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in a recent number of this Magazine. * | Yet such would be the sober truth. As They are widely diffused, although the fossils these shells have added probably aggregate is not so large as in some other more to build up the rocky strata formforms of life. Their shells are found ing the outer shell of the earth than any fossil in the rocks of Bermuda, in the other single agency, as not only are marls of Sicily, and in Greece, also in great rock masses beneath the surface Africa and America, and recent speci- formed almost entirely of their remains, mens have been brought up from the but they have been upheaved into hills bed of the Atlantic as well as from of great extent and into vast mountain the bottom of the sea, near Cuxhaven, chains. In England they are chiefly in Northern Germany, and in the Ant- found in chalk, whence they must be arctic Ocean. So far as is at present extracted by carefully dissolving the soft known they are believed to exclusively limestone in water and by repeated washdwell in the sea, but in truth, our know- ings removing the cementing particles ; ledge of the nature of the minute inhabi- then, when the remaining material has tants of these shells is yet very imperfect, been well dried, the fragments of shells although they appear to be nearly allied and of spines of the sea urchin, pieces to a tribe very widely diffused, of great of coral, etc., which also abound in chalk, antiquity, and one that has contributed must be picked out or sifted away, and in no small degree to the formation of the dust which will be left will prove to the rocky coast of the earth ; we allude be composed almost entirely of tiny shells to the Foraminifera, so called from the of various strange but beautiful forms. number of little holes (Latin Foramina) Is not the fact here revealed wonderful? with which the minute shells are pierced that those vast deposits of chalk underin every direction.
lying so large a proportion of the vegeThese tiny beings, whose singular table soil of England, and which, beauty is calculated to awaken the in huge rounded downs, form condeepest admiration in the mind of every spicuous features in the landscape scenery observer, will give rise to no little of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Hampshire, astonishment when the important part Berkshire, Wiltshire, and other parts of they have performed in the world's England, rising to a thickness in many history is understood. In the very places of from six to eight hundred feet, earliest record which the stony struc- should be in large part composed of the ture of the earth's crust affords, we find remains of creatures so minute that they traces of their existence and numerous must be magnified before their indiviproofs of their great importance, and duality can be detected ? Verily, here now they are none the less abundant. is a proof that union is strength. Surely Who could imagine that a very large here we learn that from very insignificant proportion of the sands upon the sea agencies the all-wise and beneficent One shore which the pedestrian treads under can effect results the most grand and his feet, or on which he idly traces overwhelming ; but this is not all, for fancy's figures, to be obscured by the geologists inform us that in Europe alone returning wave, is made up of shells of chalk is spread out over an area of about great complexity of form, and that would | 1,150 miles long, with an average breadth rival in elegance any of those larger of about 850 miles. Who can realize specimens which are brought from tro- the myriads upon myriads of beings that pical seas as ornaments for our rooms ? must have lived and died thus to have If in a summer ramble we stroll beneath accumulated in so vast a mass organisms
Some tall cliff that lifts its awful form, which to the unaided eye appear only as and the wind sweeps over its face bear- small particles of dust? ing along dust, some of which may be In the Calcaire grossier, literally coarse carried away on the clothes, should we limestone, of the neighbourhood of Paris, not smile incredulously if we were told there occurs a bed of stone which is that the wind, in abrading the cliff's largely quarried at Gentilly to supply surface, has loosened and carried away building material for the City of Paris
, multitudes of shells whose forms would and surrounding villages. This stone is amply repay the closest investigation ? almost entirely made up of millions of Ante, p. 415.
microscopic shells of the size of grains of sand, which all belong to the class of connected together by delicate expanwhich our chalk is so largely composed, so sions, giving them an appearance like that it may be said that that city of palaces that of a duck's foot, or the gelatinous is, to a large extent, built of the skeletons matter spreads out laterally in irregular of creatures by no means so large as the shreds.” * When not further required, head of a small pin ; they are so small, this wonderful arrangement instantly indeed, that D'Orbigny, who has devoted disappears, sinking back as it were into much time and skill to the investigation the body within the shell. The animal of these animals, estimates that a cubic travels by elongating these thread-like inch of stone taken from the Gentilly filaments, and with them taking hold quarries may contain 58,000 of these while others bend forward, then relax shells.
