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proximately 442 million dollars had been spent. The project was operated as a WPA unit and was sponsored by the Upper Potomac River Commission. Allegany County furnished $1,000,000 of the funds.
The completion of this dam means a great deal to the town of Westernport as the entire water supply of this town of about 4,000 people is dependent upon it. In addition, the water from this dam means a great deal to three main industries of Allegany County-the Celanese Corp. of America, employing 11,000 people; the Kelly Springfield Tire Co., 3,000 people; and the West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co. with about 1,800 people.
This dam is now about 75 percent completed and it will take only a small percentage of the original cost to finish it. As well as being a big aid to our community this dam would also be a great help in the reconversion and postwar unemployment problems of this vicinity.
We trust therefore that you will use every effort to bring about the speedy finish of this dam. Yours very truly,
VICTORY Post No. 155, AMERICAN LEGION,
STATE OF MARYLAND,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH,
Baltimore 18, October 27, 1944, · Senator MILLARD TYDINGS,
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR TYDINGS: The State board of health at its October 19 meeting adopted the following resolution regarding the Savage River Dam project : "That the board bring the matter to the attention of Maryland's Senators and Representatives in the Federal Congress, and to officials of the Federal Government and urge that funds be made available for the completion of the Savage River Dam at the earliest possible time."
The board is very much concerned over stream-pollution conditions in the State and is desirous of having the objectionable situations relieved as soon as it is possible to do so. In the case of the Potomac River in the Cumberland area, it is realized that many factors are involved in the correction of the pollution but that the present obnoxious stream conditions, particularly during the summer season, can be greatly improved if the flow of water in the river could be materially increased during this season of the year.
For a number of years complaints have been received from Cumberland residents living near the river regarding the unsightly appearance of the stream during the summer months and the ill-smelling ordors from it. It is believed, therefore, that an increase in the flow of water in the stream during these seasons of the year will receive the objectionable conditions now complained of until permanent corrective measures in the form of adequate sewage and waste tratmnt facilities, can be provided for all of the communities and industries now contributing pollution to the river above this point. The completion of the Savage River Dam project which, when placed in operation, will provide for increases in low flows in the Potomac River during the summer months, is urgently recommended by the board as part of the postwar construction program.
The State board of health, therefore, requests pour support in seeing that provisions are made for completing this project at the earliest possible time. Yours very truly,
R. H. Riley, Director.
(April 9, 1946—Continued) LOCAL PROTECTION FOR WAYNESBORO, VA., AND WASHINGTON, D. C. Now, Colonel Herb, with respect to this project which is now pending with the Director of the Budget, as I understand the recommendation, it is that local protective works for Waynesboro, Va., be constructed at an estimated cost of $1,431,000 with local interests providing rightsof-way?
Colonel HERB. That is correct, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. And secondly, a project for Washington, D. C., be adopted. Will you discuss the problems in these areas and the recommendations of the Chief of Engineers.
STATEMENT OF COL. E. G. HERB, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, CIVIL
WORKS DIVISION, WAR DEPARTMENT Colonel HERB. The authorities for this study are contained in the Flood Control Acts approved May 5, 1936, June 22, 1936, and August 28, 1937.
Potomac River is formed by the junction of its North and South Branches about 20 miles southeast of Cumberland, Md. It flows southeasterly for 285 miles and empties into Chesapeake Bay, 116 miles below Chain Bridge at Washington, D. C. It drains 14,670 square miles in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia.
The basin has a temperate climate and a mean annual rainfall of about 38 inches. In 1940 the watershed had a population of 1,633,000, the largest concentration being in the Washington area where 753,500 resided. The largest city in the upper basin is Cumberland, Md., with a population of 39,500. Waynesboro, Va., in the Shenandoah Basin, a community which suffers frequent flood damage, has 7,400 residents. Textiles, rayon, aircraft, chemicals, and other products are manufactured. Large quantities of coal are mined in the western part of the basin and other minerals are found. About 65 percent of the watershed is in farm land, producing forage crops, grain, fruit, livestock, and dairy products.
