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ties of peat-moss which distinguish it from stances becomes more obvious, and their
mould, or any mass of vegetable matter. vegetable origin less doubtful, on this
(1.) Lflammability is one of these qua- account.
lities. This may be accounted for even I cannot avoid a few remarks on the
on the hypothesis that it is of vegetable last essay of the ingenious doctor. It is
origin. The vast proportion of simple like the rest, a most masterly production.
and conipound inflaminables, found in His object is, V. To classify the different
that substance, all formed of the ele. kinds of peat-moss. Of all subjects in na-
mentary principles of vegetable malter, tural history this has been least attended
are sutficient to account for this quality. to, and therefore least understood. All
(2.) That peai-moss is antiseptic, and other authors on this subject bare classed
retards the putrid fermentation either of peat-mosses according to their colour, cube
vegetable or animal matter, immerso sistency, or the plants of which they
ed in it, is another quality which dis- were composed. We were never satisfied
tinguishes that substance. The vege- with this inode, and the learned doctor
table acids, the gums and resins, and has detected the defects of it to our com-
the bituminous matter formed by the plete satisfaction. His classification is
combination of all these elementary new, and equally correct and important.
principles, may account for this quality. Correct, for it is founded on chemical
(3.) The jet-black colour of some moss principles which cannot be controrerted;
distinguishes it froin mould. The for- important, for he has shewn in the most
mer will dye wool, wood, and ivory, satisfactory manner, that each of these
black; the latter will not. This is ow- kinds requires different treatment to con-
ing to the combination of the vegetable vert it into a' soil, manure, fuel, or other
and mineral acids in the muss with economical purposes.
iron. (4.) The tenacity of peat forms a I rejoice to see a suite of practical
distinguishing quality of that substance. essays announced by the same author.
It is not a loose, friable, porous substance, If they are in as luminous a style, and
when dried, like mould, or any other mass display equal talents, they must be a rast
of vegetable matter, but a tenacious, acquisition to the interests of agriculture.
imperiivus, insoluble substance. The With eagerness I look for the publie
bitumen it contains, and the insoluble cation of them, and with much pleasure
compounds formed by the tannin and shall embrace the earliest opportunity of
iron in the moss, are the chief causes of pointing out the subject and outlines of
this distinguishing quality. (5.) The thumn.

CANDIDUS.
acidiiy of peat is owing to the vegetable
and mineral acids, which are detected

For the Monthly Magazine. in it, and (6.) The sterility of that sub. stance as a sui!, may also be accounted STATE of the WEATHER each most! ficcurate and ingenious account whichte January 15 FhRSE, wind and smart It is impossible here to detail the

in 1809. the doctor gives of this quality, and the causes of it, so as to do justice to his ex- frost. On the 6ih snow lay about four cellent essay on the subject. I there. inches deep; but that day a thaw set in, fore refer to that essay, as not only which soon dissolved the snow. Though a novel, but by far the most aco cold, the weather continued open till curate, ingenious, and satisfactory, the 13th, but often gloomy, with at times view of the subject have ever read. rain and sleet, (particularly heavy on Every proprietor of peai-inoss in the the 10th.). On the 13th, a most intense three kingrioms, ought to be in posses. frost set in, which continued exactly a sion of it.

fortnight; wind variable, often calin, I rather think it better to state that, barometer moving gradually; litrie snow in conformity with the general hypo- on the ground till the 21st, when it fell thesis he adopts as to the origin of to the depth of three inches. On the peat-moss, he clearly shews that all these 26th we had another fall of snow, with distinguishing, qualities belong to coal, a higli cast wind, by which it dritert to a jet, and ail the varieties of bitu- considerable depth in some parts of the Ininous matter. All are inflamma- country; in this neigtibourhood seven or ble, antiseptic, of a similar colour and eight inches at a medium. On the 27th, cousistency; all contain an acidity and wind shitting to SW. a most rapid thaw all are equally sterile as peat-moss. So took place, which dissolved the whole that the alliance between all these-sub- mass of snow in little more than twenty

!

