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looking at the report or drawings that the backwater effect in the reservoir under the worst conditions of flood will run out about 3 miles below, downstream, from Remington, and also from the railroads.

The CHAIRMAN. What do you mean by wackwater? General CRAWFORD. The reservoir is not level when the stream is flowing in flood. There is a sloped water surface and it carries back a certain distance above the head of the reservoir.

The CHAIRMAN. And you have in addition to that a wash and wave with wind which would probably affect it.

General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir; there was some question whether the water would get back into Remington, but according to our calculations it would not come within 212 to 3 miles of Remington.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any other statements you care to submit with respect to the recommendations you have made for this project and in response to the testimony of the witnesses who have appeared here?

General CRAWFORD. There was some mention this morning in regard to the possibility of the reservoir at elevation 200 feet. Now we find that if we build a reservoir at elevation 200 feet at Salem Church, that we would only have 270,000 acre-feet of storage and it would not provide adequate flood-control storage because we require 322,000 acre-feet to control the flood at Fredericksburg. .

The CHAIRMAN. In other words, considering all the factors involved and the type of land in the proposed Salem Church area, and the type of land in the four upstream areas, after you have heard the testimony of these witnesses, do you still adhere to your former recommendation submitted to this committee? General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. Are there any statements you care to make ? General CRAWFORD. No, sir; I believe not.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any witnesses who desire to speak? Mr. SMITH. I wonder if the gentleman would enlarge a little bit on that question, which has been worrying us a great deal, about the danger of floods after the dam is built.

Mr. JACKSON. Do you mean the normal level of the dam under normal conditions, and then the level that the water would be raised by the flood ?

Mr. SMITH. Yes, sir; we would like to know what would be the effect on the surrounding country above the normal level of this pool in the event of a flood.

General CRAWFORD. The flooding would be no greater than it was under natural conditions such as prevailed in the flood in 1942, Mr. Smith. As I say, Remington is so far above the head of the pool that it would not be affected by the pool, even during the worst conditions of flood like you had in 1942, or greater. I understand in 1942 you had about 100,000 cubic feet discharge at Remington at that time, and our calculations of 115,000 cubic feet per second flood at Remington now shows that Remington would not be hurt as a result of the reservoir. However, it could be damaged by that 115,000 cubic feet a second flood, because we are not furnishing protection to Remington under this plan.

Mr. SMITH. Could you tell us how many feet the flood of 1942 would have raised the level of this proposed pool ?

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General CRAWFORD. Well, if it started when the pool was at the elevation of the maximum power pool, it is rather hard to answer exactly how much it would figure, Mr. Smith, but it would not go above the top of the flood-control pool; it would not go above the elevation of 252.8 feet.

Mr. SMITH. It would not go above the elevation shown on the map, I understand. General CRAWFORD. If that is the 252.8-foot line it would not.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Smith is anxious to know whether it would go above the line noted on the map, and this gentleman (indicating] says this elevation is 240 feet, and the proposed design flood storage pool elevation is 252.8 feet. Now the question is whether or not it will go above that point. This map shows 240 feet and the General says the elevation of the maximum flood pool is 252.8 feet. So what is the answer? General CRAWFORD. I will have to see just what the map indicates.

The CHAIRMAN. Is that the map which goes with your report showing the top of the flood pool ?

General CRAWFORD. No, sir; this map was made up just for the
purpose of this hearing. The red line on this map (indicating]
is the 240-foot elevation.

The CHAIRMAN. Whose map is that? Who prepared it? .
General CRAWFORD. The district office.

The CHAIRMAN. Then the answer to the question is that if the
reservoir is constructed as proposed and the top of the flood pool
is 252.8 feet when it is filled by the design flood, then the map
would have to be extended to show the additional reservoir area,
wouldn't it?
General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Have you a map that will show that area that will be flooded ?

General CRAWFORD. We have not the profile here to show where the 252.8 level would be..

