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appeared almost black. It was permanent the darkest shades of olive; is perfectly in'waler, but soluble with effervescence in opaque; very friable; and its powder does warm nitrous acid. When heated to not scratch glass. It is a non-conductor redness opon the platina it burnt slowly, of electricity. It gives off moisture hy and gave off white fumes, wliich slightly increase' of temperature, and if heated in reddened moistened litmus-paper, and it the atmosphere takes fire at a temperaleft a black moss, which, when examined ture below the boiling point of oil, and by the magnifier, appeared vitreous at the burns with a red light, and scintillations surface, and evidently contained a fixed like charcoal. The phenomena of its acid. In another experiment the boracic combustion are best witnessed in a acid, heated in contact with potassium retort filled with oxygen gas. When in a gold tube, was converted into borate' the bottom of the retort is gently of potash, at the same time that a dark. heated by a spirit lamp, it throws off coloured matter, similar to that produced most vivid scintillations, like "those from hy electricity, was formed. Thus the the combustion of the bark of charcoal, evidence for the decomposition of the and the mass burns with a brilliant light. boracic acid is ensily 'obtained, but the A sublimáte rises from it which is borasynthetical proofs of its nature involve cic acid. In oxymuriatic acid yns, the more complicated circumstances. Mr.' peculiar inflammable substance occasiDavy found that, when equal weights of ons some beautiful phenomena; when potassium and boracic acid were heated brought in contact with the gas it in together, there was a most intense igni- stantly takes fire and burns with a brila tion before the temperature was nearly liant white light, a white substance coats raised to the red heat; the potassium ell.
the interior of the vessel, and the subtered into vivid inflammation when it stance itself is found covered by a white was in contact with the boracic acid. film, which, by washing, affords bóracic When this acid had been heated co white- acid, and leaves a black matter behind. ness, before it was introduced into the The properties of this matter are enu. tube, and powdered and used while yet inerated; and the inference drawn is, warın, the quantity of gas given out in the that it is different from any other known operation did not exceed twice the vo. 'species of matter, and is the saine as that lume of the acid, and was fiydrogen. He "procured from it by electricity : thus is only used twelve or fourteen grains of established the decomposition and reconn. each of the two substances in this mode position of the acid. From other expe. of conducting the experiments for when riments it would seem that boracic acid Jarger quantities were employed, the glass consists of one part of inflammable mattube always ran into fusion from the in- ter and 1.8 of oxygen, and the dark retensity of the heat produced during the sidual substance, supposing it to be simaction. In inany experiments in which ply the inflammable matter "combined, he used equat pài ts of the acid and metal, with less oxygen than is sufficient to conhe found that there was always a great stitute boracic acid, would be an oxide quantity of the former in the residuum; consisting of about 4:7 of inflaninable and by various trials he ascertained that matter to 1.55 of oxygen. Mr. D. liketwenty grains of potassium had their in- wise thinks that the combustible matter flammability entirely destroyed by about obtained from boracic acid, bears the eight grains of boracic acid. For collect-' same relation to that substance as sula ing considerable portions of the inatters phur and phosphorus do to the sulphuric formed in the process, he used inetallic and phosphoric acids; but it is still a tubes furnished with stop-cocks, and ex- . question whether it is an eleinentary hausted after having been filled with hy- body, the pure bosis of the acid? or drogen. Whên tubes of brass or copper whether, like sulphur and phosphorus, were employed, the heat was only raised it is compounded? There are many cirto a dull red; but when iron tubes were cumstances which favor the idea that used, it was pushed to whiteness. In all the dark olive substance is not a simple cases the acid was decomposed, and the body; its being non-coudacting, its change products were scarcely different. Wlien of colour by being heated in hydrogen the result was taken out of a tube of gas, and its power of combining with ale brass or copper, it appeared as an olive kalies; for these properties,' ii general, coloured mass, having opaque dull olive- belong to primary compounds that are brown specks diffused through it: in known to contain oxygen. Some of this this way he collected the largest quanti- olive inflammable matter he treated in a ties. It appears as a pulverulent mass of different way, and the result led Mr. D.