four

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four hours. 27th to 31st showery, wind almost constant though not heavy rain; shifting between SW, and E. and ba- wind easterly; barometer falling. 28th rometer very low; 31st was clear. Tre and 29th were fair, but still cold; wind cold of this month exceeded that of any NE. On the 30th, wind shitting to west, other since the beginning of the century. air turned sensibly milder. This pro

Februury. Continued heavy rain dur- bably the coldest April since 1999; veing the first three days, wind sinifting getation appeared quite at a stand, and from W. 1o E. next three days, snow the night-trusts proved injurious to the more or less, but not lying above two or young wheat. three inches deep. 7th and 8ib, dry May 1st to 6th, rather clear, windy frost. On the 9h we had a fall of and coldish, sometimes showers of hait snow, with high SE. wind, which lasted and rain; wind NW. barometer rising. till mid-day, lying then about four inches 6th to 10th, cloudy and windy, getting deep; thaw colomenced that afternoon, gradually warnier, wind W. and SW. and wind easierly since the 3d, shifted barometer keeping up. 10th to 16th, to west.

10th tó 14th, at tinies, a good clear warm sun shine; wind rather eastdeal of rain, wind variable. 141h to eriy, often calm; barometer drooping. 28:h, mostly seasonable and agreeable 19ih to 25tlı, cloudy, with slight showers, enough weather, often windy, and at sometimes clear air, agreeably warm; times slight showers, but not such as to wind variable; barometer rising. 251h prevent the ground from drying; wind to 28th, almost constant rain; barometer westerly; barometer, till the 20th, in falling; wind E. In the evening of the general very low; but after that getting 28th there was a very sudden change of up, and keeping steady.

temperature from heat to cold, the March 1st to 7th. Hoar frost in the thermometer falling twenty degrees in mornings, days often chear, sometimes four or tive hours; last three days recloudy and hazy, nearly calin. 7th to inarkably cold for the season; the cir11th, mild weather; rather cloudy, except cumstance of snow lying in the fields the 9ih, which was clear and warm; round Edinburgh to the depth of two wind westerly. 11th to 15ih, coldish; inches so late as the 31st of May, is still clouds; little wind, rather east; 15th hardly remembered to have bappened to 19ih, mild weather, cloudy, at times before by any person living. The greater clear; wind westerly. 19th to 21st, ck ar part of this month was warm and agreeand coldish; little wind. 21st 10 24th, able, but the last three days were like flying clouds, threatening rain; wind sw. the iniddle of winter. 24th to 31st, gloomy and cold, with June. On the 1st we had a storm of frequent showers of rain, sleet, and hail; wind and rain froin ENE. weather exwind veering between east and north. ceedingly cold. 2d to 18th, windy and Barometer till the 21st uniformly high coldish, with frequent showers; wind and remarkably steady. 21st to 26th it variable, rather westerly; barometer fell considerably; but since the 26th keeping down. 18th in 24th, clear gradually rose again. During the greater warin sunshine; wind westerly; baro. part of this ironth we had dry weather, meter, rising and keeping up. 24th to Javourable for agricultural labour; vege. Soth, at times clear, often cloudy, air tation also made sensible progress. getting cooler; wind easterly; barometer

April. First four days clear aod frosty, rather declining. at times sliglut hail showers; wind NE. July. First two days agreeable enough, barometer rising. 5th to 8ih, rather rather cloudy. 30 to 7th very cold, cloudy, but tolerably mild and agree- gloomy and misty, with a good deal of able; wind westerly: barometer falling. rain; wind F. and NE. baromeler rising. 1110 to 16th, at times clear, but often 8th to 10th, clear at times, inisty air still blowers of sleet and cold rain; wind sharp and casterly. 11th to 16th, soincvariable; baromeier low. A gale from times clear, in general cloudy and windy, the NE. on tlie 16th, accompanied with with some slight showers; wind westerly ; sleet and snow, was followed by four barometer rising. 17th and 18th very

lays of very cold frosty weather, in sharp; wind northerly. 1915 to 220, general clear, now and then showers of cloudy, close, warni weather; wind snow; wind northerly, 2 lot to 23d, rather westerly; barometer keeping op. cold rather abated, wind getting easterly; 220 to 271 at times clear, often cloudy barometer rising. 241h was clear, serere, and episty; rain on the 23d; thunder-storni and agreeable. Next three days we had with beavy rain on the 26th ; wind eas

terly;