The existing navigation project provides for a channel 24 feet deep and 200 feet wide in Potomac River between the mouth and Washington. Also, the Flood Control Act approved June 22, 1936, authorized Federal projects for local flood protection at Washington, D. C., the Arlington Experimental Farm, Bolling Field, the Anacostia Naval Air Station, Cumberland, West Cumberland, and South Cumberland, Md., and Ridgeley, Moorefield, and Harpers Ferry, W. Va.
Several communities have constructed levees, walls, and similar improvements to afford partial flood protection.
The Potomac River and its tributaries are subject to frequent floods. The flood of March 1936, which had a discharge at Washington, D. C., of 484,000 cubic feet per second, was the greatest of record at many points and the most damaging, but the floods of June 1889 and October 1942 reached comparable stages below Harpers Ferry.
Total losses during the 1936 flood are estimated at $12,631,000. Average annual flood damages are estimated at $517,100 on the North Branch of Potomac River, $298,000 on the Potomac River, $255,400 along the Shenandoah River and its tributaries, and $100,500 on the South Branch of the Potomac River, making a total of $1,171,000.
The plan of improvement for protection of Waynesboro, Va., provides for levees and flood walls, enlargement of the existing south channel, and a pressure conduit to carry the flow of spring run through the city. Four pumping plants and the necessary intercepting sewers will provide for interior drainage.
I project for Stage 1 provides work at Seventeto be Then of existing pramount of levee astreet SWS
estimated near the Lireble closure code
The recommended project for Washington, D. C., provides for modification of existing projects. Stage 1 provides for the immediate undertaking of a small amount of levee and wall work at Seventeenth Street, and raising a short section of P Street SW. Stage 2 is to be initiated after the temporary war-housing facilities are removed, which includes appropriate landscaping and a removable closure at Seventeenth Street and filling a small area near the Lincoln Memorial.
The CHAIRMAN. What is the estimated cost for that part of this project?
Colonel HERB. I do not have the break-down. The total cost is $500,000.
The CHAIRMAN. What is the local contribution?
Colonel HERB. There is none for Washington, D. C., as the Federal Government owns the rights-of-way.
The CHAIRMAN. And it is for the protection of metropolitan Washington, D. C.?
Colonel HERB. Yes, sir.
The total estimated first cost for the projects at Waynesboro, Va., and Washington, D. C., is $2,228,000, of which the non-Federal cost at Waynesboro is $297,000. The ratio of costs to benefits for the Waynesboro project is 1.0 to 1.08.
The recommendation of the Chief of Engineers is in accord with the plan of improvement I have presented, subject to certain conditions of local cooperation for the project at Waynesboro, Va., which provides that local interests furnish assurances satisfactory to the Secretary of War that they will provide without cost to the United States all lands, easements, and rights-of-way necessary for the construction of the project; hold and save the United States free from damages due to the construction works; and maintain and operate all the works after construction in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War.
(The report of the Chief of Engineers with the comments of the Governor of Virginia are as follows:)
Washington, D. C., March 8, 1946. Subject: Potomac River and tributaries, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and
1. I submit for transmission to Congress my report with accompanying papers and illustrations on preliminary examination and survey of Potomac River and tributaries authorized by the Flood Control Act approved June 22, 1936, and by the act of May 5, 1936, which directed that a preliminary examination be made of Potomac River and its tributaries, with a view to the control of its floods, in accordance with the provisions of the act of March 1, 1917. It is also in response to the Flood Control Act approved August 28, 1937, which authorized preliminary examination and survey of North Branch of Potomac River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Keyser, W. Va. The survey of the Anacostia River which is being made under authority of the act of June 22, 1936, will be reported upon separately.