MONTHLY MAQ, No, 200..
Proceedings of Learned Societiess [Lufyl, to suppose, that in it the basis of boracic muriatic basis, must le still a matter of acid exists in union with a small portion enquiry.
" From the colour of the Mr. Davy infers, that the experiments oxides," says Mr. D. “ their solubility in detailed in this elaborate paper, offer alkalies, and from their general powers some new views with respect to the na of combination, and from the conducting ture of acidity. All the Hvid acids that nature and lustre of the nfatter produced contain water, are excellent conduetors by the action of a small quantity of pot- of electricity : When he first examined assium upon the olive-coloured substance, muriatic acid in its combinations, free and from all analogy, there is strong rea- from moisture, he hoped he should be son to consider the boracic basis as me. able to decunipose them by electricity : tallic in its nature, and I venture to pive but there was no action without contact pose for it the name of Buraciunn." of the ovires, and the spark seemed to
In experiinents made upon the separate no one of their constituents, fuoric acid, the professor obtained an but only to render them gaseous. The infammable chocolate-coloured sub. circumstance likewise applies to the bostance; but as he had acted only on racic acid, which is a good conductor as very sinali quantities, he was not able long as it contains water; but which, to gain decided evidence that the inflain. wlien freed from water, and made fluid mable part was the pure basis of the by heat, is then a non-coudactor. The fluoric acid; but with respect to the de- alkalies and earthy compounds, and the composition of this body by potassiuin, oxides, as dry as can be obtained, are and the existence of its basis, at least non-conductors when solid, but if rencombined with a smaller proportion of dered fluid by heat, they become conoxygen in the solid product generated, ductors. Tu mixing nuisiatic acid gas and the regeneration of the acid by the with carbonic acid, or oxygen, or hydroignition of this product is oxygen gas, gen, the gases being in their common he has no doubt whatever. The decom- states, as to moisture, there was always a position of the fuoric acid by potassium, cloudiness produced, which was owing to sceins analogous to that of the acids of the attraction of their water to fora sulphur and phosphorus. In neither of liquid muriatic acid. On fluoric acid these cases are the pure bases, or even gas no such effect was occasioned, which the bases in their cominon forni, evolved; might be supposed to show that the bsbut new compounds result, as in one drogen, evolved by the action of potascasé sulphurets and sulpbiter, and in the sium upon fluoric acid gas, is owing to other phosphurels and phosphites, of water in actual combination with it, like potash are generated.
that in muriatic acid gus, and which may Mr. Davy is less confident respecting bé essential to its elastic stare; or the the decomposition of the muriatic acid. moisture may be in that state of diffusion, We shall mention one of bis experiments or solution, in which it exists in gases in on it. When a piece of potassium is general. introduced into the substance that distils “ The facts advanced in this lecture, " over during the action of heated sulphur says the author, "afford no new, argue upon vjxymuriatic acid, it at first pro- ments in favour of an idea to which I reduces a slight ellervescence, and if the ferred in my last communication—that of volume of the potassiu) considerably hydrogen being a coinmon principle in exceeds that of the liquid, it soon ex- all inlinumable bodies, and except in ire piodes with a violent report, and a inost stances
, which are still under investigaintense light. He endeavoured to col- tion, and concerning which no precise Ject the result, which he was abie to do conclusions can as yet be drawn, the "willi a quarter of a grain, but in this generalization of Lavoisier happily ap
sinall quantity he could not ascertain plies to the explanation of all the new that any gaseous matter was evolved; phenomena. In proportion as progress buț a solid compound was forined of a is made towards the knowledge of pure very deep grey tint, which burnt, throw. combustible bases, so in proportion is ing off bright scintillations when gently the number of metallic sobstances in heated, which inflamed when tonched creased; and it is probable that sulpbar with water, and gave most brilliant and phosphorus, could they be perfectly sparks, like those thrown off" by iron in deprited of oxygen, would belong to this oxygen gas. Its properties differed from class of bodies. Possibly the pure ele those of any compound of sulphur and mentary matter may be procured by potassium, but whether it contained the distillation, at a high heat, fruin metallic
alloys, in which they have been acted 'formed, and infers, that this substance upon by sodium, or potassiua. As our owed its existence to the absorption of inquiries at present stand, the great ge- atinospherical air by the charcoal. neral division of natural bodies.is into “ Potash,” says be, «or pearl-ash, is inatter which is, or may be supposed to reasily becomposed by the combined atbe, metallic and oxygen; but till the pro- tractions of charcoal and iron; but it is blem concerning the nature of nitrogen not decomposable by charcoal, or,
when is fully solved, all systematic arrange- perfectly dry, by iroir alone. Two cominents made upon this idea, must be re- bustible bodies seem to be required by garded as premature."