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terly; barometer steady, rather decline best; other kin:/s of grain, as to prodace, ing. 2810 to 31st, pleasant enough, hold an intermediate rank. rather cloudy and showery; wind vari October, First three days rather cloudy able; barometer low. July, upon the and close ; wind westerly. On the 4th whole, a cold suinier-month; easterly and we had continued rain ; wind shifting to northerly winds prevailing, and harvest 4th to 9th, mostly cloudy, at promising to be later than usual. times sunshine, air getting cooler ; wind

August 1st to 19th, we had a great easterly. 9th to 15th, rather clear and deal of heavy rain, often accompanied cold, hoar frost in the mornings; wind with thunder-storms, and now and then SE. 15th to 21st, at times clear, often with thick mists; wind variable, rather flying clouds, with some light showers, inclining to south, often calm. 19th to air mild; wind SW. 2 1st to 31st, mostly Sist, at times warın sunshine, often clear, serene, and agreeable; wind SW. cloudy and hazy; one smart shower al. often calı: barometer, which during most every day, and usually in the after the whole of the two preceding montas, noon, but no continued rain; during this ranged almost uniforınly below the melatter period also, the rain that fell was dium, has this month always kept above exceeded by the evaporation; wind sw. it. October proved a very favourable sumetimes brisk; barometer uniformly month for the country, as we had very low the whole month, and its motions little rain or high winds, and a slight gradual;. temperature also pretty uni. frost only one or two mornings, so that form, rather agreeable than warm, and the later crops were harvested in essomewhat below the usual mean of Au- cellent order. gust. This perhaps the wetiest month November. First three days mostly we have had for some years. Harvest clear, with slight frost. 3d to 6th, a good only commenced about the 35:11, and deal of rain jell, with high wind from even in this neighbourhood had not NE. 7th to 11th, mostly cloudy, bat become general at the end of the nearly fair; air mild; wind W. 11th pionth.

and 14th, cloudy and misty, with thin Septeniber. First two days nearly fair. rain; wind easterly. 14th to 19th, dry 3d to 9th, very misty and close, often frosty weather, (snow in some parts of thin rain, heary on the 8th ; wind east the country;) wind northerly. 19th to erly; barometer descending slowly. 9th 30th, very unsettled, at times clear and to 17th, often clear, at times cloudy with frosty, but often windy and showery; showers; wind varying rather westerly; wind variable. Till the middle of this barometer steady, hardly rising. A month, barometer kept rather high and keavy rain on the 18th, was followed by steady, but after that ii fluctuated. windy and showery weather till the 23d; December. 1st to 7th, changeable wind shifting to opposite points; baro. weather, inornings generally clear, with meter keeping down. 23d to 30th, hoar frost, succeeded by windy and mostly clear and sharp, with the excep- rainy days; wind WSW. 7th to 17th, tion of some heavy rain on the mornings stormy winds, mostly from the west, acof the 27th and 30th; wind veering be. companied with snow and sleet, though tween SW. and N. baronjeter ranging seldom heavy; barometer remarkably low, and fuctuating. Till about the au- low. On the 18th, wind shifting to N. tumnal equinox, tenperature continued barometer rose rery suddenly; and tilt uniform, rather agreeable than warın; the 26th, though we had at times slight but after that it turned a good deal showers, weather continued mostly fair; colder, the nights particularly. The some days clear and frosty; wind westbulk of the harvest work in the low parterly. 26th was gloomy, with continued of the country was accomplished in rain and sleet. 27th clear and frosty; the course of this month, but under ra. last four days mostly soft open weather, ther unfavourable circumstances, the at times windy and showery; wind sw. weather being unsettled, not two days barometer falling. December, upon the in succession quite fair. The change to whole, a tempestuous month; but as yet cold in the latter part of the month was we have not had much severe frost, and serviceable in giving a check to improper little snow on the ground at a time. The vegetation; wheat, which had suffered gales of the 11th and 15th, did a great both by the spring frosts, and latterly by deal of damage at sea; that of the 15th sprouting or second growth, the effect being noted by a lower barometer than of too much inoisture, is reckoned the has been observed here for some years. worst crop this season ;, and oats the Edinburgh, Jun. 1810.