2. The Potomac River is formed by the junction of its North and South Branches about 20 miles southeast of Cumberland, Md., flows southeasterly for 285 miles and empties into Chesapeake Bay, 116 miles below Chain Bridge at Washington, D. C. It drains 14,670 square miles in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia of which 11,580 square miles are above Chain Bridge. The largest tributary is Shenandoah River which flows along the westerly base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, draining 3,054 square miles, and enters Potomac River Harpers Ferry, mile 171. The North Branch of Potomac
River drains 1,328 square miles along the easterly side of the Allegheny Plateau. The valley and ridge province between these tributaries is drained principally by the South Branch of Potomac River, Cacapon River, and Patterson Creek which is a tributary of the North Branch. East of the Blue Ridge Mountains to the vicinity of Washington, D. C., the basin is located in the rolling Piedmont Plateau. Below Washington, the river is tidal and flows through coastal plains. Potomac River has a fall of approximately 520 feet. About 177 feet of this occurs in the 18 miles immediately above Chain Bridge including the Great Falls at mile 126. The basin has a temperate climate and a mean annual precipitation of about 38 inches. Discharges at Washington, including diversions for municipal water supply, have ranged from 782 to 484,000 cubic feet per second.
3. In 1940 the watershed had a population of 1,663,000, the largest concentration being in the Washington area where 663,000 resided in the District of Columbia, 57,000 in Arlington County, Virginia, and 33,500 in Alexandria, Va. The largest city in the upper basin is Cumberland, Md., with population of 39,500. Keyser, W. Va., on North Branch, has a population of 6,200, and Waynesboro, Va., in the Shenandoah Basin, a community which suffers frequent flood damage, has 7,400 residents. Textiles, rayon, aircraft, chemicals, and other products are manufactured. Large quantities of coal are mined in the western part of the basin and, other minerals are found. About 65 percent of the watershed is in farm land producing forage crops, grain, fruit, livestock, and dairy products. Pulpwood is the principal forest product. Hydroelectric power is developed at 29 sites but none of the plants has a capacity exceeding 3,000 kilowatts. Many improved highways and railroads serve the basin.
4. The Washington' metropolitan area, Hagerstown, Md., and Shepardstown, W. Va., use Potomac River as a source of water supply. In 1939 the Upper Potomac River Commission commenced construction of a reservoir with planned capacity of 20,000 acre-feet on Savage River, tributary of North Branch, to benefit industries between Luke and Cumberland, Md., and to improve the condition of the North Branch, which in this section is polluted by domestic and industrial sewage and mine waste. Approximately $3,935,000, including $3,023,000 of Federal work-relief funds of the Work Projects Administration, was spent on this project before work was suspended, in 1942, in the interest of the war effort. In its uncompleted state the reservoir cannot be operated for flow regulation. The affairs of the liquidated Work Projects Administration now rest with the Federal Works Agency, which advises that it has no funds or authority for completion of the Savage River Dam. The other major point of stream pollution is at Washington, D. C. .
5. The basin contains many features of historic and scenic interest. Among these are numerous battlefields, particularly of the Civil War, as important troop movements and engagements of that conflict took place in the Shenandoah Valley and other parts of the upper basin. In the vicinity of Washington are the natural scenery of Great Falls and the gorge below, which contains the remnants of the Potowmack Canal. The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, completed for commercial shallow-draft barge use in 1850, extends from Cumberland, Md., downstream along the left bank of Potomac River to Rock Creek in Washington, D. C. In 1924 is was damaged by floods, and since that time has not been in commercial use. In 1938 the canal was purchased by the United States for its historic and recreational value. The section from tidewater to about 7 miles above Great Falls was restored and maintained by the National Park Service for recreational use until the flood of October 1942 again destroyed substantial parts of the improvements. Subsequently a few miles of the lower section of the canal was rehabilitated by the National Park Service for recreational purposes and to maintain commitments for industrial water supply. By an act in 1930 Congress provided for development of George Washington Memorial Parkway along Potomac River from Mount Vernon, below Washington, to above the Great Falls, on the Virginia side, and from Fort Washington to above the falls, on the Maryland side, except in Alexandria, Va., and the District of Columbia. Considerable land for the purpose has been acquired but no construction above Washington has been initiated.
