 residences were affected in Olean. The flood of March 1916, was the maximum of record on Olean Creek and caused extensive flooding in the city of Oleán.

4. Local interests in Olean, Allegheny, and Portville desire additional flood protection to be obtained by means of higher and additional dikes, if practical, and supplementary channel improvements. Officials of the three towns are of the opinion that the municipalities should provide local cooperation, and the executive director of the New York State Flood Control Commission has stated that that Commission would cooperate to the ultimate.

5. The district engineer finds that flood protection for Olean, Allegheny, and Portville, N. Y., by means of reservoirs or channel improvement, is not feasible and that protection against the maximum flood of reasonable expectancy is impractical. He finds, however, that a higher degree of flood protection than is provided by existing improvements is warranted. The most desirable plan for providing the justifiable additional protection consists of a system of dikes and flood walls, with limited supplementary channel improvement, as outlined in his report. The proposed works include 44,060 lineal feet of dikes and 2,410 lineal feet of flood walls, with appurtenant improvements, along the Allegheny River, Olean Creek, and Kings Brook, in Olean ; 18,280 lineal feet of dikes and 420 lineal feet of flood walls, with appurtenant improvements, in Portville; and 5,990 lineal feet of dikes and 400 lineal feet of flood walls in Allegheny. The district engineer states that these proposed improvements would protect the three communities against flood stages 3 feet higher than the maximum flood of record. Pertinent cost information is shown in the tabulation shown below:

Proposed local flood protection in Olean and vicinity, New York

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Estimated annual benefits ----
Cost-to-benefits ratio...

530, 900

416, 000
1.00 to 3.07 )

17, 900 1.00 to 1.59 | 1.00 to 1.03


The district engineer recommends that projects be adopted for flood protection in Olean, Portville, and Allegany, N. Y., in general accordance with plans outlined in his report, at costs for construction of $2,282,400, $1,281,500, and $388,800, respectively, and costs for highway and utility adjustments, land, rights-of-way, and damages of $349,600, $169,200, and $24,500, respectively; provided that local interests furnish assurances satisfactory to the Secretary of War that they will : (1) Provide without cost to the United States all lands, easements, and rights-of-way necessary for construction of the projects; (2) hold and save the United States free from damages due to the construction works; and (3) maintain and operate all of the works after completion in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War,

6. The division engineer concurs in general in the views of the district engineer, but believes that all benefits claimed for protection of Olean are not properly creditable, since the proposed works are largely additions to dikes built by the city in 1919. Protection against past floods attaining a stage up to 1,419.1 feet has been afforded by these existing dikes. He notes that an adjustment of the district engineer's economic analysis by eliminating credit for protection from all past floods, with the exception of the flood of 1942, and by omitting the economic charge for the remaining value of the existing works, would still provide a favorable ratio of annual costs to benefits of 1.0 to 1.3. He concurs therefore in the district engineer's recommendations,

7. Local interests were advised as to the nature of the district and division engineers' conclusions and were invited to submit additional data to the Board. Careful consideration has been given to the communications received.


8. The Board concurs in general in the views of the division engineer. It finds that the proposed improvements will provide the maximum amount of flood protection in Olean, Portville, and Allegany, N. Y., that is warranted at this time. The economic ratios are favorable. The Board recommends that projects be adopted for flood protection at Olean, Portville, and Allegany, N. Y., by means of dikes, flood walls, limited supplemental channel improvements, and appurtenant works, substantially in accordance with the plans outlined in the report of the district engineer, with such modifications as the Chief of Engineers may deem advisable, at an estimated first cost of $2,282,400 for Olean ; $1,281,500 for Portville; and $388,800 for Allegany ; provided that local interests furnish assurances satisfactory to the Secretary of War that they will: (1) Provide without cost to the United States all lands, easements, and rights-ofway necessary for construction of the projects; (2) hold and save the United States free from damages due to the construction works; (3) bear the costs of sewer, utility, and highway relocations and adjustments, in accordance with the allocation of these items in the district engineer's report; and (4) maintain and operate the works after completion, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War. For the Board :

R. C. CRAWFORD, Brigadier General, Senior Member.


Albany 1, April 6, 1946. Lt. Gen. RAYMOND A. WHEELER,

Chief of Engineer, United States War Department, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR GENERAL: Reference is made here to the review report on the pending proposition for improvement of the Allegheny River and tributaries at and in the vicinity of Olean, N. Y.