grasp and let go, while still more Living specimens of these animals may are projected, again to become attached, be readily collected from every sandy and so on. None of the family has, so beach when the tide is down, or they far as has been observed, the slightest may be found attached to sea weeds, power of swimming. We may judge zoophytes, etc., cast up by the waves; the surprise which the early observers and abundantly in the mud or_sand felt who, from contemplating the complex dredged up from the sea bottom. In the shell and the curious motions of its bed of the Atlantic Ocean they are now occupant, proceeded to break the shell living in great numbers, and the skele- in order to dissect the animal, and tons of the dead are there gradually found nothing within but a small soft accumulating in a vast bed of limestone, mass hardly so consistent as jelly, somewhat analogous to the chalk so and without any trace of organ of any well displayed in the white cliffs of our kind, or any tissue whatever. The shell, Island.
indeed, is to an ordinary observer the It has been stated that the shells most interesting part of the creature. are pierced by numerous minute holes. This is composed of lime, (not flint, as Through these are thrust parts of the in the case with the preceding group,) animal's body, by which it attaches itself and is not only various in external to any object, or transports itself from form, but is divided within into several place to place, these so-called feet serv- chambers, after the mode in the fossil ing both for attachment and locomotion; shells termed Ammonites, or in the the latter, however it accomplishes at a existing Nautilus. Need another word very slow rate. The projections from be added ? Who can regard for an inthe shell, like the parts of the Proteus stant these infinitesimal productions of before described, are very various, and the Master-hand without feeling that his appear to be changed at the will of the glory and wisdom are as much revealed animal. “Few things,” says Mr. Rymer in them as in the organs with which the Jones, are more wonderful than the larger animals are endowed, or in those movements of these extraordinary pro- laws by which the inanimate but gigantic longations. A filament which at its first spheres revolving around the sun are appearance is an almost imperceptible governed ? We are surely ready to acthread, and of the same thickness knowledge that his ways are in the seas; throughout, gradually elongates and ex- and that, paradoxical as it may seem, he pands in all directions, as though in is never seen to be so great as when search of some point of support. Not contemplated through the medium of unfrequently several branches become the minute.
W. R. SELWAY.
Reviews. Lessons for Maidens, Wives, and specially adapting him for wisely speak
Mothers. By W. LANDELS. Shaw ing upon subjects so delicate as those and Co.
comprised in this volume.
could have done better, and few indeed THERE is a peculiar beauty and refine- could have done so well in a field where ment in the utterances of Mr. Landels, much may be spoiled by want of judga
ment, and very little effected without | section of the establishment, whose pojudicious tact. Mr. Landels has some- sition in the Anglican Establishment times dazzled us with his splendours— seems to us to be an outrage upon prohere he enlightens us with a mild and priety; but still our heart loves a brother genial ray. The book is a series of fine anywhere, and we rejoice to see so much drawings of female character: the women light in so dark a place. Some of the of England should walk through our articles in this magazine strike us as friend's portrait gallery, and gazing at- being “over-proof" in their Calvinism, tentively upon Eve, Lydia, Rebekah, but this is a pardonable fault, when so Ruth, Dorcas, and others, they will be generally the wine is mixed with water. come even yet more truly “ministering Only let us see holiness of life enangels.” Christmas is coming, and Pater- couraged, and love for perishing sinners familias must give Martha and Mary a excited, and doctrine can hardly be too present; if they have not set their I high for us in the matter of free grace: hearts on something else, we should say | let it once justify lying in any case, we give them this book; and if they have, consider it to be high in the sense of well give them this into the bargain. putrid; and as we prefer our meat sweet We intend to transfer the chapter on and fresh, we dare not come near it: Phæbe to the pages of our next number, the divinity of the Gospel Magazine is for the behoof of the Churches among never high in this latter sense. whom our voice is heard. Gems of Thought for every Day in
Pastoral Recollections. By the Rev.
J.A.WALLACE. Johnstone, Hunthe Year. Liverpool: Clement
ter and Co., Edinburgh. Evans.
