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no considerable demand; that of Georgia, fetches from 18. 4d. to 2s. 6d. ; and New Orleans, 15. 544. to 1s. 7d. per 1b. Tar is lower than it was last month. The prices now are 11. 145. to 11. 175. per barsel. Pitch has experienced a proportional decline ; the highest price of the day is 13s. per cwt. Turpentine goes off pretty regularly. Timber, it is nearly superfluous to state, is an excellent article at the present moment. American oak sells well from 141. to 181. 10s. ; ditio plank, 111. 10s. to i5l. ; ditto pine, 81. to 9 guineas; plank, 111. 10s. to 151. 10s. per last. Pot-ashes are in fair demand; the market prices are from 21. 108. to 31. 198 ; pearl, quite neglected; prices quoted 21. 145 to 31. 10s. The demand for tobacco at Liverpool is completely suspended, and even in the London-market the article is very dull of sale. Maryland of different colours, fetches from 5d. to 16d.; and Virginia ditro, from 7d. to 11d. per 1b. Wheat and Aour meet with a very ready sale;' fine qualities of the former are scarce.
SOUTH AMERICA.Very severe measures have been adopted at Buenos Ayres against those of the English who have endeavoured to introduce goods without passing the customs, although not delected in the act. imprisonment is the punishment resorted to in these cases, and some English traders have very narrowly escaped so severe a penalty. The aspect of trade both at Buenos Ayres and Rio de Janeiro is said to be very unpromising. During the week previous to the compilation of our report, 100 bags of coffee were imported from Rio Janeiro. We have seen the article, and consider it to be about the pitch of Jamaica coffee, with which however it can never enter into con.petition in the British markets, owing to the difference of freight, &c. The prices of South American commodities are as follow: Buenos Ayres tallow, Si. 103. to 31. 11s. per cwc. Brazil cotton, 2s. 240. to 28. 6d. per lb. , Brazil wood, 1421. to 1501. ; and Brazilletto 271. 10s. to 301. per ton. Garbled cochineal, 21. to 21. 45. per 1b. Guatimala indigo, of different qualities, s. 6d. to 16s. Caraccas ditto, 85. to 155. 9d. per 1b. Brazil rice, il. to 11. 3s. per cwt. Brazil roll tobacco, 9d. to 10d. ditto leaf, 5d. to 6d. per lb.
BALTIC.-The fears which we stated the Baltic traders to have entertained towards the olose of the last month, seem to have been dissipated by the preparations made for the present season. The outward-bound fleet, which is reported to be one of the largest that has ever sailed hence to the Baltic, took its departure from Sheerness on the 4th of May, under con. voy of the Sterling gun brig. In answer to a petition from the merchants and ship-owners of Hull, the lords of his majesty's most honourable privy.council have stated, “ that they will not recommend the granting of any licences to foreign vessels to import timber fron any ports of the Baltic, &c. where British ships may be allowed to enter;" but they add," that owing to the extension of the war, and the consequent necessity of employing foreign bottoms, it is totaily out of their power to withhold licences from such vessels in every case.” The reply of the privy-council further states, that it is the intention of government to impose additional duties on thie importation of foreign cimber, with a view to give a decided preierence to timber the growth of his majesty's colonies in North America. Danizic fir, ferches from 121. to 131. ; and Memel ditto, from 121. to 12!. 15s. per last. Christiana deals sell from 541. to 601. Scockholm ditto, from 621. to 651. Memel, from 35l. to 361.; and Dantzic, from 21. 128. to 21. 168. per pl. Dantzic wax, 151. to 15 guineas per cwt. Stickholm tar, 21. 5s. to 21. 6s. per barrel. Ditto pitch, 19s. to 20s. per cut. Isinglass, leaf, 26s. 6d. to 27s. 6d. ; ditto hook, 27s. 60. to 99s. Short staple, 31s. to 32s.; and staple, 32s. to 33s. per lb. Swedish iron, in bars, 211. to 231, 10s.; Norway ditto, 241. to 251.; Arch. angel, 251. to 261. per ton. Riga fax, 901. to 921. ditto. Hemp, Riga Rhine, 711. to 721. ; ditto, outshot, 701. to 711. per ton. Hog's bristles, 171. to 171. 155 per cwt. Bal-ic linseçd, 31 16s. to 41. 9s. The prices of this article have declined since our last. On the whole, the prices of Balcic produce are unsteady; those articles which go off best are bemp, fax, and timber.
