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Progress of the French Language, &c. since 1789. [Feb. 1, notice a heap of frivolous compositions poetry, and of translating genius by of no character; but we shall appreciate talent, had not been carried so far. the wit and talents of several ladies, who In didactic poetry, it is also 10 N. follow with distinction the steps of the Delile that the period is indebted for its illustrious female, to whom we are in- fecundity. Ile has diffused through three debted for the Princess of Cleves. We original poems, the same richness of shall remark Atala, the ornament of a style which he had displayed in transconsiderable work, in which M. de lating the Ancid, and 'Paradise Lost. Chateaubriant illustrates the Genius of The poem on the Imagiration, would Christianity. As early as the first year,
particularly be a sufficient foundation, we find the best, the most moral, and the upon which to establish a bigli renown. shortest of the novels of the whole pe. M. Esmenard, M. Castel, and some riod, the Indian Cottage, in which one others come next; deserving of praise, of our great surviving writers, M. Ber. but far behind their inodel. Lebrun pardin de Saint Pierre, has united, as in alone, would have been equal to the his other works, the art of painting by competition with M. Delille, if he had expression, the art of pleasing the car by finished his poem on Nature; of which the music of speech, with the supreme
some fragments, of superior merii, reart of adorning philosophy by the main. Without a rival in the Ode, graces.
Lebrun obtained harmonious sounds Poetry will first present to us the from the Pindaric lyre, so rebellions to eminent and sublime species consecrated, vulgar poets; and we shall remark, Sire, Sire, to celebrate the men who form the thai his last notes were consecrated to destiny of nations, the heroic poom. The your triumphs; he was worthy to celepoets capable of attaining the Epopće, brate them. are not less rare than the men worthy M. Daru the translator of Horace, of being adopted by it. Fire master. bras, in that disticult undertaking, dispieces only produced within thirty cen played a pure taste, a flexible mind, a turies, are a sufficient proof of it. If profound study of the resources of our within the period which we have to con- versification. Erotic poetry, is honoured sider, we perceive scarcely one laudable, by M. de Parny, by M. de Bouftlers. but defective attempt, ihe Helvetians Poets, whom we shall find again with we may indulge in higher expectations, lustre on the French stage, already prewarranted by the poetical talents of M. sent themselves under brilliant and ra. de Fontanes, who now shines as an rious forms: M. Ducis, in the Epistle; prator at the head of the legislative body. M. Arnault, in the Apologue; M. AnIn proceeding to the Heroi-comic poein, drieux, in tales; M1. Legouvé, M. Ray: we shall not forget the extreme circum- nouard, in short poems of a serious and spection necessary, in certain subjects, philosophical kind. After these expieand at the saine time to pay the bribute rienced authors, we observe some rising of praise justly due to one of our best talents now forming, which afford more poets, M. de Parny. Alier original than hopes. During two successe compositions, follow imitations and trans- years, M. Millevoie, distinguished for the lations, in verse, of sone celebrated epic elegance of bis style, has obtained the poems. Ainongst the imitators, M. prize of poetry. M. Victorin Fabie, Parceral de Grandınaison, to whom we still younger, bias merited, during two are indebted for the Epic Amours, and years successively, an honourable disM. Luce de Lancival, author of Achilles iinction. Several, whom it is now ini. at Seyros, must be distinguished from the possible to name, will not be forgotten in erowd: but translations of the greatest our work, where we shall avoid severity: merit will more particularly engage our persuaded, that in literature, as in every attention. Virgil and Milton themselves thing else, indulgence approaches nearer seem to speak our language; and, ibanks to justice. to a living classic; thanks also to Mon- ilere is presented to your Majesty's sieur de Saint Ange, an able and view, dramatic poetry; the two kinds of laborious translator of Ovid; we shall which had so much influence on our lan. hare the pleasure of observing, that in guage, our whole literature, and the this respect, the present period is supe. national manners. In tragedy, appears rior to every other. Until now, at least, first M. Ducis, an inventor, even when he in works of such importance, the difficult imitates; inimitable when he gives lane art of conquering the beautics of foreign guage to filial piety, a poet deservedly