A GODLY minister, on his retirement from Tus is simply a collection of precious long service, here leaves with the people things from rare old Gurnal, whom we of his charge, a summary of the instrucearnestly commended to our readers a tions he had given them. The idea is short time since. This little volume excellent, and is well sustained. Happy may be useful in introducing many to they who can review their ministerial Gurnal's complete works, but no one course with similar satisfaction and joy. who can afford a small outlay should put We commend this book to those who up with extracts when he might get the are entering upon the Christian ministry, whole. This is a plate of savoury slices, as the experience of a veteran in the but we strongly urge our friends to get warfare in which they have to engage, the joint and carve for themselves. of a weather-beaten sailor of the seas Gilead. Edited by the Rev. T. H. cessful traveller on the path which they
which they have to cross, and of a sucGREGG.
have to pursue. The composition is A Penny Monthly, which speaks highly elegant, the sentiments are judicious, of those precious productions, °the and the spirit devout. " Earthen Vessel," and the Gospel Lessons from the Life of Jesus. By Guide.” A man is known by his com
W. P. BALFERN. Cassell, Petter,
. pany. The Gospel Magazine. W. H. Col. This is a worthy sequel to “Glimpses
and Galpin. lingridge.
of Jesus,” by the same author. Every This sixpenny serial has been established book is valuable that fixes our attention nearly one hundred years, and has doubt- upon Jesus, and revives our perceptions less been the channel of comfort and of his beauty; and especially when it edification to thousands. Its writers discovers new beauties and brings his dwell mainly upon what is called the whole character more vividly before us. high side of truth, but withal a gracious Such will be the effect of these “Lessons tone of practical godliness pervades the from the Life of Jesus," upon all those whole. The editor is a minister of the to whom he is precious. Beholding as Episcopal denomination, and the maga- in a glass the glory of the Lord, they zine represents the strongly Calvinistic will be changed into the same image
from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit | exposed the wary steps by which it has of the Lord.
been accomplished. The foundation of Letters to Friends the Lord has given sion to the Catholic claims by the govern
that aggression was laid in the concesme. Morgan and Chase, 38, Lud- ment of this country, and from that
source the elements of its growth have PUBLISHED letters are valuable when principally been derived.
So long as they are distinguished for brilliant wit Romanism is becoming rotten at the and all the charms of good composition; centre, we look not for anything like its when they throw new light upon public former evils in any part of its circumcharacters and events, and when they ference, and yet its present aspect in are peculiarly devotional. The last is this country is not to be despised. Dr. the only attraction merited or claimed Wylie's book is most seasonable; it puts by the work before us. By the gene- us upon our guard against a most inrality of our readers this will be most sidious foe. It should be possessed by appreciated. As the product of a sick- all Protestant teachers. Its statements room, it is well adapted to aid the prayer- are startling, but they are verified by an ful and contemplative exercises of others appeal to authentic documents and to in similar retirement, and to render facts. The style is forcible and pure, them patient and joyful in the midst of and the tone moderate but firm. their afflictions.
Letters on the American Republic. Rome and Civic Liberty. By the By the Rev. JOSHUA R. BALME. Rev. J. A. WYLIE, LL.D. Edin
Hamilton, Adams, and Co., Lonburgh: Andrew Elliot.