HOLLAND.—Notwithstanding the precautions which are used all along the Dutch coasts in order to prevent the admission of any thing British, it is most certain that a brisk trade is still carried on between England and Holland. At the very perioa in which we write, a shipment of 350 bales of manufactured goods is taking place at the port of London destined for Holland, or rather for France, the former being only a medium of communication be. tween our ports and the principal cities of the latter. Cotton-hose of British manufacture is a most excellent article in this trade; we have known a few bales to fetch upwards of three times their original cost at Paris, within the last four months.
MEDITERRANEAN.-The greater part of the homeward-bound Mediterranean Acet is just arrived in the Downs; by the letters which it brings, we find that the French cruizers do dreadiul injury to the trade in the Mediterranean sea. We sincerely hope that some meals will speedily be adopted to put a stop to the depredations of those prates. Italian thrown silk sells at prices from 50s. to 64s. ; and raw ditto, from 24s. 60. to 445 per 1b. Italian liquorice, from 11l. to 121. Alicant soap, 71. 1.58. to 8l. per cwc. Italian kid-skins, une drest, 111. to 16 guineas; ditto lamb.skins, ditio, 101. 121. per 20 skins. Gallipoli oil, 751. to 771.; Genoa ditto, 1851. to 2381. per ton; Lucca, 23 gal.jar, 241. to 261. Bo ogna argul, 6l. 14s. to 6). 18s.; Leghora ditto; 41. 128. to bl. ; Naples ditto, 31. 155. w $i per
(June 1, cwt. Carthagena barilia, 31. to 31. 4s. : Sicilian ditto, 21. 155. to 21. 175. Melaga shwe nack, al. 11'5. tn 11. 195.
Prices of Canal, Dock. Fire-office, and Water Works, Shares, &c. 21st May, 1810.-Grand Junctiva Canal, 2851. per share. Wilts and Berks dieto, 611. 1110.-Kennet and Avoa ditte, 47. 10s. ditro. -Huddorsield ditto, 411. ditto.--- Lancaster ditto, 271. ditto.-Grand Surry dic ), 761. ditto.-- Croydon ditto, dol, dittn. -Globe lire and Life Insurance, 1301. per Alion ditto, 601. ditio. Imperial Fire ditto, 301. ditto.-Rock Life Assurance, 215. per share, premium --Loudon Dock Stock, 1311 per cent.-- West India ditto, 1751. dittu.-East India ditto, 1341. ditto.--commercial ditto, 921. per share premium.--East London Water Works, 2311. per share.- West Middesex ditto, 2101 ditto. - South London dito, 15 dita. -Kent, 371. per share premium.-Commercial Road, 401. per cento premium.-Duver-street, ditto, 91. ditto.--Strand Bridge, 41. per share discount.-T auxhall Bridge, 21. ditto.
The average prices of Navagable Canal Property, Dick Stock, Fire office Shares, &c. ia May, 1810, to the 26th) at the Office of Mr. Scott, 23, New Pridge street, London.Staffordshire and Worcestirshire canal, dividing 401. per share ciear per annum, 188.8.131.52 750.-Grand Juuction, 2601. to 2861.-Monmouthshire, 31. per share half yearly, 111.19 1351:-Stourbridge, 2601. to 2861. Monmouthshire, 31. per share half yearly. 11.11 S501.-Stourbringe, 2601.-Leds and Liverpool, 184.-Kenneit and Aron, 151. 10s. to 18i. Wilts and Berks, 601. to 61.-Huddersfield, 401.-Rochdale, 471. 481. 501. - Peak Fusest, 661.-Ellesniere, 801--Lancaster, 261. 271.-Croydon, 481 451 103. – Worcester and B.:mingham New shares, 51. 10s. premium. - East India Dock Stock, 135 -- Lindsa Dock, 1301. 139.—Glove Assurance, 1301. -Thames and Welwy, 441. premium to 4:
Ashhy.de la puch 221. 10s.-Imperial ssurance, 751,-East London Water-wotas, 2311. to 2331.
MONTHLY BOTANICAL REPORT.
