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agricultural produce ill borne in a densely-peopled country; the other, the deerforest, too often made by the expulsion of the cotter and small farmer, so extensively witnessed of late years in the Scottish Highlands—the proprietors in these their acts regardless of Goldsmith's patriotic lines—lines which ought especially to be remembered now that a “ bold peasantry” is becoming more and more our "country's strength,” though unfortunately, in the mercantile spirit of the age, it has ceased to be “ its pride."* Further, there are circumstances belonging to pisciculture of a remarkable kind, especially in the economy of Nature. We allude to the digestive and assimilating power of fish, and the smallness of their excretions and loss thereby, so that the greater part of the food they take passes into their substance, occasioning a rapid growth, little loss being sustained either of carbon in respiration to preserve their low temperature, or of azote (the lungs and kidneys having an adjusted action) in a scanty urinary secretion. We may refer those of our readers interested in the subject to a paper by Dr. John Davy, On the Urine of Fishes, published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for 1857, in which facts will be found bearing out the truth of our remarks. Moreover, as regards the fish we have taken as an example, the salmon, it should be kept in mind that its growth, and the growth of its migratory congeners, is chiefly effected in the sea, where, having abundance of food, its augmentation in size is wonderfully rapid ; a young salmon in the course of six weeks returning to its native stream increased in weight from two or three ounces to five or six pounds. These fish may be likened to merchant vessels leaving our estuaries empty and returning heavily laden with rich cargoes from foreign parts. The economy of Nature we have alluded to is strongly shown, both in their manner of growth and in their scant urinary secretion connected with it, especially when compared with birds. The bird of high temperature consumes much carbon in respiration, excretes much azote in urine, and that in a solid form as lithate of ammonia, which, dropped on the land, helps to fertilize the soil, or, dropped on rocks and barren islands—barren from want of rain-forms by accumulation, in the course of ages, vast deposits of guano, as if, after the manner of coal, providentially intended to meet the wants of an increasing and crowded population on the most favoured and cultivated regions of the earth ;—the one, the coal, to supply the place of exhausted forests; the other, the guano, to refresh our exhausted soil.The birds, too, to which we owe this admirable manure are sea-fowl, living in parts of the ocean far from the haunts of man, and unavailable as the food of man. Nor is that portion of their urine which is dropped into the ocean, nor the more scanty urine of fishes, without their use in the water, as they minister to the growth of the various aquatic plants, the prime organisms in their marine habitat, as land plants are acknowledged to be in theirs. In fact, in nature nothing is lost ; strictly, there is no waste. Coal and guano are good examples; as the former is the result of the action of the elements of plants on each other at a certain temperature, so the latter may be viewed as a product of the urinary elements of birds under favouring circumstances.
We are glad to see, readverting to pisciculture, that the many appeals which have been made by individuals relative to the preservation of fish, are beginning to draw serious attention, and to excite that agitation without which nothing good, it would appear, can be effected in this country in the way of legislation. A “British Assoctiation,” we learn, is formed “ for the revision of the salmon fishery laws.” It has already had a meeting, and put forth a manifesto, with an account of its proceedings.f We wish it all success, and have only to express
• The Roman Campagna is a somewhat analogous instance, being like so much of the Highlands made in great part a sheep-walk,
giving rise to the lamentations of historians, such as Niebuhr and Sismondi, who looked back on Rome in its greatness, and the origin of that greatness. “ Land," says the former, " which now supports thirty canons, cultivated as anciently by the hardy and frugal Romans, who with their virtues laid the foundation of the empire, would maintain 2200 families!"
+ The first meeting-a provincial one-was held on June 13th; an account of it was given in the Daily News' and other papers of June 15th, 1867.
regret that the attention of the society should be confined to one fish; why should it not be extended to all, and to pisciculture generally?
Other desiderata might be pointed out did our limits permit ; but we must conclude. Though there is still so much undone, it is a pleasure to think of how much has been already accomplished; how, taking a large survey, the food of mankind has been increased, multiplied and varied, especially vegetable nutritive products, and their elements ascertained, to the advancement of humanity and the glorification of science in its practical results, with the promise of further progress and greater benefits. This we say, keeping in mind how much health, how much vigour, bodily and intellectual, depend on the quality of a people's food and its just apportionment. But perhaps persons living at home in the midst of abundance can hardly understand the effects of diet. To appreciate them justly, if not taught by distressing experience, they should consult the narratives of our Arctic voyagers and travellers in Central Africa; the histories of voyages in the olden times; of sieges and campaigns; the accounts of famines; the details of savage life and manners; and then they can hardly fail of being impressed by the vast importance of the subject, or surprised that divine honours, such as were shown in the worship of Ceres, Bacchus, and Minerva, were paid to the benefactors of mankind for the early gifts of corn, wine, and oil.
1. Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Physic. By Thomas Watson, M.D.
Fourth Edition. London, 1857. 8vo, vol. i. pp. 871; vol. ii. pp. 984. 2. Pathologische Physiologie. Grundzüge der gesammten Krankheitslehre im Zusam
menhange dargestellt. Von Dr. G. A. SPIESS, Prakt. Aerzte in Frankfurt. Erste
und Zweite Abtheilung.- Frankfurt, 1857. Pathological Physiology. Elements of General Pathological Science, Systematically
Arranged and Represented. By G. A. SPIESS, Physician in Frankfort. First and
Second Parts. pp. 709. 3. A Manual of Medical Diagnosis : being an Analysis of the Signs and Symptoms
of Disease. By A. W. BARCLAY, M.D., Cantab, and Edin., Assistant-Physician to
St. George's Hospital.—London, 1857. 12mo, pp. 612. 4. Handbook of the Science and Practice of Medicine. By WILLIAM AITKEN, M.D.
Edin., late Pathologist attached to the Military Hospitals of the British Troops at Scutari
, &c. &c.—London and Glasgow, 1857. 12mo, pp. 756. 5. Contributions to the Physiology and Pathology of the Circulation of the Blood. By
GEORGE Robinson, M.D., Lecturer on the Practice of Medicine in the Newcastle College of Medicine in connexion with the University of Durham.—London, 1857.
12mo, pp. 273. We propose in this article to direct our readers' attention to some of the recent and more important advances of practical medicine, in connexion with the works whose titles are enumerated above. That which stands first in the list is already familiarly known, and has deservedly taken the very highest rank among treatises on the general science of medicine. Having remained for three years “out of print,” the present and fourth edition of Dr. Watson's Lectures is issued with such revision as the accomplished author-who, in extenuation of imperfections, may reasonably be allowed to plead the unceasing demands of a laborious profession-has been able to bestow upon it. The emendations and additions throughout both volumes we shall show to be considerable in number and importance.
The work of Dr. Spiess is, as its title denotes, on a very extensive scale, exhibiting
exactly those prominent features of earnest labour and inquiry which we are so much accustomed to esteem and admire in our German brethren. The work is in three parts, two of which have already appeared, the third being speedily promised. The first part treats of the external manifestations of diseases (Phänomenologie), the second, of the conditions and causes of diseases (Aetiologie); while the third is to comprehend the consideration of diseases according to appropriate classifications (Nosologie). When the work has been published in its entirety, it will merit a fuller notice at our hands than for the present we propose to undertake. Indeed, it will be evident from what has been already stated, that our intention is not now to deal with the subject of general pathological investigation; at the same time, we shall willingly avail ourselves of Dr. Spiess's adınirable comments on certain diseased conditions in illustration of the remarks upon the advances in practical medicine to which, in connexion with the other works, we shall immediately proceed. Meanwhile, in order to exhibit the complete and satisfactory manner in which the various important topics included in his general division are discussed by Dr. Spiess, we shall here quote a portion of the table of contents of the second book-that on etiology:
OF THE CONDITIONS AND CAUSES OF DISEASES.
First Section-of the changes of organic solids and fluids (mischung) as conditions of morbid vital action. CHAPTER I.–Of the morbid changes in the blood and lymph. 1. Quantitative changes of the whole blood. 1. Morbid increase of the blood-polyhæmia. 2. Morbid decrease of the blood
anæmia. II. Qualitative changes of the blood : A. Morbid changes of the individual normal blood-constituents. 1. Changes of the watery portion. 2. Changes of the blood corpuscles; increase,
diminution; qualitative changes. 3. Changes of the albuminous constituents (similarly considered). 4. Changes of the fibrinous substance (similarly considered). 6. Changes of saline contents. 6. Changes of fatty contents.
Changes of extractive matters. 8. Changes of gaseous contents of blood. B. Of the foreign admixtures with the blood. 1. Of the retention of the essential bile constituents in the blood; bile dyscrasy ;
cholæmia. 2. Of the retention of the essential urinary constituents in the blood; urine dyscrasy; uræmia. 3. Of the uric-acid dyscrasy. 4. Of the passage of sagar in the urine; diabetes mellitus; melituria. 5. Of the absorption of pus into the blood; purulent dyscrasy; pyæmia. 6. Of the changes effected
in the blood from miasmata, contagion, and other causes of fever. III. Changes of the lymph.