I am informed that the report now is in your office. I am further advised that within the next few days, the Ilouse Committee on Flood Control will consider proposed projects in the Ohio River watershed and that among other reports to be considered will be the one affecting Olean and vicinity-provided New York State tentatively approves the proposal and requests such consideration. .

I have been designated as the governor's agent on flood-control matters in accordance with the 1914 Federal Flood Control Act. Although I have not received a copy of the review report referred to above, I have been advised by the

State flood-control commission of the general recommendations. Local officials of Olean, Portville, and Allegany, municipalities which will be affected by the proposed improvements have adopted formal resolutions approving the projects.

In view of this, I recommend advancement of the report to the House Flood Control Committee for consideration and authorization at the earliest practicable time. Sincerely,


Superintendent of Public Works. The CHAIRMAN. Representative Reed, we will be glad to have your statement if you are opposed or favor this project. We know you are interested in the resolution on which the report has been made.


OF NEW YORK Mr. REED. I wish to say that I am vitally interested in this. In all the tragedy of a flood it cannot be pictured with surveys and maps.

Olean is a typical American city, as brought out here, of about a little over 21,000. We have some important industries there; and Portville is another unusual village of about 2,500. I happened to drive up through Portville right after the 1942 flood, and really it was a tragedy. Here were these beautiful homes that had been flooded, and the damages were very large as is shown in the engineers' report. Some of the people had to be taken out in motorboats from the upper story windows of their small houses. They were brought in from Buffalo by train. Olean didn't suffer such tragic consequences so far as the damages to their homes were concerned, but it was very seriousboth of those towns—and also Allegany. Allegany has a fine college located there, even though it is a small town, not only a college but a school for girls.

The damage to Olean and that vicinity there, as the engineers' report show here, over a period of 56 years has amounted to over $18,000,000. You would sometimes wonder when they are subjected to these floods so frequently why they wouldn't move out. There is a good reason, and if you will bear with me just a moment-I learned a lesson many years ago when I was in Johnstown, Pa. A businessman there asked me if I wouldn't go up to the top of the ridge above the town and take a look at it. I went up with him. As we looked down on the town he said, “You know, when the flood came, the Johnstown flood, I was the only surviving member of a large family, and three of us little boys found ourselves alone after the flood with our families gone." And then the tears gathered in his eyes and he pointed to a little cemetery and he said, “My people are all buried up there.” He said, “We sat down as children and debated whether we would go to Pittsburgh or Harrisburg and shine shoes for a living and get a start.” And he said, finally, “When we thought it over,” he said, “Father and mother, and our brothers and sisters are here,” and he said, “Let's stay here.” He said, "I never missed a day in all these years that I haven't tried to beautify and improve this city,” and he pointed to a block that he owned there.

Now, that is the typical American spirit. Floods and fires can't drive people away from their homes, and these cities here are subjected to these floods every few years, and I want to tell you it's a serious thing. They can't move out; they have built the town. I

whether wing and said, "Fathet's stay hered to

at the mouth of them can imagine at the very be

saw the library, one of the finest libraries, in Portville, to be found in western New York. On the lawn these priceless books were spread out to dry in the sun—thin books had become thick books.

I am only mentioning these things because I am vitally interested in preserving that fine spirit, their school systems and college systenis, and I shall appreciate anything that is done to see that these are taken care of.

The CHAIRMAN. We are delighted to have your help from the constructive statement, Mr. Allen, and I may observe, parenthetically, that if such devastation obtains at the very headwaters of the Mississippi River, you can imagine just what our troubles are down at the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Is Eagle Creek Reservoir the project that you are interested in, Senator ?

Senator GUFFEY. Eagle Creek and Conemaugh Reservoirs.