their combined affinities for the etiect; Mr. Davy, in the course of the lecture, 'thus in the experiment with the gunnoticed an experiment of Dr. Wood. 'barrel, iron and hydrogen are concerned. bouse, in which the action of water I consider Homberg's pyrophorus as a caused the inflammation of a mixture of 'triple compound of potassium, sulphur, four parts of charcoal, and one of pearls and charcoal, and in the process the potasts, that had been strongly ignited to. asl is prołbly decomposed by two atk. Bether, and the emission of ammonia inities." The substance is perfectly inifrom them: in repeating the process, he tatent, 'by beating together ter parts of found that by cooling the mixture out of charcoal, cwo of potassium, and one of che contact of nitrogen, no ammonia was sulphur.
REVIEW OF NEW MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS.
Montbly Minstrelsy, a periodical Work in treive the species, is, in oor opinion, eligible
Numbers, containing sbort Essays in Poetry and and praise-worthy. The present pieces Music. Written and composid by T. D. Wore are rondos in the ineasure and style of gan, Ausbor of rouge et Noir de Musique, .er waltzes; and they so blend the characIlarmonic Pastimes. 1 s. 6d.
'ters as not to destroy distinction, or conO
f this periodical work we have, as fute the critical car. It is but candid to
yet, scen but one Number. The add that they possess much evidence of present is prefaced by thirty-two lines in taste and faricy, and merit the attention heroic measure, tributary to the faine of of the musical public. Lord Nelson, but for which, we are favourite and popular Airs from eminett Foafraid, the hero of Aboukir, were he
regn Masters, arranged for two Flageolets living, would not feel over grateful. oroFlutes, and inscribed to W. Hunter, en. These lines are succeeded by what Mr. by J. Perry, Editor of the Welsb Melodies. W. calls a sonnet; it consists of a suc- 8s. cessi n of notes intended for a inelody, These airs are 'twenty-four in number, and apj:lied to Whatbart, O Tiine, and forri eight divertimentos. They are discover," in the Duenna. These, and obviously selected with a view to the aca single page of a sunatina, 'furnish out cominodation of the tyro ou the instruthe Number now lying before us of the ments for which they are arranged, yet
Monthly Minstrelsy." From certain are chosen with taste and discernment. circumstances within our knowledge, -we They will be practiced by almost every are inclined to think that Mr. T.D. Wor. one with pleasure, and by none without gan is a son of the late excellent inusician improvement. Dr. Worgan. But these circumstances, La Cbasse & Rondo Militaire, avec Accompagneas our readers will conclude, have no meni de Violon ou Flute, & Basse (ad lili. connection with the contents of the pages tum.) Composés çi dedié's a Melie Jeans par we are now contemplating. Froin them 1. Mugnić. 5s. we do not pretend that we should ever
"the genius and taste exhibited in this have traced the descent.