For

G.W.

For the Monthly Magazine.

about four miles from Leeds, a little to JOURNAL of a winter TOUR through the right of the Ferrybridge road. It is

several of the MIDLAND COUNTIES of an old building, with a noble park, ENGLAND, performed in 1810. richly wooded, and well stocked with SAVING been prevented last sum- deer. But the chief attraction is a large

mer from making my annual picture gallery, containing some fine tour, with the exception of a short ex- paintings by the best masters. I took cursion into Norfolk, and having a forta no notes at the time of seeing it, but night to spare in the beginning of Fe- well remember a St. John preaching in the bruary, after a visit made to some friends Wilderness; the Death of a Wild Boar; in Leeds, I resolved, at that dreary sea- and a few goud Sea-pieces: the names son, to ride up to London, baving first of the masters have escaped me. made a little circuit in the neighbour Halfway to Harrowgaie, and close to hood, by way of experiment. The chief the road-side, is Harewood-house, the disadvantage attending such an expedi- princely seat of the nobleman who gives tion, consists in the want of opportunie a name to it. In the grounds, nature ties for contemplating manners, occasi- and art have vied with each other. The oned by the absence of travelling com- many inequalities of hill and dale, have panions: the inclemency of the weather afforded much capability of improve can be easily obviated by precaution, or ment; and the tasteful variety of wood sustained by hardiness; and as to the and water, shews that ample justice has aspect of the country, it is no very diffi. been done to them. The house is full cult stretch of the inagination to supply of immense mirrors, satin beds, silver foliage to the denuded trees.

tables, and rich furniture of all sorts: Io the immediate vicinity of Leeds, but o, shame! there is not a single there are few places worthy of observa painting, except a few family portraits. cion. Kirkstall Abbey stands very beau- They who wish to save themselves the tifully on the banks of the river Aire; trouble of reading Tooke's Pantheon, the waters of which, collected into á will find the whole history painted in wier, just opposite to the ruin, forin an fresco on a stair-case ceiling. artificial cascade when again falling into It may not be improper to say a few their channel. The ground swells behind words concerning that Montpellier, lie the ruin; and is richly clothed in wood. sweet cown of Leeds itsell. It is conLet this spot be visited in a fine eren- tinually enveloped in a thick smoke, ing, when the moon-beam glistens on which contains immense quantities of the rushing water; when the broken pil- soot and dust, sent up from the different lars and long aisles are touched with a manufactories. This body is too deuse pale light ; and when the silence is only to ascend in the air; and after having broken by the soft sighs among the trees, been carried a little way by the heat, it or the sofi dashing of the fall.

falls down in plentiful showers on the inKirkstallAbbey was a movastery of the habitants. The consequence is, that Cistercian order, founded A.D. 1147.* every body looks dirty. "I put on two Its value in the king's books is 3291. clean shirts every day, and spent half my 25. 11d. A representation of the ruin, time in washing my hands; but “the coarse enoug!!, forms the drop-scene of damned spot would ne'er be out." be theatre in Leeds:

There was no church here but one un. “ Time's gradual touch

til after the reign of Charles I. and it Has mouldered into beauty many a tower,

was besieged in the civil wars. There Which, when it frowned with all its battle. are now four churches, each having a ments,

sacrament in the month, and all of their Was only terrible: and many a fane on different Sundays. All the clergy of Munastic, which, when dečk'd with all its the tributary churches and chapels in spires,

the town and neighbourhood, are com. Serv'd but to feed some pamper'd abbot's pelled to pay suit and service to the old

pride, And awe th' unletter'd vulgar.