celebrated, and whose pathetic genius gaicty, an original portraiture of manhas tempered the gloomy terror of the ners, have secured the success of M. English stage. Competitors, wortiiy of Picard. Not less gay, and acarly its each other, come next: M. Arnault, so fertile, M. Duval is parily entitled in the noble in Marius, so tragic in the Vene- same commendations. The purity of tians ; M. Legouvé, whose Death of diction is esteemed in some essays of Abel presents an elegant imitation of M. Roger. Here we'point out an imGesner, and who displayed great energy provement, the merit of which is due to in Epicharis; M. Lemercier, who in the principal writers, whom we bare just Agamemnon so ably blended together named; perhaps also to the change wlicia the beauties of Eschylus and Seneca; has taken place in our inanners. During lastly, M. Raynouaril, who rendered so the whole period, the comedies worthy brilliant an homage tú victims honoured of notice preserve no traces of that jarby the regrets of bistory. We shall gon, which was so long in vogue. To notice the interesting scenes of the succeed, it was found necessary to be Joseph of M. Baour lorrian, and the naturand. The pedantic, prudish style, estimable parts of Mr. de Murville's, the false wit, the affected tone, which iad Abdelasis.* We must not omit a few been introduced on the comic stage, by reflections. The good tragic composi- authors more refined than ingenious, tions of the period cannot be reproached have been entirely banished. with the muitiplicity of incidents, the In the drama, a defective species of profusion of subordinate personages, use- composition, but susceptible if beauties, less episodes, the insipidity or elegiac we distinguish Beaumarciais, nhon dois scenes. In all, the action is simple, and comedies and his memoirs, liad already alınost always severe. The progress of rendered celebrated. M. Monvel, an the poets is not timid. Without viulating author who has deservedly obtained the ancient rules, they have obtained numerous successes, and one of our new effects. Upon the whole, they have greatest performers; M. Bruilli, whose preserved the philosophical character pieces breathe that interest which excelimpressed on tragedy, by the finest genius lent morality inspires. On the theatre, of the last century; bj following whose rendered illustrious by Quinault, are to steps, the greater part have opened to be remarked M. Guillard, and M. Hoffthemselves the various routes of modern man; more recently, M. Esmenard, and history; an immense career, which pro- M. Joui: on the nuler lyric scene, M. mises for a long time, new palms to the litiman again, M. Monvel, M. Mare puets capable of pursuing it.
sulier, M. Duval. Atier baring done In proceeiling to comedy, we find as justice to some pleasing productions, early as the first years, the pretty little compelled however to renew soie opipiece, the Convent, by N. Laujon; * rions of Voltaire, and to observe wiat the Greek Menechms, by M. Cailbara, he had foreseen and dreaded, the inan entertaining and well-conducted co-quence of the comic opera on the general medy of intrigue; a work clegantly taste of the spectators, we shall endeaversitied, the Pamela of Mr. François ; a vour, in consequence of that observation, copy of that of M. Goldoni, but a copy to enquire into the means of supporting. superior to the original. Two, Fabre of augmenting, it possible, the splendor of d'Eglantine, and Colin d'Harleville, com- the French Theatre ; where the dramatic petitors experienced in contending with art essentially resides. Your