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Smith is concerned and these citizens are entitled to know it.

Mr. SMITH. This brings the flood nearer to a whole lot of people and then raises it 10 feet more. It will cause an awful lot of damage.

The CHAIRMAN. This map shows an elevation of 240 feet, and if you raise it to 252.8 feet on the map, what would the answer be?

General CRAWFORD. I am afraid I would have to supply that for the record, Mr. Chairman.

(The statement requested is as follows:) A flood at Remington proportionate in size to a flood of 200,000 cubic feet per second at Fredericksburg, for which the Salem Church Reservoir is designed would be 20 percent greater than the 1942 flood at Remington. Such a flood at Remington would not be increased in stage as a result of the construction of the Salem Church Reservoir. During a design flood 200,000 cubic feet per second the maximum water surface of the Salem Church Reservoir, including back water effect, would not extend beyond 242 miles below the Southern Railway bridge at Remington and 8 miles below the town of the Rapidan River.

The CHAIRMAN. Then let us see if we can get this part straight for the record. Mr. Jackson says that we should have it and these citizens are entitled to have it, and Mr. Smith and his constituents want this information.

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This map here [indictating] which has been referred to, shows the extent of the territory which would be flooded, and is based on the top power pool, which is at elevation 240 feet. Is that right? General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. And when the design flood water rises above that level, it may go to 252,8 feet? General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. That will extend the flooded area of the reservoir pool and you have no maps, as I understand, now that will give the extent of the land that will be flooded. The only thing that you have said is that the acreage would be extended from 21,000 to 32,000 acres, and you have no such map.

General CRAWFORD. No, sir; but we do know this from the profiles, that the town of Remington will not be affected when a large flood occurs at the upper reaches and the pool rises to the 252.8 level.

The CHAIRMAN. I am going to ask you to furnish a map showing that, and that map will be made available to Mr. Smith and to Mr. Bland and their constituents. That map will show the top of this pool, just as you have shown the boundaries of this 240-foot pool for farms. General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. So that we can see on the map, and can verify in the field, as to the extent of the land that will be covered.

General CRAWFORD. This line on the map that is on the board is a little higher than the 252.8 line.

The CHAIRMAN. I am not bothering in regard to that map, whether it is a little higher, but it strikes me and as I understand my colleagues on the committee, they feel that inasmuch as the district office has furnished a map at elevation 240 showing the contour of the power pool, in all fairness we should have a map of the outline of 252.8 feet Hood pool.

General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir. .

The CHAIRMAN. Suppose you go ahead and have that prepared and let us have it as soon as you can. General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. Is that a reasonable request !

General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir; we will only have to get the map and draw the red line.

The CHAIRMAN. Fix that red line to cover all that land.
General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

Mr. JACKSON. Does the map show major land improvements? It would not affect any private land? Is that right?

General CRAWFORD. That is correct. It is our usual practice to purchase all land up to the maximum pool elevation plus a fringe around the reservoir.

Mr. SMITH. In other words elevation 252.8 would not affect any land which you do not purchase?

General CRAWFORD. We would purchase all land up to the elevation of the water surface in the reservoir for the design flood which purchase, together with severance and land acquisitions for recreational purposes, would eliminate danger to private property against damage up to the 252.8-foot flood level and a little bit above that.

Mr. JACKSON. And that would take care of the 1912 peak.

General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir; and it takes care of the design flood which is bigger than the one in 1942.

The CHAIRMAN. And let me repeat now that the land outside of that elevation will not be subjected to any greater flood hazard because of the construction of the dam or the reservoir?

General CRAWFORD. No, sir; not for any flood that is apt to occur up to 20 percent greater than the maximum flood of record they will not.

The CHAIRMAN. A good many citizens emphasized their fear.
When you finish that map you will return it at once to the committee.
General CRAWFORD. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. I believe that concludes all our discussions, unless we have someone else who wishes to speak on the Rappahannock project.