The CHAIRMAN. The Eagle Creek and Conemaugh Reservoirs have been authorized ?

Colonel DUNN. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. You mentioned Conemaugh and Eagle Creekhave you the report covering Eagle Creek?

Colonel Dunn. Not the detailed report, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. For the information of the committee, that reservoir has been authorized. What is the estimated cost of it? What are the type of improvements ?

Colonel Dunn. The estimated cost is $11,200,000. Eagle Creek Dam is a rolled-fill embankment. The drainage area above the dam is approximately 95 square miles. The total capacity is 99,000 acrefeet.

The CHAIRMAN. That is in Committee Document No. 1, but is there a separate report covering that particular project in detail?

Colonel Dunn. Yes, sir; It is covered in the 308 report on the Beaver River.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the number of the report and date of it?

Colonel WEST. The report is in progress and has not been submitted to Congress. However, the report does not affect the status of the Eagle Creek project.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the character of the land, and what is the size of the proposed reservoir ?

Colonel Dunn. I do not have that, but will insert the data in the record if you desire.

The character of the land is as follows: Farm land about 35 percent; pasture land about 15 percent; wooded area about 15 percent; brush and wasteland about 35 percent. The capacity of the reservoir is about 99,000 acre-feet and covers an area of about 7,900 acres.

The CHAIRMAN. I want this committee to know about it.

Colonel West. There are no towns or sizable communities in the reservoir area.

The CHAIRMAN. That project was approved in the Flood Control Act of 1938 ?

Colonel West. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Nó construction has been started ?
Colonel WEST. No, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Were funds ever appropriated for the initiation of the project ?

Colonel West. For planning purposes only, sir.

Colonel Dunn. It is one that we are planning to work on with the new authorization.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, so much with respect to the Eagle Creek project.


What about the report on the Barren River in Kentucky and Tennessee—the other contested matter here. That is House Document 765, Seventy-eighth Congress, second session, and I will ask you, Colonel Herb, to advise us and give us a syllabus or an analysis of that project and to tell the committee the estimated cost and what it consists of and the type of lands that would be required and the ratio of benefits to costs, keeping in mind, if I am correct in my recollection, that generally in the act of 1938 a reservoir was authorized along this stream, and that subsequently under a resolution a review report was called for either by resolution or by the Flood Control Act of 1941—I believe the act of 1941. And the proposal under consideration here is a modification of the adopted project in 1938 to provide for, as you state in this report, a dam that will not only provide for flood control but for the generation of power in response to what you state in this report is the request of the local citizens; is that right? Colonel HERB. Yes, sir; that is correct.

The CHAIRMAN. That project is located on the Barren River, a tributary of the Green River, and the Green River in turn flows into what river?

Colonel HERB. The Ohio River, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. That is right. And what is the general watershed of that protected area?

Colonel HERB. The watershed of the Barren River comprises about 2,100 square miles, of which about 1,700 are in Kentucky and approximately 400 in Tennessee.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, then, what populations are involved and what cities are interested in this proposed improvement ?

Colonel HERB. The population of the basin is 120,000. The principal cities are Bowling Green, Ky., with a population of about 14,600; Glasgow, Ky., with about 5,800; and Franklin, Ky., with about 3,900. The principal industries are timbering, petroleum, clothing industries, and allied activities. Of course, they have farming in this territory, too.

The CHAIRMAN. When that project was authorized in the act of 1938, it was at an estimated cost of what amount ?

Colonel HERB. Estimated cost of $5,169,000, sir. That was for flood control only with a reservoir capacity of 413,000 acres-feet.

The CHAIRMAN. So this is a modification of that project to provide for a power pool over and abve the flood-control pool ? Colonel HERB. Yes, sir; and it is also in another location.

The CHAIRMAN. And the total estimated cost of the recommended project is what?

Colonel HERB. $17,100,000., sir.

The CHAIRMAN. The committee is interested in the statement of the Board of Engineers in this report to the effect that they are not advised as to the demand for power in that area. What information have you or what statement do you care to submit with respect to

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