Majesty, each other, enrich the higher order of is pleased benevolently to attend to this comedy, the one hy forcibly pourtraying art, as beautiful, as it is difficult; and it impassible egotism, and inpassioned is inore easy than ever to perceive, of virtue; the other in representing, with what importance it may become, when strongly comic truth, the inconveniences your soul, in unison with that of Core of a protracted celibacy. M. Andrieux, neille, applauds the conceptions of that shines in the same rank, by a pleasing man of genius, wiwse vatural language vivacity, graceful and interesting details, wus sublime, and who forced heroes to and the uninterrupted charm of his style. weep. A fertile imagination, an unaffected In finishing, Sire, a va-l view, of which
want of time now permits us only to preIn obedience to the class of French sent to your Majesty an incomplete, but literature, Mr. Chenier is here named. his
at least a farthful skeich, general contragedy of Fenelon has succeeders, protected siderations on the whole period will by the memory of a great mina
deiaio us a idoneilt. Science and liters
Monthly Retrospect of the Fine Arts. [Feb. 1, are affected by those profound Majesty, is not become barren in talents. convulsions, which shake and decompose We shall collect and lay before you, the nations grown old, until a powerful genies present clements of that French litera. appears to tranquillize and invigorate cure. of which invidious ignorance rethem. We shall Silisis in the various vied at every period boil the masterparts of the art of writing the effects of pieces and the classics; but which was the universal motion. We shall enquire at all times honourable, and even nuwe *hat intiuence the eighteenth century notwithstanding its great loss, continues diad over the period, and what influence to be, in every respect, the first literature the period itself may, in its turn, hare in Europe. upon futurity. We have insinuated, and His Majesty's answer was in substance we shall prove that it deserves a pro- as follows: found examination. In vain do the ene- Gentle:ven Deputies of the second inies of all knowledge, proscribing ibe class of the Institute. If the French illustrious memory of a pluilosophic age, tongue is become an universal language, daily announce a shameful decline, which we owe it to the men of genius who have they would ellect, if their camours could sat, or now sit, amongst you. I attach reduce merit to silence; and which would great value tó the success of your labe demonstrated, if they had exclusively bours; they tend to enlighten my people, the privilege of writing. It will be easy and are necessary to the glory of my to confound these slanderous assertions, calculated to deceive credulous foreigners. I have heard with satisfaction the re. No, Sive, so strange a catastrople has not port which you have made to me. happened: France, aggrandized by your You may rely upon my protection.
MONTHLY RETROSPECT OF THE FINE ARTS. The Use of all New Prints, und Communication of Articles of Intelligence, 8c. are
requested under Cover to the Care of the Publisher. The British Gallery of Engravings, with some powers, and hy diving too far into
Accoun! of each Picture, and a Life of the muiaplıysics, has not rendered himself Artist, by Edward Forster, AM. E.R.S. and S.A. No. 5. Miller, Albemarle- in more simple subjects.
so intelligible, or so pleasing, as he is
* The Beggar
Boys, or Children at their Sports," of IVIE present number of this beauti- Murillo, possess great merit in their T
ful work consists of the following raak, and a subject of this kind would plates :
have been the fittest for an example of Maydalen, painted by Domenichino-and cn. the master, and a " Good Shepherd," or graved byn. Schiavonetti.--Landscape, painted " Salvator Mundi,” of one of the great by Gaspar Poussin-and engraved by S. Middi- masters of the Roman school, would man.--The Good Shepherd, painted by Niuril. have been a preferable example, of lo:- and engraved by J. Heath, A.RA.
this species of painting. Mr. Heath, -Rears and Dogs, pairied by Snyders--and bas, however, done great justice to his engraved by J. Fittler, A.R.A.
