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adjective "tigré," being defined in the yet he seems, at least in the early part of Dictionnaire Royal, "moucheté comme his reign, to have expressed no gred un tigre;" spotted like a tiger. This affection for learning, or men of leita definition appears to me to correspond This is supposed to have given occia witi the expressive description,“ sprink- to the 16th Idyll. inscribed with the led with yellowish sagitiuted dots," as the name of Hiero; where the poet assera spots of the terocious animal may be the dignity of his profession, compare termed“ sagittate," from their ending that it met with neither farour nur pro acutely. The colour also, "yellowish," tection ; and, in a delicate and and strengthens the analogy.
Inanner, touches upon some of the ver Warrington, T. K. GLAZEBROOK, tues of this prince, and insinuates w May 24, 1810.
an illustrious figure he would have made
in poetry, bad fie been as noble a patron, For the Monthly Magazine. as he was an argument, for the Nuses. LYCEUM OF ANCIENT LITERA. ” Theocritus had been the scbolar TURE.-No. XXX.
Philetas, an elegiac poet of the island
of Cos, and of Asclepiades or Sreede, VUE
rians to raise ditficulties where tlicre mentioned by him in terms of tespect was no room for any, is in no case more the 7th Idyil. The little patronage a
conspicuous than in the biography of encouragement which he experienced -Theocritus. The age in which he lived, from Hiero, his own sovereign, indeed
and the place of his birth, are stated in him to leave Syracuse, for the ** the most confused and contradictory brilliant and friendly soil of Alexandrit, manner; when, in truth, nothing can be where Ptolemy Philadelphus then restclearer than the short account which the ed--the splendid proinorer of science, poet himself has transmitted. By his and rewarder of genius. If we are is own, and other credible authorities, * judge of the success of this removal fra we may sately consider hiin as a native of his works, and they are the only certas Sicily. As to the age in which he four guide we bave, we may collect from the rished, it seems indisputably to be as 17th Idyll. that he, like every other certained by two idylliums that remain;' stranger of merit, partook of the royal one addressed to Hicro king of Syracuse; bounty of Ptolemy. He celebrates bo the other to -Ptolemy Philadelphus the beneficent patron, and in the 15th, the Egyptian monarch: Hiero began his mother and wife of Ptolemy, in strais reign, according to Casaubon,t in the which soar above the pastoral Mur, second year of the 126th Olymp. or and prove that be was capable of about 275 years B.C.; and Ptolemy, in greater exertions. the 4th year of the 123d Olymp. Though Rejecting as we do the fictions of the the exploits of Hiero are recorded greatly Grammarians, who, mistaking Theoriis to his advantage by Polybius, in the first of Chios, a rhetorician, for Theocritas book of his History; though he had many of Syracuse, give to the poet many of virtues, had frequently signalized his the incidents that might possibly oca courage and conduct, and distinguished in the life of the philosopher; we should hiipself by several achievements in war, only have to add, that he was the inced
of Aratus, to whom he addresses bis 6th Virgil invokes she Sicilian Muses, be- Idyll
. whose loves he describes in the cause Theocritus, whom he professeillyimi- 7th, and from whom he has borrowed cates, was of that country: Sicilides Muse; the pithy beginning of the 17th. It poula majora canamus, eci. iv, 1:
called a Sicilian poet by the emperor Julian, it may be proper to rescue him from the in one of bis epistles. Manilius, (lib. ii. imputation of having suffered a vicle: 40,) speaks of him as Siculo reliure creatus. and ignominious death. From a disacs That he was born at Syracuse, Virgil seems in the Ibis of Ovid.* it has unifara to intimate when he says, Prima Syracosio been asserted by all the biographers at dignata est ludere versu. eci. vi. 1. But the Theocritus, that it was he to whom the following epigrain, written by himself, is allusion of Ovid applies. Kennet decisive on this point:
however, has judiciously observed, taas Αλλος ο Χίος εγω δε Θεοκριτος ος ταδε γραψα, either Ovid bimself was mistaken, a Εις απο των πολλών ειμι Συρακοσίων. .
that the commentators have again con Υιος Πραξαγαραο, περικλειτής σε φιλινης,
founded Μωσαν δ' οθνειην υποτ' εφελκυσαμην.
