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sociatas hominibus impiis qui audaci perni- are in favour of the ancient reading xani, cacitate animarum contendunt magno hoc and only differ in the particles urtig itinere in urbein irrumpere, Joris volun-' after sow, and this forni is, in fact, very tule pessum dabitur simul."-We learn good. Thucydides prefers the use at Xpå froia M. Brunk's remarks, that his ma-: to that of xpein. As to the ellipsis of the nuscripts presented the same reading, comparative pārdov, before the particles, which is allowed by the second Scholia. there is not any Greek writer, who does
At verse 632, sixzios Altos is found in- not furnish examples of it. The phrase stead of dingias. It is difficult to find thus taken, signifies therefore, “'Opora any example of the adjective dixesos er- tere, in fatis esse non ci aut robore, magis ployed with a feminine substantive, even quam dolo victores vincere; and every among the Attic writers. In verse 178, one understands, that this granımaticat the calls those prayers of the chorus, figure amounts to the same as “ dola Turdixoss Autos; and although mayðinws, mugis quam vi aut robore.” On the subas found in another manuscript (No. ject of the participle present, irrepexorras, 2781), may be right, yet rardinois does instead of which many editions have uot appear less correct.
defecortag, it is well known, that the fuo In our editions, verse 732 is not in ture is not by any means necessary in
such a circum- tance; as iir Latin,"visit Παιδολοτω δ' ερίς ταδ' οτρύνει. . senatus legatos vetantes," is the same as Filiorum perditric contentio isto urget. velaturos, or qui vetarent. The manus The manuscript has äd or púver, and M. script under our immediate consideraBrunk has judiciously preferred this read. tion, reads, ing. In our editions we read, on the χρή ή δόλως τε τες υπερσχοντας χρατεί. subject of Edipus's incest:
At verse 215, the printed editions have “Οξε μητρός αγναν
as follows: σπέιμες άρεσαν εν έτράφη
μοι των παρες ήταν τοτε ρίζαν αιματοέσσαν
Εφαίνετ’ είναι, προσλαβόντι μητερα έτλα. .
σκυνθ' έκοντι 'Ζην συμπαραςατείν. It is difficult to understand, in this place, the object of the epithet ayeur visum est, ut 'ussumens matrem, colens vo
* Oplinum mihi in præsenti er omnibus purum, or cuslum sulcum matris semunans: lenti Jovi assisterem." sui sunguinis radicem, ausus est langere: the Apocraborti is good in itself, as repor can one easily discover the utility of lating to pos: but then, what are we to ir étpása, after having said sulcunt ma- make of the exovg' exorti Zrivl? It does
The manuscript before us, reads like those of M. Brunk, preto srpås águar
not appear credible, that Eschylus wrote snipas époupas, and the subsequent i Jupiter, the other to Prometheus. If he
SXOVTT, Exovti; one having a reference to szpáson is the reason which rendered non
wrote éxórta, ean we adinit, one at the purum, in
respect to Edipus, the sulcum matris in which he had been formed. side of the other, two adjectives relating This reading is, therefore, decidedly the mposha borts, the other to the accusative,
to the same person; one to the dative,. best.
la verses 212 and 218 of the Prome EXOPTE? No such example is to be found theus, speaking of the war of the Titans among the Greek authors. Our many. against the Gods, Prometheus says, tie seript, therefore, is right in having aposbad learned from his mother, that victory 12@ouT®, the two adjectives thien jenting
not to the poo, but to the inlinitive, ma was to be obtained, not by force, but by cunning or stratagem:
a mode of construction coin
Αίγ' ήντιν αιτήπαν γαρ έκπυθοιό μου, Such was the ancient reading; but it “ Dic quid postulcs ? nam quidvis a mo has degenerated, whether afier MSS. Op coceberis.” atter conjectures, into this, Xpéi }; that But to give it this sense, the phrase has is in say, Xpsite, opus sit, necesse sit. occasion of the particle ży, without which M. Dawes, being justly dissatisfied with the optative never assumes the power of this torin, has substituted, conjecturally, a future; this may be supplied in the in bis Critical Miscellanies, Xpéin, an op- Ms. by conjecture; for we only find lative, very commonly employed after su Joio in it, which leaves a verse detecthe particles á;, iva, őri, &c. to express tive by one syllable. M. Brunk has the past time, necesse esset. But all the printed may yap å v nou 90 se poat, atier a niza MSS. which M. Vauvilliers bad seeni, nuscript.