subject, and rendered it a beautiful The tirst picture, chosen by Mr. Forster, specimen of engraving, although (for the is of that celebrity, that praise is needless, above reasons) not that interesting print and censure night be thought insidious that most others in this collection are. The engraving by N. Schiavonelti, The next print is an wion of talent is of the first order, and will conter upon that must produce a fine work. Filtler's him an additional wreath of honor. The correct and faithful manner, has vied landscape, by Gaspar Poussin, posses. with the esquisite nature and truth of ses a powerful barmony of tone, charac. Snyder's animals, every part is most ter of compasition, and brilliancy of beautifully touched, and elaborately execution, which Mr. Middiman has finished, and proves Mr. Fiuiler to be happily transmitted in his engraving, eminently qualified for this waik of art, The next plaie, by Ileath, from Marillo, riotwithstanding the malignant effusions is not of that high class of art, that of a rival, who has declared him unfit for sheid alone be admitted into a great this task. work like this; Murillo, appears to The choice and manner of execution have atteinpted something beyond his of this number, is more than a sufficient
apology for the length of time it has been lished his lectures, and for the learning in coming out, for such a number as and science he has shewn in their conta this, once a-year, is worth a dozen position. The students, particularly monthly numbers of trash. As the the architectural ones, who for eight or lioness, on being reproached by a more wine years, (or niore,) have been left prolific animal, for bringing forth but without a guide, must be gratified in one cub at a time, and that so seidons; receiving instructions from an Architect Teplied, “ But that is a lion."
of such experience, practice, and ability, Mr. Forster's exertions, in forwarding as the present professor, which stamp the arts, deserve every reward; and that with practical credit, his theoretical speof credit, and a correct judgment, this culations. The professor took occasioint work inust infallibly procure him. in one part of his lectures, when dilating,
on the many absurdities of the present On Thursilay, the 18th vlt. The times; of Egyptian shop-fronts, miseraRoyal Academy of London celebrated bie and miniiure copies of Egyprian the anniversary of her Majesty's birth- monstrosities, whose gigantic style is day, at the Crown and Anchor Tavern. appropriate to its age, its soil, its uses; Mr. Flaxmark was in the chair, deputed to lasti severely, but justly, the attempis by Mr. West, the President, wtio was of many men called surveyors of the unwell. Several appropriate toasts were present day, being builders, paper harigdrank; among others, “ The Propri- ers, &c. arrogaung to themselves the etors of the British Institution :" and title of architects, and uniting both the the day was passed with that har designer and executor of one work, which mony and conviviality, as might be has certainly done more to the corrupin expected from men whose occupationis
tion of true architectural taste, than any are the highest in the scale of human other of the many abuses this art has intellect, and whose works are the arts sutered. of peace.
The continuation of Mr. Soane's lecOn Monday, the 8th ult. Mr. Soare, tures, which were not conclude when Professor of Architecture in the Royal this article was sent to press, shall be Acadenty, commenced his course of lec- given in our next. tures on Architecture, in the great exbi- The first ander of the new work bition room,
at Somerset-house, ton called the 6Fine Arts of the Briti-la crowded and respectable auditory of the Schoo1,” already announced, and detailed meinbers, students, and exhibitors of the in this work, containing specimens of Academy; and has continuent thein English, Historical, and Portrait Paintwith unahared success on the succeeding ing, Sculpture and Architecture, will Monday; Mr. Svane's first lecture was appear the first of February, instant. introductory, he began with a powerful Mr. Elmes's Dictionary of the line appeal to the students on the importance Arts, and their professors, is now in the of the art, and the necessity of a close press, and may be expected in the course and attentive study of its principles. Ile of the ensuing spring. detailed the origin of building, in a
ERRATA.-Owing to an error which it clear and comprehensive manner, cluci- would take up too much room to explain, the dating his remarks with a numerous dis- pames of both painter and engraver, of the play of beautiful and elegant drawijgs; two pictures of Henry VIII. receiving Bishop exhibiting general plans and details of Sherburne; and the interview between Sairit soine of the earliest architectural works Wilfred, the expelled Archbishop of York, of the ancient world, and the probable and Cedwall, King of the West Saxons, noinvention of the various modes of build- tices in our last, were omitted. They should ing, adopted by different people.
have been ingraved ana sablished by T. King, Mr. Suave deserves the biynest praise
East Street, Ctic bester, from the original paint. for the zenlous and indelaugable industry
ings oj' BERNARDI, in the Catčeural of that
city. and liberality with which he has embel
[Feb. 1,, NEW PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED. BA. JOHN LEIGH BRADBURY'S, (MEATH,) patentec avers that the quantity of yarri for a Plethod of Spinning Cotton, produced in each spindle, is nearly Flar, and I'col.