publication demand criucal acknowTwelve Rondos in a new Style. In imitation of ledgment. Many of the passages are of
Waitzes. Composed for ibc Piano-forte by F. a norel cast, and the general effect is so Lanza. 4s.
far above mediocrity, as to ensure public This is the second book of rondos approbation. The accompaniment is written by Mr. Lanza on the present arranged with judgment, and the whole plan. We approve the idea. Whatever construction is decuonstrative of the real produces variety, without confuuuding master,
Report of Diseases.
sung witbebe greatest Applause by Mrs. Asbe, Mazzinghi's high qualification for this ube
the credit the publication bas already at-
by F. Lansa. Es, 6d. ideas are attractive and connected, and
This dance occupies six pages, and is the whole wears the aspect of cultivated comprised in one movement. The pas taste and real genius. 'The words are by sages are,
however, sojudiciously varied as Mr. W. Bennett, and are far from being to render the whole perfectly free from destitute of poetic spirit.
any thing like tædium; and the digressive " Farewell ye Lasses bliebe and fair ;": a Balo strains are too analogous to the subject
lad, written by Peter Pirdar, esq. Composed natter to divert the ear from what in a and dedicated to Miss Mein by John Paddomo rondo should always constitute the
centre of attraction, Mr Paddon, though not perhaps wholly Number III. of tbe. Egrist, consisting of Country, unqualified for the province of ballad me
Dances, Reels, and Waltres. Corposed and Jodly, does not, by the present specimen
arranged for rée Piano forte, Harp, or Fious, of bis talents, authorize us to say that he
by 7. l'arry. 15. is adequatc to the task of coping with Pe
This Number contains eighteen little ter Pindar's poetry. All that he has here pieces, intended as pleasing trifies; and done towards propriety, is the furnishing such we are enabled to pronounce them. alaine initation of the Scotch style; and for the first stage of practice they will all that he has, effected in the way of be found very useful, and are partice taste or fancy, will, we apprehend, belarly calculated to attract the jurenile lost upon the generality of hearers; we candidly confess it is lost upon us. Masebe, Menuet, et Gavorre, a Quatre Mains, "Hope ja selected from Essex's Op. 8. Composed
for, and inscribed 10, ibe Ladies of Mrs. Sale': pour le Piano-forte. Composées et dedicés a mi
Seminary, (Winchester House.) '13. 64. Lady Frances et mi Lady Harriet Somerset, pur L. Von Escb., 3s.
This air is of an easy and agreeable The style of these pieces is familiar cast. The passages are in general and pleasing. Mr. Von Esch has evi. smooth and flowing, and the accompani, dently not intended them as great efforts. "ment is tasteful and ornamental. With They however carry the marks of their the symphonies we are much pleased. ingenious author, and will be sure of a The placing the words of the second verse welcoine reception with hearers of taste immediately under those of the first, is and judgment.
convenient and politic, and cannot but No. XV. of Handel's Overtures, arranged for have not previously studied the poetry.
facilitate the execution with those who Ibé Piano-forte, wirb an Accompaniment for a Flute and Violin, by J. Mazzingbi. Ss. “The Merry Beggars ;" a mucb admired Darty
The present Number of this useful inscribed to the Duke of Clarence. Arranged work contains the overture to Theodora,
as a Rondo for sbe Piaas-forie by J. Ringe
wood. 1s. 6d. the second overture to Semele, and the overture to the Water Music. The ad- This little exercise for the piano-forte, dress with which the arrangement is will not fail to please the generality of conducted, and the taste and good ma, practitioners. The passages are so well nagement displayed in the accompanie disposed for the juvenile hand, that they ment, render this number every way wor- must blend improvement with pleasure.