6. Existing Federal projects for navigation provide for a channel 24 feet deep and 200 feet wide in Potomac River between the mouth and Washington, for channels of equal depths in Washington Harbor, including Potomac River to Key Bridge just above Rock Creek and the lower section of Anacostia River, for a widened section 24 feet deep at Alexandria below Washington, and for other minor improvements. These projects are regarded as adequate for the needs of present commerce. The streams of the basin are not used for commodity com
merce above Washington, and the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal is not suitable for rehabilitation for such use.
7. Potomac River and its tributaries are subject to frequent floods. The flood of March 1936, which had a discharge at Washington of 484,000 cubic feet per second, was the greatest of record at many points, and the most damaging, but the floods of June 1889 and October 1942 reached comparable stages below Harpers Ferry. The largest flood on the South Fork of Shenandoah River, which joins the North Fork at Riverton to form Shenandoah River, occurred in September 1870. That flood had a discharge of 40,000 cubic feet per second at Waynesboro, on South River, a tributary of South Fork, whereas the largest flood to be expected on an average of once in 100 years at that point is about 24,600 cubic feet per second. Except during extreme floods, the flood damage in rural areas has not been large. Flood problems in the basin are confined primarily to Cumberland, on the North Branch, to Waynesboro, and to Washington, D. C. Other urban areas suffer infrequent damage. Total losses during the 1936 flood are estimated at $12,631,000. Average annual flood damages are estimated at $517,100 on the North Branch of Potomac River, $298,000 on Potomac River, $255,100 along Shenandoah River and its tributaries, and $100,500 on the South Branch of Potomac River.
8. Several communities have constructed levees, walls, and similar improvements to afford partial flood protection. About $460,000 has been expended for this purpose by local interests, and $107.000 of work-relief funds have been spent by Federal agencies other than the Corps of Engineers. By the Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936, Congress authorized Federal projects for local protective works, as follows:
Estimat. ed con struction
Washington, D, C., levees and grade raises to protect the downtown Potomac River.---...
portion of city, Arlington Experimental Farm, Bolling Field, and
Anacostia Naval Air Station,
Ridgeley, W. Va., by levees, walls, movable dam, and channel clear
ing. Moorefield, W. Va., levees
South Branch.. Harpers Ferry, W. Va., levees and flood wall....
41, 500 164,900
The project for Washington and vicinity has been substantially completed except for the Arlington Farm levee, at a total cost of $173,000 to February 1, 1944. Several openings in the protective works require closure when floods are forecast. Assuming that effective emergency measures are accomplished, the downtown section of the city is protected against a discharge of 700,000 cubic feet per second, Bolling Field against the highest stage of record, and Anacostia Naval Air Station from a discharge of 500,0. O cubic feet per second. The Arlington Experimental Farm has become part of the site of the Pentagon Building and protective works are no longer required because of the elevations to which the roads and other structures were built. Detailed plans are in preparation for the authorized Cumberland-Ridgely project. Requirements of local cooperation for the Moorefield and Harpers Ferry projects have not been met.
9. Local interests desire flood protection for the many communities throughout the basin which are subject to flood damage. By resolution, the town of Waynesboro, Va., has indicated that it will cooperate with the Federal Government to the best of its ability in case local protection works for that community are undertaken. Local interests along the North Branch desire that the United States complete the Savage River Dam for low water regulation and pollution abatement, and the Upper Potomac River Commission offers to contribute $200.000 to the cost of this work and to operate the improvement in accordance with regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of War.
10. The district engineer finds that the flood plain at Harpers Ferry has been largely evacuated since the project was adopted and that under present conditions the average annual costs for the protective works would be about $7,800 as compared with estimated average annual benefits of $300. At Moorefield the existing project was designed to afford only partial protection and the district engineer estimates that the annual benefits under present conditions would not exceed $1,000 which would not justify expenditure of the authorized funds. To