1. Morbid changes in the textures themselves (hypertrophy, atrophy, loss of elasticity).
dropsy. c. Gaseous accumulation-pneumatosis. d. Accumulation of inflammatory products (changes of these); purulent and fætid formations; tubercular
deposit. e. Morbid growths-pseudo-plasma. CHAPTER III.--Of the morbid changes of the muscular structure. CHAPTER IV.-Of the morbid changes of the nervous structure. CHAPTER V.-Of the morbid changes of the vascular structure. 1. Of the enlargement of the bloodvessels (arterial, venous, and capillary). 2. Of the
narrowing and occlusion of the bloodvessels. 3. Of the narrowing and occlusion of
the lymphatics. CHAPTER VI.-Of the morbid changes of the osseous structure-hypertrophy and atrophy. CHAPTER VII.—Of the morbid changes of the teeth. CHAPTER VIII.-Of the morbid changes of the cartilage. CHAPTER IX.-Of the morbid changes of the epithelium.
A glance at this division of the subject will show how very thoroughly Dr. Spiess has
entered into it, while the perusal of many of the chapters has satisfied us that the medical schools of Germany—and we understand there are several—which have made Dr. Spiess's work the text-book on pathology, have exercised a very prudent and altogether commendable choice.
The third work, that of Dr. Barclay, supplies a want which has been long felt both by students and by hospital physicians. The former, entering for the first time upon the study of diseases at the bedside, must, during a certain period at least, abandon themselves almost entirely to the cultivation of diagnosis; for it of necessity follows that, before the student can skilfully treat a disease, or entertain correct notions regarding its events, he must acquire a discriminating knowledge of the disease itself. It is in aiding clinical students to obtain this information, and so relieving to a certain extentat all events greatly assisting—the hospital physician, that the work of Dr. Barclay promises to be most extensively useful; and regarding its merits we are glad to be able to express a very favourable opinion. In a few particulars we differ from Dr. W. Barclay, some of these we shall endeavour to signalize. We wish, too, that his work had been shorter than it is ; we have no fault to find with the matter of his introductory chapter, any more than with that of the two chapters immediately succeeding, the one, On the Method of Diagnosis, the other, On the Duration and Sequence of Phenomena; but we hold them to be alike unnecessary. In a work adapted for the clinical student, as Dr. Barclay's undoubtedly in an eminent degree is, we consider that the smaller and shorter--consistent with a due explanation of the subject discussed—it is, the better; and further, that the sooner the author enters in medias res the better. Chapter IV. should in our opinion commence the work, and it will stand very well as Chapter I.
Dr. Aitken's work forms a part of the Encyclopædia Metropolitana,' and is intended to present a condensed view of the science and practice of medicine. It has been the author's object “ to incorporate and connect the more recently established facts which illustrate the Nature of Diseases and their Treatment, with the time-honoured doctrines on which the science of medicine has been based.” The work opens with an introduction extending to above a hundred pages, and treating, in a style at once easy and comprehensive, of the more important elements of general pathology; while the principles are shortly stated upon which the modern systems of nosology have been founded. The body of Dr. Aitken's work is divided into three parts. The first part, embracing a few pages merely, is occupied by a brief account of nosology, or the classification of diseases. In it a tabular view of the classes and orders of disease, in the proposed nosology of Dr. Farr, is given. This classification Dr. Aitken employs in the succeeding division of his work, and he recommends its general adoption. The second part, extending from p. 9 to p. 726, inclusive, treats of the Nature of Diseases, Special Pathology, and Therapeutics. The general observations upon the work which we propose to make in this article, will relate to the second part exclusively. The third part, or last fifteen pages, under the head of Medical Geography, includes some interesting general observations on the geographical distribution of health and disease. This is a subject undoubtedly too much neglected, and we give Dr. Aitken considerable credit for having devoted some space to its consideration.* This part of his subject the author has further illustrated, by reproducing, in a greatly diminished but most satisfactory form, the admirable map of Mr. Keith Johnston.
The last work in the list does not embrace so large a field as any of the others, but it contains many suggestive and highly valuable remarks upon a class of the most important diseases-those affecting the circulation; and will not inaptly, therefore, be noticed in our short discussion of some of these.