In this passage,
On Pedantic Corruptions of the English Language. (Feb. 1, In our editions, after verse 750, and tance to the knowledge of prosody, if seg. we read,
'contirmed by a sufficient number of ex-, Η γερ ποτ' εςιν εκπεσείν αρχής Δία και ; amples.--Alter verse 810, there follows, νδοιμαν, οίμαι, το δ' ιδουσα συμφοράν. as if a line by Eschylus, lovas 27. oeu
Πώς δ' εκ αν, ήτις εκ Διος πασχω κακώς: μνημόνευμα της σης πλανης, which 15, 11 “ Nunquid est ut Jupiter aliquundo tact, only air explanation of verse 339. excidat i principatu! guuderom puio, istum conspuuta ciudem: quidni vero? qué To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
STR, rendere al lose wurdswhich lo promounces; Tupon the study of English grammar
, but moules is a verb active, signitymg deleclurem, and not delecturer. M. Dawes, by the persevering and perlantic, origa
in bis Miscellanies, assignis the second norant exertions, in mould it on the struc: of these verses to Prometheus, writing ture of the learned languages, will bedolay, that is, nãowo šv: thus, tuo, has come strikingly obvious to any one who M. Brundi printed it; and this enables can consider the matier without prejuus to find the incanmg ut oiuas, gauderes, dice; but these mischiets must infallibly pulo; whilst the third verse is the answer contiue in some degree, till a second os lo; quidni? The particle de becomes Priestley (with equal penetration and no longer necessary, and our vanuscript, courage, but greater good fortune) shall which suppresses il, favvürs the comecs arise, ti contine both declension and conture of those two learned critics, les
jugation within the bounds of mere inpresses also, and properly, as appears, flectiil
. That it is a point of dispute
with the particle in verse 830.
our modern Priscians (or rather of
no dispuie, for they seem to decide in the μαντεία θώκος έςί Θεσπρωτί Δίος negative), whether a noun, or a pronoun τέρας τ' άπιςον. .
without the accusative variation, may be “ Ubi est sedes prophetica Jovis Threspoti et
made both the subject of une verb and miraculum incredibile,"
the object of another; in ather words, It is evident that the particle Te is not
both a nominative and an accusative, as necessary to the sense and ineasure of we should call it in Latin; in such an exthe first verse; and I can scarcely be- ample as this: "the things which I liked, lieve, that the poet, without any neces
and were equally agreeable to my friend;" sity, would seek this cacophony, pertence
which being here the object of lik and Swxos tai esi 205 Tpots, wherein the same
the wubject of were. It is true, this con., consonant is repeated six times in four
struction sounds rather awkwardly: but words. On the same account that we
I think, only to those who know something reject the unipe fortas, anci adopt the of the syntax of the learned languages, or, reading of our ms. Umag txuries, (in have received their notions on this partiverse 213,) we are induced to preler also, cular point from others who do; or solely in verse 857,
on account of its inirequency (vbich inΗ ξεσι θηρευοντες και θηρασίμοις
frequency, by the by, is also imputable
to the same causes.) Thiere is a wellγάμσις. . of Ibunt venantes non denundus nup
known passage of Horace, which has orien tias."- Paw's edition, without any H€.
struck me as an exact case in point on cessity, bas Orçevoortis in the future.
this question: I will therefore only men. Jus to be roibarked, also, that, in verse
tionit,and trouble you no further. It isthis: 1011,
" Quod magis ad nos 'Αυθαδεία των φρούντι μη καλος;
Pertinet, et nescire maluin est." our editors read,
where quod is the nominative to pertinet
and the accusative to nescire. The
So in a line of Pope: yap
here is of n service to the
. sense of the plorase, but will aidadiz it Abuse on all he loved, or loved him, spread: is necessary to the measure of the verse. where there evidently is only one relative In reading ausa tüz, it would be useless word intended to be understood, and for this ohject. It is ceriam, that when this, on the above-mentioned considerever the poels emplov tin tierrsis, or disc ation, should be the relative that; "abuse solution of the simthong as oor die in two on all that beloved, or [that] loved him:" vonels ai, oi, the i continues long: from that being the object (or accusative) to the same anal ay should proceed the the first loved, and the subject (or nornisame result, in respect to the diphothong native) of the second. 56. This observation would be of impor
For the Monthly Magazine. rangement will be as follows :--The first LYCÆUM OF ANCIENT LITERA- book ot Satires, the earliest work of HoTURE.-No. XXVI.