The CHAIRMAN. We have under consideration the report transmitted by the Chief of Engineers to the Director of the Budget on March 8, 1946, covering the Potomac River Basin, and particularly the two favorable recommendations for Waynesboro, Va., and Washington, D. C. Mr. Beall would like to ask a few questions in connection with it.


Mr. Ball. My recollection is that the Savage River Dam was a Works Progress Administration or PWA dam started and never completed.

What is the situation with respect to that Savage Dam? What is the disposition of the Corps of Engineers regarding it inasmuch as you submit no report at present?

General CRAWFORD. This report was a comprehensive report on the Potomac River and involved quite a bit of power production, some 14 reservoirs recommended by the district engineer. However, after the Board of Engineers held hearings, at which strong opposition was expressed, it was decided only to recommend the Waynesboro and the Washington, D. C., projects.

The Savage River Dam was one of those which was in the comprehensive plan which the district engineer recommended. It is a dam, as you say, that had been partially completed, and it was economically feasible in the comprehensive plan for the reason that it helped to furnish a regulated flow of water for downstream power plants. When the power part of the comprehensive plan was not adopted the economic feasibility of the Savage River Dam could not be established.

The CHAIRMAN. So you have not submitted a favorable report? General CRAWFORD. We have not recommended it in this report.

The CHAIRMAN. For the benefit of the members of the committee, there is the Savage River Dam located ?

Colonel HERB. It is on the Savage River, a tributary of the north branch of the Potomac. The CHAIRMAN. Does that dam function at all? General CRAWFORD. The dam was never completed. It was stopped in 1942 on account of the war. Roughly, $4,000,000 has been spent on. that project.

The CHAIRMAN. As projected in the plan, what was it designed to accomplish?

General CRAWFORD. It was to furnish water supply and improve the low-water flows in the north branch of the Potomac.

The CHAIRMAN. For industrial purposes?
General CRAWFORD. For municipal and industrial purposes.

The CHAIRMAN. For agriculture ?
General CRAWFORD. Not particularly for agriculture.

The CHAIRMAN. At this point, Mr. Beall, you may make any point you desire.

Mr. BEALL. I would like to ask if you are familiar with the towns of Luke and Western Port, Md., and the towns of Piedmont and Keyser, W. Va.

Colonel HERB. I am not familiar with those towns, sir. Mr. BEALL. You know they are on the north branch of the Potomac River?

Colonel HERB. Yes, sir. Mr. BEALL. And the Savage River feeds into it? Colonel HERB. Yes, sir. Mr. BEALL. Do you know those towns have been periodically flooded by the north branch of the Potomac River ?

Colonel HERB. Yes, sir. Mr. BEALL. I would like to ask you if the completion of the Savage River Dam would help to eliminate the floods in these respective towns of Luke and Western Port, Md., and Piedmont and Keyser, W. Va.

Colonel HERB. It would help some. But the over-all economic justification of the project was not sufficient to justify the project.

Mr. BEALL. Those four towns have approximately 22,000 people. The records show that the business sections were flooded periodically, doing several hundred thousand dollars worth of damage, particularly at Keyser and Piedmont, W. Va.

This Savage Dam was the chief project to prevent the floods in those particular towns, was it not?

(Discussion off the record.) Mr. BEALL. I would like to state on the record that in this connection I would like to ask that Senator Tydings and Representative Randolph be permitted to make a statement.

The CHAIRMAN. We would be glad for you to accompany them on the 18th.

(April 19, 1946)

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SAVAGE RIVER DAM-continued The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Beall and Mr. Randolph, we will take up the Savage River Dam project now.

General Crawford, I have before me a communication from the Chief of Engineers dated April 17, 1946, advising me, in accordance with the request I made in behalf of the committee, that you have made a further investigation of the partially completed Savage River Dam project about which Mr. Randolph and Mr. Beall have previously communicated with the committee and made statements during the course of these hearings, and that you are now able to furnish information outlined in that letter.

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