Utque Syracosio præstricta fauce poeta. + Cas. in Polyb. 197,
Sic animæ laqueo sit via clausa tua. + Life of Tbcoc, 145.
founded the poet with Theocritas of inscriptions prefixed to the poems of Chios, who was executed by order of Theocritus, such as En Boulonna to his king Antigonus. He had been guilty of bucolicks, of which the gramınarians some act of treason against that mo- made Ειδυλλία Βουκολικα, ,
thinks that narch, but was promised a pardon, pro. Bidurria is a corruption from Emuhata, vided he would wait upon the king to which signifies poems or verses. Επυλλια, solicit it. Antigonus is known in his. indeed, seems very naturally to flow from tory to have had but one eye. When, the word Em the plural of Enos, Care therefore, the friends of the rhetorician men. This, however, can only be mat were earnest in persuading him to has- ter of conjecture. It is to be observed, ten to court for that purpose, assuring that Theocritus generally wrote in the him that he would be saved the moment modern Doric, sometimes in the Ionic. he appeared before the king's eyes, he The Doric dialect was of two sorts, the exclaimed, “ Nay then, I am a dead old and the new. The one was harsh man, if that be the only condition of my and rough, the other infinitely more pardon,” This unseasonable raillery smooth and harmonious. It has been having reached the king's ears, was con- sometiines supposed, that it was prins sidered by him as an aggravation of the cipally to the uncommon sweetness of former offence, and the unlucky rhe- the Doric, which Theocritus generallytorician was put to death.* It does not used, that he is indebted for the repuappear that this incie
can at all ap. tation enjoys; but it will be found ply to Theocritus the poet. He himself that, exclusive of this advantage, he has seems to have been apprehensive of be- ample claims that will secure to him his ing confounded with his name-sake of rural crown, beyond the reach of any Chios; and the epigram we have men- other competitor. He is the original in tioned above, was probably written on this species of poetry. Virgil
, his great purpose to manifest the distinction. Of rival, bas few passages in his eclogues, the subsequent events of his life, or the but what are borrowed from the Sicilian time or place in which he died, we bard. He not merely imitates, but fre
quently translates several lines together, The remains of Theocritus consist of and as frequently with diminished effect. thirty idylliums, and about twenty epi It is perhaps not with the strictest juse grams. ,. Besides these, he is supposed to tice that Theocritus has been considered have written many other detached merely as a pastoral poet. . Many of poems, such as hymns, heroicks, his smaller compositions have merit of dirges, elegies, and iambicks. His various kinds, and discover great facility fame now entirely r.-ts upon his pas. of genius. In some he displays great torals; though it may be doubted if the solidity of reasoning; in others, a strain name can, with propriety, be given to all of courtly politeness, which admirably his idylliums. The grammarians have fitted him for the splendid palace of applied the word Idyllium (from Esin, a Ptolemy. The observation of Quintilian, species of poetry,) to all those smaller Musum illum ( Theocriti) rusticam et compositions, which from the variety of pastoralem, non forum modo verum etiam their subjects, could not be clearly de- urbem reformidare, I was evidently lefined. Thus the Sylee of Statius, had velled at a few pastorals, which undoubtthey been written in Greek, would have edly cannot be detended from the charge been called Esdn and Esquadoz; even the of inelegance and rusticity bordering on Roman poets made use of the term; Au- vulgarity. In the little prein of Cupid sonius styling one of his books of poems Stung,s which is copied from the 40th on various subjects, Edyllia. This an ode of Anacreon, he has all the vigour cient title was meant to express the va- and delicacy of the Teian bard. In the riety of their nature, and were, such as Hylus,ll and the Combat of Pollux and would now be called, Poems on several Occasions. Fawkes, on the other Life of Theoc, prefixed to Fawkes' hand, after stating from lleiosios, that edit. p. 30. originally there were different titles or + The word occurs three times in Aristo
phanes ; see his Ranæ, v. 973. Acharnenses, • See Kennet ubi supra, who refers to V. 397; and in bis Pax, v. 551, he bas Plut. Sympos. 1. 2. and Macrob. Saturn. ETURA »» Eyginie, versiculorum Euripidis. 1.7. c. S.
I Inst. Orat. Lib. 9. c. 2. + Heins, in Theoc.