race, was written between the twenty
sixth and twenty-eighth year of his age; W
HERE so many have concurred the second, between his thirty-second
to point out the merits, and to and thirty-fourth ; the Epodes, in the perpetuate the fame, of florace ; upon two following years; the first book of the a subject, which has already exhausted Odes, was composed between his thirtyali tivat criticisin could offer, or ingenuity sixth and thirty-eighth; the second, in suggest, the classical reader will be pre- his forrieth and forty-first; the third, in pared to expect here only thuse general the course of the two succeeding years : observations, which may confirun the opi
the first book of Er isties, in his tortynion he has already forined; but which
sixth and foriy-seventh ycars ; then the will add little to the materials, upon
fourth of the Odes, and the Carinen Sewhich that opinion is grounded. Most culare, in the course of his forty-ninth, willingiy, indeed, would we have omitted field, and fifty-first years. The di of this article altogether; not so much froin Poetry, and the fourth of the Epistles, any dificulty likely to occur in a poet,
are not so well ascertained ; probably, who has been so repeatedly revised by they were written only a year or two becommentators, ancient and modern, as
fore he died. This arrangement will apfrom the inpussibility of offering remarks pear to be judicious, and not loosely sufficiently striking, or new, to excite at- hazarded, if the reader will carerully attention. But the necessity of contorn- tend to the evidence of the poems theming to the regular plan which we from selves. In the first place, it is obserthe first adopted, compels us to proceed. vable, that, in the satires, the Epodes,
The odes of Horace are, of course, the and the first of the Odes, the maine of I only part of his works which we propose Cæsar is always used, vever that of to consider at present.
Augustus, which was not assumed till It may, perhaps, form no idle disquis about the thirty-ninth year of Horace ; sition to attempt to ascertain the difer. after which it is frequently adopted. ent periods, at which were written the Then again, in the Satires and Epodes, several puems of Horace.
the poet describes himself as a young shall do, takmg Bentley for our guide. * inan, and asserts, that he owed all bis The internal evidence of the poems them- fame to the publication of his Satires. selves may, indeed, lead us to form a to.
He no where inentions liis lyric compon, lerable conclusion as to their respective sitions as having contibuted to his repu-' dates. Thus, the first book of the odes tation. This progressive advance in life may be ascertained from the prologue ; may be collected from a close exami. the second and third from the epilogues; nation of the sentiments of each succes-, the epodes from these lines of the 14th sive poem. The free, and often vicious, epod:
tendency of his early poeins, denotes his Inceptos, olim promissum carmen, Iambos youthful years; but we see him afterAd umbilicum adducere.
wards engaged on more decorous subjects, The date of the first book of Satires and assuming a graver and chaster style, may be collected froin the last line of It is by this internal evidence alone, that the 10th:
we can properly ascertain the diferent 1, puer, atq. meo citus hæc subscribe libello; periods at which Horace wrote. Those the last from the prologue. The first book, who have not condescended to follow also, of the episties may be traced from this unerring guide, have lost themselves the prologue and epilogue. That the in the wildest conjectures, and have selfourth book of the odes, and the second dom failed to obscure, rather than illusof the epistles, were published after a
trate, the subject. considerable lapse of time from the rest,
Let us now consider Horace as a writer is evident from the authority of Suetn" of vdes, a species of poetry, whichi, oi nius; a testimony which, as Bentley all others, requires the greatest strength observes, is so decisive, that it would be and clevation of genius, and a sort of an useless task in any one to attempt to
enthusiasm, that must difuse itself refute it. Supposing, then, this internal through the whole.
Judgment; too, evidence to be sufficiently cca the ar
must bave its share, in tempering the
flights of too wild an, imagination; and Vide Bentley, de Temporibus Librorum the greatest art must be used, without Horatii.
the appearance of any, that the compoMONTHLY Mac. No. 194.