REPORT OF DISEASES,
201h of May to the poth of June, 1810.
tion is beginning to shew itself sidered as constituting the fashionable amongst the more opulent įnhabitants epidemic of the present season of the
year. This domiphobia* may be opposed markably does the stimulus of a favorite to the hydrophobia, inasmuch as a patient and enlivening amusement awaken the affected with the former complaint, so dorinant energies of the animal fibre. far frum betraying any dread of water, is Upon a similar priuciple, they are, for the most part impelled by an almost ir- 'for the most part, only the vacant and resistible inpulse, to places of resort where the indolent, inose “ilies of the vala that element is to be found in the great- ley, that neither coil nor spin," who est abundance, London, which at other suffer in any considerable degree from times serves as a bucleus for an accumu.
the closeness of the 'air, or the changes lated population, seems now to exert a
of the weather.' One whose attention surprising centripetul force, by which is occupied and whose powers ace are driven to a distance fro:n it a large actively engaged, will be tourd in a proportion of those inhabitants who great measure indifferent to the elevaare not fastened to the spot upon wliich tious or depressions of the chermometer. they live by the rivet of necessity, or some Leisure, alitough not the subject, is the powerful local obligations. Men whose principal source of all our lainentations. personal freedom is not in like manner There is no disquietude more intolerable restricted within geographical limits, glad- than that which is experienced by perly escape, in the present state of the at- sons who are unfortunately placed in mosphere, from the perils, real or imagi- what are called easy circuinstances. pary, of this crowded and artificially Toil was made for man, and although ne heated capital :
may sometimes inherit what is necessary ---pericula mille
to life, he is, in every instance, obliged Sævæ urbis.
to eurn what is essential to its enjoyment. An already immense and incessantly ex- Tlie vapors of melancholy most frequentpanding city, on every side of which new ly arise from an untilled or iusuthciently streets are continually surprising the view, cultivated soil. as rapid almost in their formation, as the Although habitual industry is of such sudden shoutings of crystallization, it is indispensable importance to our physical reasonable to imagine, cannot be particu- as well as intellectual well-being, it will Jarly favorable to the health of that mass of 'not be found sufficient to secure the con. human existence which it contains. But timuance of either without the co-operait is at least a matter of doubtful specu- tion of temperance, which mueed is its lation how far those maladies, which are usual and natural ally. attributed exclusively to the air of this Tenperance ought to be regarded as greac town, may arise from the perhaps a virtue of more comprehensive meanmore noxious influence of its fashions and ing than what relates merely to a saluits babits. Maw is not in so humiliating tary discipline in diet. Temperance ima degree dependent, as some are apt to plies a certain regulation of all the feelings, suppose, upon the particles that float and a due but restricted exercise of alt about him. He is by no means consti- the faculties of the frame. There is no tuted so, as necessarily to be the slave of species of dissipation or exertion in which circumambient atoms. As the body va- we may not pass beyond the bounds of a ries little in its heat, in all the vicissitudes wholesome noderation. A man inay be of external temperature to which it may intemperately joyful or sorrowful, intembe exposed, so there is an internal power perate in his hopes or in his fears, intemof resistance in the mind, which, when perate in his friendships or his hostilities, toused into action, is in most instances intemperate in the restlessness of his amsuficient to counteract the hostile agency bition, or in his greediness of gain. of extraneous causes. The reporter has The state of the pulse depends so much repeatedly been acquainted with tle in. upon the beuting of the passions, that stance of a female patient, who, at a time the fornier cannot be regular and when she felt too feeble and innervated calin whilst the latter are violent and perto walk across a room, could, notwith turbed. The science of medicine, liberstanding, without any sense of inconve, ally understood, takes in the whole of nience or fatigue, dance the greater part of man. He who in the study or the treata night with an agreeable partner. So re- ment of the human inachinery, overlooks
the intellectual part of it, cannot but elle An extremely well-written and intere
incorrect notions of and esting account of the Domiphobia, a complaini wbich is not even noticed in the scho fall into gross and sometimes fatal blun. Jastic systems of nosology, may be perused in ders in the means which he adopts for its pne of the earlier volumes of the Monthly regulation or repair. Whilst he is diMagazine.
recting his purblind skili to remove or