Idy!1. 29. | Kennet in Vit. Theoc.
Idyll. 13 and 92. 3
Amycus, he is more clear and pathetic and eternal rules, for the guidance of than Apollonius, who has the same sub- every future pastoral; nature herself jects. Others have the ease and familiar seems to be measured by this accoledialogue which reign in the Odyssey; plished inodel. Virgil, who sometimes while some critics have discovered in translates, rather than imitates him, is the Hercules Lion-Slayer* all the ma. avowedly inferior to hiin in simplicity jesty of the Iliad. Dhe panegyric on and sweetness. These are, judeed, in Ptolemy, has always been considered a two words, the peculiar and character anodel in that species of writing. In de. istic beauties of Theocritus. The soft. licacy of address, in the soothing and ness of the Doric dialect, which he imgraceful espression of his respect and at. proved beyond any poet who had pretachment, he is not inferior to Callina. ceded him, is what the Roman writers chus. In the noble hyamu in praise of confessed their language could not apo Castor and Pollux, it is perhaps no ex- proach. His thoughts and sentiments travagance of criticism to say, that, in are as inimitably soft and tender, as the boldness of thought and splendour of verse in which they are conveyer, is diction, he scarcely yields to Pindar or sweet and melodious. The same uniIlomer.t
forin simplicity is observable in his elsaBut, after all, it is as a pastoral poet racters, His shepherds, in their conthac Theocritus is known to the gene tests, their amorous jealousies and conrality of readers, and in this light only plaints, never rise above the ideas or lan. we are now to consider hiin. His pas. guage natural to their station, The torals, undoubtedly, form the foundation characters of Virgil are too well read in of that high estimation in which he is the philosophy of Epicurus and Plato; held as a poet.
Upon these rest his the modern shepherds of Gusrini proclaims to immortality, as the great mas fess the sentiments and speak the lanter, and probably inventor, of bis art. guage of courtiers. But Theucritus, Few of the imitutorum servui pecus, like Tasso, confines his to cottages and Have yet approached him in excellence. plains; his comp:risons are drawn fron It is as true in poetry as in painting, that the country itself; his thoughts seen originals generally, if not always, excel naturally the result of the rural life he their copies; a truthi unquestionably ex. describes. He is as soft as Ovid; he emplified in Theocritus, and his follow- touches the passions as delicately; "and
He is in pastorals what Homer is all this (says Dryden*) is performed out in the epic-the standard by which all of his own fund, without diving into the perfection in that species of poetry must arts and sciences for a supply." The rohe estimated. The critics have con inantic wildvess of thought, beightened verted his practice into so many settled by the Doric dialect, the lively pic
tures of the passions, and the pleasing
delineation of simple unadorned nature, Idyll. 25. It is singular that Scaliger,
are specimens of genuine pastoral, whicb Heinsius, and Casaubon, bestow no commendation upon this beauriful piece, the longest, which have rendered him uyimitated,
we weet ivith only in Theocritus; and and perhaps the best, of Thcocritus.
† Apollonius, in the second book of his and inimitable, ever since. Argonaut has copied the contest between
We are not however asserting here, Poliux and Amyths, in the former part of that Theocritus is absolutely faultless. this hymn of Theocritus: and Scaliger, in his lle is accused of being occasionally usual authoritative style, gives the preference coarse; the dialogue is somelmues rude to Apollonius : splerdore et ai te ab Apollonia and abusive; the expressions wucouth Theocritus sugeratur, Poct. lib. v. c. 6. . This and obscene. These charges appear 19 decision seems to be adopted by Warton. But be chiefly, if not wholly, founded upon the Casaubon is of a different opinion. I l'he severity of critics has adjudged against the rerum atque DECENS of
5th Idyllium, which undoubledly offends eleven orly oui of the thirty idylliums, to be
Horace. Yet Heinsius selects this and purely and properly pastorals. Against this decision, su re appeals night be made. The
the third eclogue of Virgil, as examples Hylas, for instance, has many of the charac. of genuine bucolics; "mere Burcasas teristics of a po.coral; and the 20th Idyllium, fxemplum in quinto Theocriti, in tergila whiidi hus for irs subject Eunica, or the Neat tertio habemus. But it is said thac Theburd, is surely bucolical enough. Heinsius, it ocritus intended it as a specimen of the is true, has attributed it co Moschus; but Fawkes has, in our opinion, justly restored it
* See Dryd. Pref. to his Translations. to Theocritua.