10 Lyceum of Ancient Literature.- No. XXVI. [Feb. I, sition, though strictly regular, may re- with frivolous ornaments, which cair
an air of rapture and disorder. amuse only superficial niinds, he comGods, heroes, and princes, were, among pensates for the want of these by the the ancients, the objects of the lyric grandeur of his ideas and figures, in the Muse. They had also another kind of Odes; and by the chasteness of his eloOdle, of a more bumble nature, which cution, and the propriety of his images, delighted in sof er themes; where beauty, in his Satires and Epistles. Grace every and the pains and joys of love, were de where flows from his pen, and pleases 'scriberl, or ihe praise of Bacchus sung. the more because natural and unstudied. The want of the sublime was suppliest His poetry is not a barren soil; the useby delicacy and sprightliness. If Pindarful and the agreeable spring up together: excelled in the former, Anacreon was un- we are at once amused and instructed. rivalled in the latter. The bappy genius The mind tinds itself enriched by fables, of Horace could sing the triumphs of history, and geography, which are sprinkAugustus, and the coyness of Chloe, with led through the whole work with judg. equal success; uniting the qualities of ment, and without affectation. The heart bilahe Grecian bards, he has occasion is iinproved by a variety of wise reflections ally the rapiure of the one, wd the sofie on the manners of his age, and by lively ness of the other. He has all the enthu- representations of vice and virtue. In a siasın and elevation of the Theban poet; word, the taste is formed by a composihe is as rich in similes and imagery : but tion just and correct, without constraint; his transitions are not so abrupt; and full of grace and beauty, without varnish; his diction is more uniformly soft and easy, and yet not negligent ; always flexible. The subjects of Pindar's odes seasoned with so much wit and learning, are generally the same, and his style par- as to leave no room for disgust. takes of the unitormity. But it is the It bas been sometimes said, that elepeculiar characteristic of Horace, that gance, not sublimity, is the characterishis style continually varies with his sub- iic ot Horace. That the former qualifiject. Wherever his poetical imagination cation is unquestionably his due, no one may lead -- whether he fancy him. will attempt to deny. But, surely, he of self in Olympus, announcing the decrees fers as many instances of the sublime in of the wods; or moralizing upon the bis odes, as any of the ancient lyric ruins of Troy-whether scaling the Alps, writers. Let the adinirer of Horace turn or at the feet of Glycera; it is always to the following Odes: the 15th, S5th, adapted to the objects before him. lle 37th, of the first book; the 1st, 13th, can, with equal ease, pourtray, in the perhaps, the best of all, and 19th, of the sublimest strains, the characters of Cato second book; and, especially, the 1st, and of Regulus; and yet, with playful 3d, and 4th, the character of Regulus in vivacity, describe the caresses of Lycim- the 5th, and the 25th, of the third book; .nia, and the inconstancy of" Pyrrha. Qules the 4th, 9th, and 14th, or the 4th Lilie Anacreon, the devoted son of plea- book. It would be easy to fill these cosure, he has all the graces of the Teian lumus, by numerous quotatious that bard, with intinitely inore wit and philu- would sufficiently prove the truth of our soply; and wliile le possesses the bril. assertion). It is true, that he himself liant imagination of Pindar, he surpasses disclaims all pretensions to sublimity; him in the solidity of his judgment. In and often says in his odes, that his Muse a word, if attention be paid to the sound. was not suited to subjects of grandeur, ness of his sense, the precision of bis but rather chose to sing style, the harmony of bis verse, and the
Convivia, et prælia Virginum , · variety of bis subjects; if it be recola
Sectis in Juvenes unguibus acrium, Jectes, that the same man bis com
Non præler solitum levis. prorid satires, replete with keenness, sense, and gaiety; epistles, which contain
But this is a specimen of that modesty, the best directions for our conduct in life, which makes him say in another place, ann an Art of Poetry, which will always Pindarum quisquis studet æmulari, be the standard of true ta-te; it will be
Ceratis ope Dædalea adinittert, that Horace was one of the Nititur pennis, vitreo daturus
Nonina ponto. greatest and best-informed poets that ever existed.