don. ALTHOUGH we have not ranked with the We are often indebted to injured feelalarmists
upon the subject of Romanism ings for the discovery of latent truths, in modern times, yet we must confess both in individuals and in nations. The that this volume has in some measure author of this book is an Englishman, disturbed our repose, and excited our voluntarliy came a subject of the fears. The offspring of dark ages, we United States, and who, on account of had thought that Romanism could live his strong party feelings, was compelled only in the dark, that it could breathe to seek shelter in his native country. no other air than that of superstition and This circumstance gives a coloring to ignorance, and much less that while his writings, but does not, it would seem, knowledge increases it could revive. from the continual appeal to docuLet literature and science be extended, mentary proof, invalidate his statements. we have said, and above all, let the The burden of his theme is, what the Bible be freely disseminated, and Popery words and deeds of all parties concerned must fall. If it can flourish amongst an in the recent American conflict had sugenlightened and Bible-reading people, gested to the most disinterested obit is better than we supposed it to be servers, that moral principle as a ruling It would now seem that, on that very power was not known or respected on account, it is worse than its former his- either side ; and that self-opinionativetory even could attest, that it possesses ness, self-interest
, partisanship, pride, the effrontery and the art to establish a malice, and revenge, were the ruling kingdom of darkness in the midst of motives on all sides. The sincere, conlight, and to turn the very light that is scientious abolitionists, had no part in poured into it into greater darkness. the fray. Neither Lincoln nor Seward Changed in its principles and spirit, we had the interests of the slaves at heart. knew it could not be, whatever change They were ready for State purposes to might be assumed in its profession and dispose of them in any way; nor, acpractice; but we were not prepared to cording to the testimony before us, were expect that its policy and intrigue could the Cheevers, the Beechers, or the maintain the conflict in a free and en- Stowes, consistent in their professions lightened age, Dr. Wylie, however, of friendship to the enslaved. Sad as has established the fact of its aggression were the social consequences of that in the British Isles of late years, and war, the moral disclosures were still
more painful. Now, however, that the he said unto me, go in, and behold the conflict has ceased, we do not augur wicked abominations that they do much good from Mr. Balme's bold and here.” Such is this book and its mission. skilful analysis of impelling causes. It It digs through the walls of Convents, deserves a place in those times, but has and shows the abominations that are no tendency to assuage the prejudices done here. It not only records facts of and animosities that remain, and to thrilling interest, and in pathetic and hasten the return of prosperity and peace. / well-chosen terms, but clearly reveals The Veil Lifted: or, the Romance and that peculiar state of mind, and those Reality of Convent Life. Morgan Convent-life operates, and the fearful
circumstances upon which the charm of and Chase.
reality that ensues. It should be in the 6 THEN said he unto me, Son of Man, hands of all who have the least reverence dig now in the wall: and when I had for the priesthood or the sisterhood of digged in the wall, behold a door. And the Church of Rome.
Notices. On Monday evening, September 25th, the District Missionary for the Scotch a Social Meeting was held for the two- Church, Regent-square, under Dr. fold purpose of taking leave of the Hamilton; his pastorate for three years Rev. W. A. Blake, who has accepted at Thaxted; and his recent acceptance the pastorate of the Church at New of the unanimous invitation of the Church Brentford, and to welcome the Rev. J. O. then assembling to become their pastor. Fellowes, late of Thaxted, as the future Dr. Burns, pastor of the Baptist Chapel, minister of Shouldham-street Chapel. Church-street, Paddington, followed with The Rev. Josiah Redford, of Epsom, a few remarks. At this stage of the presided. The Chairman having opened proceedings, the chairman intimated the meeting by kind and appropriate that a testimonial of the attachment of remarks, the Rev. W. A. Blake stated many to Mr. Blake having been subthat he had been their pastor twenty scribed for, one of the deacons would years. When he came to Shouldham- present it. Accordingly Mr. Capps, in street the chapel was dilapidated, and a short, but most appropriate and afthe congregation very small. For twenty fectionate address, made the presentation years peace had been within their walls. of a handsome silver tea-pot, as a token A Church, distinguished for unity, had of continued Christian esteem from Mr. there worshipped; the chapel had been and Mrs. Goulden; a silver milk ewer considerably altered and improved, and from Mrs. Pilgrim and Miss Jerrad; excellent and commodious school-rooms and a basket containing silver forks from furnished underneath the chapel. Mr. the members of the Church, etc., etc. Blake alluded to his onerous duties in Other addresses were delivered by the connection with the “Soldiers' Friend Rev. J. Batey, the assistant afternoon Society," the care of the three Ragged preacher at Craven Chapel; by the Rev. Schools, in or near that locality, and W. Stott, of Abbey-road Chapel, St. other considerations, which led him to John's Wood, Mr. Beazley, and Mr. conclude that it was his duty to listen to Pearce. the request of the Church at Brentford ; On the first Sabbath in September, and therefore, after much prayer and there were gathered together on the consideration, he had felt it his duty to banks of the river Cam, near Waterresign his charge, and was happy to beach, Cambridgeshire, about two recommend Mr. Fellowes as his suc- thousand people, to witness the ceremony cessor. Mr. Fellowes then made a state- of Believers' Baptism. This is the fourth ment of his early connection with the baptism during the sixteen months of City Missions and “ Soldiers' Friend Mr. Neale's pastorate. The number Society” in the Crimea ; his work as immersed is thirty-eight, and the total