+ Heinsius in Theoc.
rery ancient bucolic, which abounded the territory of the salt-pits, shall belong in in gross and offensive images.* The common to the emperor of Austria, and the 27th Idyil. wirich is still more indelicate, king of Saxony. Justice shall be admini
stered therein in the name of the municipal is, by many, attributed to Moschus. It is ummecessary to repeat the com
power: there shall be quartered there only parisons so often drawn between The police, and they shall consist of equal num
the troops necessary for the support of the ocritis and Virgil. They are both so
bers of those of both nations. The Austrian well known to classical readers, as to re salt from Wieliczka, in its conveyance over quire little or no additional illustration. the Vistula, and through the duchy of War. Virgil, in particular, is so familiar eren saw, shall not be subject to any iull-duties. to the youngest students, that we shall Corn of all kinds, raised in _ustrian Gallinot take any separate notice of his cia, may also be freely exported across the
Description of the salt-Mines in UPPER
POLAND; from NALTE-BRUN's late Theocritus, with Pindar, editio princeps,
PICTURE OF PULAND. apud Ald. Venet. fol. 1593. There are two districts in Upper Po-apud Juntas, 1515. 4to. edit. 2d. land worthy of claiining the attention of Romæ, 1516. edit. 3d.
the naturalist and geographer; the one is Florent. 1515.
that of the mines between the Pilica -Paris. apud Morell. 1561. 4to. and the Vistula, the other that of the H. Stephan. 12mo. 1.576
sait-mines between the Vistula and the ab Heinsio. 4to. Oxon. 1699.
Carpathian mountains, a Reiske, 2 vol. 410. Lips. 1760.
The whole extent of the chain of the -a Warton, 2 vol. 4to. Gr, and Lat. Oxon. 1770.
Carpathian from the north, rises into a à Walikenaer, Lug. Bat. 8vo. 1778. rudual ascent, intermixed wito small This edit. has only the first 11
bills composed of white clay, and someIdylliums.
times of chalky plaster. Underneath -with Moschus and Bion—a T. C. this stratum is found another, which Harles, 8vo. Lipo. 1780. consists of a fine soft pliable sand; next
to this sand is a layer of sandy marl; and Multum a reliquis oiferunt quæ under this, and ofíen in the middle of it, aixodina sunt, in quibus major est incivilitas : is fuund the fossil salt. ut in quinto apparet, quod Idyll singulare est, et in suo genere exeniplum, antiquæ nimirum of sand is visible in the plain. On as
From Cracow to Lemberg, this bed Byxohias; nunquam
ferè sine obsceno
cending to the height of one hundred sensu rixutur Caprarius. Bid.
and fifty to two hundred feet above the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Vistula, the argillaceous billocks comSIR,
mence; amongst which, wherever they S Í find that my communications make holes of any depih, fossil sale and
meet your approbation, and as they salt-water, is met with : springs of sulare derived from authentic documents phur and bitumen are common: in this relative to a valuable part of Europe lit-tract of land are situated the two famous the known in this country, but the very
salt-mines of Bochnia and Ilieliczku. great advantages of which the emperor
According Napoleon justly knows how to appre
* The following are the most ac urate de. ciate, I send you, according to my pro- scriptions of these salt-mines, arranged in inise, an account of the celebrated salt. chronological order. mines of Wieliczka, in Upper Poland.
1. An anonymous Account in the Philje That they were of vast importance to the sophical Transactions. Hamburg Moğazıne. Austrian nonarchy, is evident by the vol. 4, Part 111. 1760. Jate treaty of peace between that power 2. Echober's Physical Description, &c. and France, hy which the new-made Hamburg Magazine. vol. 6. Part 11. He vassal king of Saxony derives a great
was intendant of these mines. increase of revenue from them; exclu.
3. Memoir of Guertaid, member of the sive of the acquisition of territory in Academy of Sciences. 1763. Eastern Gallicia, and a populous dis
4. Oliservations, by Berniard, in the four
nal de Pbysique. 1780 irict round Cracow. To illustrate this, I
5. Description, by Hansen, inspector subjoin an article of the treaty, dated at
of salt mines. Berlin Magazine. No. I. Vienna, October 14, 1309.