" Among the questions examined" (writes Dr. Robinson in his introductory remarks) “are the mechanism of absorption and effusion, the existence of an extra-vascular circulation, the
• Dr. Aitken ought, however, perhaps to have known that the subject alluded to in the text is not " wholly antaught at our medical schools in this country.” In Edinburgh, Dr. Pinkerton has lectured on Climatology, including the distribution of diseases, and an interesting Introductory Lecture on the subject from his pen has been published. Dr. Spiess, in the conclusion of the first chapter of the second section, and book second, has, under the title of Die Witterung und Das Klima,' some very interesting general observations on the same topic.
nature and principles of treatinent of inflammation and the allied disorders of the circulation, and the pathology of albuminuria, calcareous degeneration, epilepsy, apoplexy, and some forins of nervous disorder. The following is the order in which they have been investigated : 1. On the mode of production of albuminuria in Bright's disease of the kidney. 2. Researches into the connexion existing between an unnatural degree of compression of the blood contained in the renal vessels, and the presence of certain abnormal matters in the urine. 3. On the mechanism of absorption. 4. On certain points in the mechanism and physiology of the circulation of the blood. 5. On the nature and principles of treatment of inflammation, and the allied disorders of the circulation of the blood. 6. On the pathological changes occarring in certain devitalised tissues. 7. On the peculiarities of the cerebral circulation, and their connexion with the pathology of epilepsy and apoplexy. 8. On the influence exercised in health and disease upon the sensorial functions of the cerebro-spinal nerve, by the state of the circulation in the adjacent blood vessels."
We can cordially recommend this volume to the notice of our readers, as the
production in an especial manner of a very thoughtful and enlightened physician.
We do not intend to follow any definite order or arrangement in our consideration of these works, a brief statement of the purport and contents of which has now been given; but in directing attention to the recent progress of medical science, in regard to special diseases, we shall endeavour to notice the light reflected on them in the pages of all our authors, in as comprehensive and clear a manner as possible.
În Dr. Aitken's work, a very excellent account is given of the different forms of continued fever which are now recognised. He treats of typhus fever under the names—1. Typhus fever, or simply typhus; and 2. Typhoid fever, “or as it has been proposed to be called by Dr. Wood, enteric fever.” We agree with Dr. Aitken in considering the latter a preferable term for the disease, and probably the best that can be employed. Dr. Wood, however, has not the merit of having proposed the term, enteric fever; it was first named so by Dr. Christison, and this eminent authority on fever has always continued to use it. In referring to the literature of fever, Dr. Aitken (p. 132) confounds the present title of our review with that of its distinguished predecessor, the British and Foreign Medical Review,' in the volumes of which for 1841, there are the able articles on fever, to which Dr. Aitken is evidently alluding. As · The Science and Practice of Medicine' is precisely the kind of work for consultation, when search for authorities is made and references to periodical literature are required; and as its author has himself dealt largely, and generally most judiciously, in these consultations, we feel sure he will thank us for indicating such errors as those we have now adverted to. Before passing from this subject we may point out two others. It is not Walsh (p. 167), but Welch, the author of the work 'On the Efficacy of Bloodletting in Fever,' who wrote on the form of fever now styled relapsing, but which is identical with the synocha of Cullen, and the causus of older authors. While the Dr. Christian referred to is evidently Dr. Christison, who did not write in 1817-18 (though he observed then), as Dr. Wood, in his far from' accurate bibliographical notice of this subject,* appears to intimate; but many years subsequently, in Dr. Tweedie's Library of Medicine,' has shown the probable identity of the fever he had carefully studied in the former years, and in 1826, with the fever described previously by Welch.
Again (p. 168), Dr. Aitken, writing of the same fever, states—“Still more recently it has been described by Dr. Mackellar, in 1847, who unfortunately fell a victim to the typhus epidemic at that time.” The latter part of this statement is quite correct, but we can assure Dr. Aitken that Dr. Mackellar did not write a single word upon the subject of fever, though favourably known as the author of an interesting paper On Carbonaceous Infiltration of the Lungs of Coal Miners. Dr. Watson's account of fever, and more especially of the enteric fever, is considerably extended in the present edition, while he makes the important admission of his subscription to the views of " Dr. Jenner of our time," as he felicitously designates the able Professor of University College. “I told you," says Dr. Watson, in the commencement of the eighty-fourth Lecture, that I had been converted from my former belief in the unity of species of continued fever,
* Lectures, vol. ii. p. 861,