double to that on the old plan, with the Tion, shew the Ay turning upon
WIE figures annexed to this specifi. same power, and of any degree of finem the spindle with its armis pointing upwards. The bottom of the spindle rests MR. FREDERICK BARTHOLENEW FOLSCR, upon, and turns in a step fixed in a (OXFORD-STREET,) for Improvinents on rail, and passes through a collar in the certain Machines, Instruments, and rail which supports the tiy resting on the Pens, calculated to promote facility in washer. The upper part of the spindle Writing. is smaller in dianeter than the bobbin, In vol. xxvii. p. 493, of the Monthly so as to leave a shoulder for it to rest on. Magazine, we have given an account of A pulley is fixed on the spindle, and an- another patent, obtamed by this gentle other on the socket of the fly. The sy, mal, which, thoughi connected with pens turned by the pulley, from the druin, and writing, has not the same object as wists the thread as delivered from the that yow before us. The present invenrollers of the machine, and by means of tion consists, first in haviny a valve acting the thread turns the bobbin. The with a spiral spring, or a screw to atfix on draught, or winding up of the thread on the tube of the pen, to supply it occathe bobbin, arises from the friction of the sionally with air to force ink into the inside of the bobbin, against the small socket of the pen. Secondly: in baring part in the spindle, and froin the bottom a small pipe at the bottom of the tube, of the bobbin, against the shoulder of the to convey the ink into the socher of the spindie, or washer fixed on it. This pen, through which it is forced by the, draught is regulated by the spindle, operation of the valve, at the top of the which is turned by another pulley from tube. Thirdly: in having a plate on another drum, in the saine direction as front of the socket of the pen, to contain the fly, in a contrary direction, or remains a supply of ink for the nib, and to prestationary, as the quality of the thread vent the ink flowing too freely into the requires.
nib. The per consists of three parts, The principle of this iinprovement, as joined togetier by screws, and may be distinci from the old mnode, consists in made of any sort of metal. The top part inverting the fly, and giving it a separate of the pen is called the box: the next is motion from the spindle. The improve the tube, and the third is the socket: ment arises chiefly from these circum- it is made in three divisions, for the pure stances; first as the fly is the chief agent pose of cleaning the pen, in case it should in twisting the thread, it is the only part get foul, and to supply the tube with ink, kept in rapid motion; consequently there and to astix any of the different sockets is a great saving of power, since, in the to the tube at pleasure. The box has a old machine, the spindle and fly turned bottom soldered in, having a hole in it io. together at the saine speed. Secondly. admit air to pass into the tube through The bobbin, fly, and spindle, having the top of the box; it contains a spiral their distinct and separate motions, the spring: a small rod having a plate, or draught, or inclination of the thread to valve at the bottom of it, covered with wind up, can be regulated to the utinost leather, passes through the hole, at the exactness, and, when regulated, will re- bottom of the box, but it is not so thick main invariably the same at whatever as to fill the hole, and the rod screws into; speed the machine shall turn : whereas, the knot, and contines the spring in the in the old mode, a variation of speed pro- box: the spring pressing upwards against duces a variation of draught, thereby the knob, keeps the valve close to the breaking the thread, and causing much bottom of the box, to prevent the ink
Thirdly. On account of the getting out of the top. 'The tube has a inverted position of the fly, the bobbin bottom soldered in above the joint, that can be taken off, and put on with expe- unites it with the socket : in the bottom dition; whilst in the old plan, it was nc- is a small pipe for the ink to pass through cessary to stop the spindle, and upscrew into the socket. The socket is hollow, the fly" from the top, or to take out the and has a hole in front to admit the air, spindle. By these improvements, the and to adjust the quantity of ink it will