* At a little distance from the house, the Temple Newsom, la'ely the seat of ruins of a castle, built in the time of Ed. İady Irving, but now become the pro- ward I. and demolished by Cromwell, inperty of the marquis of Hertford, lies pend over the road. The chapel is modest

and elegant. It contains a monument to sir It was built by Henry de Lacy, and de? W. Gascoigne, who committed Henry Prince dicated to the Virgia.

of Wales, for a contempt of his authority.

church,

on

church, by assisting at the communion There is a large public library in Leeds, every Christmas and Easter-day. These, having a handsome exterval appearance, added to clergynen who may be visitors, and a good stock of books; but the most elad in surplices, and all officiating at liberal establistunent is the news-roon, once, render the scene in the highest which is open to any stranger of genteel degree solemn and inpressive. The appearance. communicants, these occasions, Leeds contains a presbyterian meets amounting to seven or eight hundred, ing-house, where Dr. Priestly formerly kneel in different parts of a large chapel held forth: but if I were to recount aj which surrounds the altar; the ministers the sects who have here cut out ditierent carry round to them, as in colleges, the paths to the same place, I should be sacramental bread and wine, the large obliged to get Mr. Erans's Sketch, and organ playing the 10th psalm,

copy bis title-page. The cluth of Leeds There are in Leeds a number of pub- is unrivalled. It is an hour's walk round lic charities, well managed and liberally the cloth-balls. As soon as a bell rings, supported: an infirmary, a fever-house, early in the morning, on the two marketand large Sunday-school establishinents. days, multitudes walk in without any The inhabitants will contribute largely disorder or noise. Each seller of cloth to every scheme which proinises to be knows his own place; and laging his useful; but they have no idea of the goods on a table, stands opposite to them, ornamental. In the middle of the square as a shopman bebind a counter. The in which the intirmary stands, and which pieces lie long.ways eiose to one ano. ought to be decorated with trees, fuun- ther; and the factors and buyers walk tains, and gravel-walks, the space con- along the lanes, examining different ar tains long rons of posts, with webs of ticles. Leaning over in the clothier, blue cloth stretched on the tenter-hooks. they demand the price in a whisper: Owing to the same solidity of under- and the whole is transacted in a moment. standing and absence of taste, no public Sometiincs, in one hour, twenty thousand amusements ever succeed in Leeds: at pounds worth of cloth are bouybt and least none' merely pleasurable. There sold in this manner. The woollen cloths are assemblies attended like a London of Leeds are exported, after being takea church on a Sunday afternoon; concerts to Hull by the water-carringe of the at which Orpheus, for lack of men and Aire and Calder, wbich fall into the women, might attempt to move the stone Humber at Ferrybridge. In Gott's Mawalls; and plays, where she comedians nufactory, the whole process of making grin, but cannot smile, over a “ beggarly woolien cloths may be seen, from the account of emply boses."

shearing of the sheep to the packing up But let any Dr. Mac-Stirabout from of the tinished cloth. The greater part the university of St. Andrew's, arrive in of this process is of course carried on by Leeds with a course of lectures on na. machinery: but the cloth brought to tural pluilosophy, and his barvest is made market in the halls, is made by cottagers in a fortnight. I went to the theatre in their houses. The different parts of one evening, by the way, and heard the the manufacture employ the whole hero of the piece call his charıner, his family; and as the children are thos a: “dear heartless girl;" while one actor once kept to industry, and subjected to talked of his honnor, and another of his the eye of their parents, the woullen “ appiness.” It was impossible to find manufacture, as thus carried on, is more fault with this transposition; as it is but favourable to morals than the cotiou reasonable and fair, that if the h is taken business; which is almost wholly cha. away from one word to which it belongs, ducted in factories. The Yorkshire it should be restored in another quarter coals are carried froin Leeds and Wake where it is superfluous. One of the best field to York, from whence the Ouss stories of the misplacing of this letter, forwards them to the Humber. They bias been related concerning a pious have this advantage over the Newcasuo cockney, who being desirous to commu. coals, that being borne on the river, they nicate, went into a circulating library at are exempt from the duty of four shit Brighton, and asked the bookseller if he lings per chaldron, to which sea-coal is had a Companion to the Haltar.” subject.

No, Sir," said the summer adventurer Harrowgate, eighteen miles to the of Lendenhall-street, “we have got the north of Leeds, is too well known for the Newgate Calendar; but the Companion efficacy of its mineral waters, in deraia to the llalter has not yet come down." us in describing it. It consists of 199

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