We shal! low ourselves one quotation Ilis thoughts are the genuine offspring more, to prove, once for all, that the yeof wature. They are dictated by truth nius of llorace was highly susceptible of and reason. Unwilling to deck his style that grandeur of sentiinent which is
talled sublimity in Pindar. Observe plify this character in some heroes, who, with what magnificence, and pomp of ex- by the exercise of virtue, bad been deipression, lie describes a lyric poet, and fied. llere was an occasion to mention a favourite of the Muses, in the 3d Ode Ranulus, who was worshipped by the of book 4:
Romans as a God under the name of Quem to, Melpomene, semel
Quirinus. , Upon his reception into hea. Nascentem placido lumine videris, ven, Juno, as the well-known enemy of Illum non labor Isthmius
the Trojans, declares to the assembled Clarabic pugilem; non equus impiger Gods the conditions upon which she coule Curru ducet Achaïco
sents to his apothesis, and to the lurure Victorem : neque res bellica Deliis
Thus, Ornatum foliis ducem,
grandeur of the Roman sta'e.
what, at first sight, may appear to be a Quol regum tumidas contuderit minas, Ostendet Capitolio :
wild and rapturous transitions, is found, Sed, quæ Tibur aquæ fertile perfluunt,
upon examination, to have been the result Et spissa nemorum comæ,
et deep and judicious reflection. As a Fingent Æolio carmine nobilem. poet, he prophetically delivers the divine The truth is, that the splendour of decrees; and when the purpose is an. Horace, not having the glare and extra- swered, as if the God, who had inspired vagance of Pindar, does not so immedi. his imagination, had left him, be checks
the forward Muse: ately strike the eye, but is generally more agreeable to the understanding of Quo Musa tendis? desine pervicax the reader He is more correct in his ex
Referre sermones Deorum, pressions, less extravagant in his meta- Sublimity, then, is an essential fentúre phors, less bold in bis transitions, in the poetical character of Horace. Though he sometimes swells, and rises That he is not always sublime is a proof high, he never exceeds those limits of that surprising versatility, that curiusu which a clear judgment prescribed to a felicitas, which pervades every thing he warın imagination. His transitions, even undertakes.--" In Odis sublimi charac. where they are the boldest, will be found tere usus est,” says Baxter, " et nonnunadapted to the design of the Ode; and quam florido et amæno; in Epodis hu. to arise mere from the nature of that mili; et in Sermonibus, comico et civili; kind of poetry, than from any unreason- nisi quod in epistolis, accedente jam seable indulgence granted to his Muse, nectute, omisso, ut plurimum, ludo et That which occurs io the third Ode of joco, ad philosophicum vultum, uti debook i. has been considered nost cuit, sese composuerit."*-- It rarely hap. liable to objection; but even this will pens, that au author succeeds in different vanish, when the reader accurately stu- kinds of coinposition; but Horace is dies the desiga of the Ode, and upon equally happy in the most opposite spewhat occasion it was composed. Before cies of writing. In lyrics, he has not the death of Julius Cæsar, there was a only united the beauties of Pindar, Alreport, that he intended to remove the cæus, Anacreon, and Sappho, but has seat of empire to Troy, from which the found the means of tracing a new path, Romans derived their origin; and it was and of substituting himself us a model. feared, that Augustus might carry into It will be seen, hereafier, that he has esecution what his uncle and adopted the same superiority in satire. father had proposed to effect. Horacę As to his morality, though in early is thought to have composed this Ode, in youth he had imbibed the principies of order to prevent it. He therefore intro- Epicurus, yet he acknowledges one Suduces Jono in the council of the Gods, as preme Power, superior to all created consenting to favour the Romans, pris beings, who will not satfer crimes to be vided they never think of re-building committed with impunity; to what even Troy, or of transferring to that city the kings are accountable for their conduct, seat of government. The design of the and who ought to be the source and crid poem thus anticipated, it may be sup- of all their actions. lle teaches ns, that posed that he would only gradually con- happiness consists in the right use of our vey the line to Augustus, and not ab- renson, and in curbing the tumultuous Tuptly discover his intention in writing : sallies of our passions; that we cannot toh and the manner in which it is executed soon devote ourselves to the studs rolle sois. will be found equally adnirable. The Ole begins with the praiscs of a just and * Baxter, judicium de Horut, in Zeunius Courageous mah :' it proceeds to exciü. Edit. of Gesner, p. 3%,