Part III. “ Article 4. Wieliczka, and the whole of The Plans known to the public, are taken MONTBLY MAG. No. 200.
According to the Polish historians and the name of Wodna-Goru serves as : geographers, the salt-mines of Bochnia canal to carry off the waters wbich biter were discovered in 1251. This discovery through the different strata abore; for is attributed to St. Kunigonda, an Hun- throughout the whole extent of these garian princess, the wife of the duke famous mines, there is not a single spring Boleslas V. but attended with many of water. In the sbast or entrance fabulous circumstances; notwithstanding called Leszno, king Augustus III. caused which, it is easy to conclude, that she a winding stair-case to be inade of fear brought along with her some Ilungarian hundred and seventy steps, which cosi miners. They were not regularlyworked, forty thousand Polish Aprins in compia or well known, till 1442 ; but at present ting. It is by the shafts or entrance the sale-mines of Bochnia are far inferior of the Dunielowitz, that travellers de to those of Wieliczka. The produce of scend by means of ropes. On their & both, under the Polish governnent, rival at the first inine, they are struck amounted to about ten millions of with the grandeur, elegance, and ressforins (Polish,) and the expenses of larity, of the columns and vaulted ruo's: working, &c. to about nine-tenths of that in many of those excavations are several gum. After the restrictions which were little chapels and altars, cut out of ube taken off, and the encouragement given rock, that is to say, the salt; and adorned by the Austrian government, it is stated with a crucifix, or the image of game that the produce of the mines amounted saint, before whom a lamp is continuar to two millions of florins of Vienna, burning. The chapel of St. Antboy clear of all deductions.
is thirty feet high; there are sereral rery The mine of Bochnia, according to spacious apartments in it; some of the in Monsieur Schober, consisted of a long serve as store-houses for barrels of sat subterraneous sort of gallery or passage, ready packed; some for the forage of the about seven hundred and fifty feet wide borses, and others as stables for those from north to south; about ten thousand animals, about twenty or thirty, accordfeet long, in a line from east to west; and ing to the demand for tbe article. In its greatest depth from one hundred to some spots where water has been, the twelve hundred feet. The mine first sides and bottom are covered with crise appears in crystal spars, and the salt is tallized pieces of salt, hanging orer each found everywhere in veins. It is ra- other in clusters of thousands; many of ther finer than that of Wieliczka, those pieces weigh half a pound and especially where they quarry deeper, more, and form a brilliant spectacle Ic'is cut into moderate-sized pieces, in where many torches are held pear there; order to be put into barrels. Pieces of but much less so than many ancient esbroken black wood are often found thusiastic travellers have described L amongst the salt.
Within the whole ex- In the chapel of St. Kunegonda, there tent of the mine there is so little mois. is a statue of king Augustus III. entres ture, thac dust abounds in great quan- of salt. cities. Alabaster too is found in the The air is particularly wholesame, al mine.
though it is chiefly composed of a nitria The salt-mines of Wieliczka are di- gas, which rises towards the roofs of the vided into three parts: that of St. passages, where it sometimes is set as John, the Old, and New Field. The fire by the approach of torches; it burns town of Wieliczka is not only under- slowly, with a clear reddish flame: the mined, but the mines extend on each miners call it saletra. The number of side to a distance equal to its size; that persons employed in the mines, is geis, from east to west six thousand feet; nerally about seven hundred. No one from south to north, about two thousand; passes his life in them, althnagh travel and in the deepest part of the valley jers have asserted the contrary. Acabuut eight hundred, according to Bu- cidents but rarely happen: at certa:s sching; bat to Hansen, and Zollner alone, distances, large pillars of salt are best one thousand one hundred lacliter from standing to support the weight of the east to west; and one hundred and solid root. In the year 1745, however, twenty-three lachter in depth. There a considerable part fell in. Owing on are ten pits or shafts; but that known by neglect, the mines took fire in 1644, 2nd
1696, and continued to burn for a long from the original one published in four time. sheets, by Martin German, a Dutcbman. * In the two first strata, the salt is faand 1645
in huge unformed masses, from which