"PRODROMUS Florze NovÆ HOLLANDI. et Insulæ VAN DurmEX, &e. By ROBERT
BROWN. Vol. Imum.”„Under the title of a Prodromus of a greater work intend. a to follow, we hardly expect more than an enumeration, with short specific char cters, of such plants as it is proposed to describe more fully, perhaps to figure, hereafter: such is the Prodromus Flora (persis of Thunberg. The Prodromus Flora India occidentalis of Swartz is a little more full, containing the addition of synonyms of such plants as had been belore described, and noting the babitais. From the title-page vie observe that it is now four years since the printing of the beginning of the fils: volume of the Prodromu's Fiore Greca, by Dr. Smith, which was not however published till last year; and if any more than the first volume, including Didynomia, is yet out, our bookseller ludo seglec ed to supply us with it. This volume, which prosesses to be an account of such plants as were detected by Ciclat professor Sibthorpe in his two journies into that country, undertaken for the express pure pose of illustratinz its n tural history, contains not only the specific characters of the places, but several synonyms, parriculariy a reference to a good rep:ese tation, if any, of each, the habitats, the ancient and modern Greek names, as also requestly their appellation in ihe isle of Zante, and many useful botanical observacions are added. The Flora itself is pube lishi o in parts, and is to consist of ñgures and descriptions of a thousan i plants, observed by Sibthorpe, and drawn by Mr. Ferdinand Bacer. But as this Flor: will not, we sup?ix, contain any account of a great number of the plaats mentioned in this Prodromus, it app:ars to us that the lucter should rather have been entitled the Fioræ Græcæ, and the greater work Illustrations Flore Grace. In this work of Dr. Smith's, when the specific character given by Linnæus is meant to be adopted it is no cie repeated, but merely referred to; many new specific characters lave however been framed, and great pains have been taka to reader the work as perfect as the author's materials would allow; and his bookseller 1:25 taken care, by adopting to its full extent the inojern fashion of wide margios, spare priat. ing, &c. that his book should not be deficient in bulk.
Since our last report, the work has been published whuse title appears at the head of this; and, thou h given under the modest appellation of a Prodromus, we will venture to say, that in no book since the publication of Jussieu's Genera Plantarum, is there displaved saika fund of botanical knowledge as in this. Though sent forth only as the harbinger of a greater work, to be expected hereafter from the same pen, no pains appear to have been spared to renuer it in every resp. ct as complete as the confined limits would admit of. It pro.esses to give the characters, generic and specific, of such plants as were observed and col. lected by the author during the years 1802-5, in the expedition under Cap:ain Flinders, which he accompanied out, but was fortunately not with on its return homewards. To these is added an account of such plan is of that country as have come to the knowledge of the author by other nieans, and especially of those detected by Sir Joseph Banks, in his voyage with Captain Cook towards the south pole.
It must be supposed, that in a country so unconnected with the rest of the world, irs natural jsoductions would be in a great measure different from those of Europe, Asia, Africa, and
America ; accordingly, Mr. Brown has not only been under the necessity of creating a great number of new gerera, but even of considerably increasing the number of natural orders. la both respects some botanists will be ready to think, that he lias been more than sufficiently liberal; and, indeed, some of his genera appear to us, from the superficial view we are ena. bled to take, to depend upon characters of hardly sufficient inportance to keep them distinct; but a more intimate acquaintance with the plants which have come under his no:ice may ina duce us to think differently; and, at all events, our opinion can weigh but little when compared with the intimate knowledge of the structure internal, as well as external, of the plants he has described, which this author has proved himself to possess.
Mr. Brown, having to fra.ne so many new genera, felt himself under the almost absolute necessity of proceeding upon a natural method, in order to avoid falling into great errors ; and, undoubiedly, there is no other way of founding genera upon sound principles, but by studying their natural affinities. He has accordingly followed the method of Jussieu, whose orders are, for the most part, truly natural; but, of the classes of this admirable author, Mr. Brown has formed a difierent estimate, conceiving them to be often artificial, and not untrequently founded upon ambiguous principles. He has not however been solicitous about the series in which the orders are arranged, Nature herself, as he says, hardly using a regular series, but bas connected organic bodies rather in the manner of a net than a chain. In our opinion, the simile of Linnæus is a more happy one, when he compares the natural orders of vegetables to a map, where the land is separated by the waters into masses of very dispropose tionate bulk; and these more or less connected, or entirely separate.
The author promises to give the diagnoses of his ojders, which at present are to be gathered from the full descriptions prefixed to each, and also contracted generic characters arranged after the Lionæan system, with the next volume, but which are, together with the acotyledoncs, to precede che present one. This circumstance explains the reason of the voluine beginning at page 1:15, appearing, at first sight, as if nine sheets of letter press had been omitted or misplaced. We shall be very elad to receive these additions, for in the mean time none but such as have maje a considerable progress in the study of natural ailinities, can easily use this work for the purpose of discovering any plant they may happen to possess. So diff cult indeed is the acquisition of a knowledge of the natural families of plants, or so imperfect is that knowledge when intended to comprehend the whole vegetable world, although so easy and familiar in its partial application to certain well known orders, that the most experienced, and those who have paid the most attention to the subject extremely often form a différent judgmene upon the family to which a plant ought to be referred. For this reason, the atie sity of this work, will be much increased by the addition of an artificial arrangement, by which every botanist can with ease find any plant contained in it, that he may wish to seek. By the bye, a similar arrangement was promised by Jussieu, but has not, we believe, been yit published.
We should be giving a very false idea of this Flora of New Holland, were we to leave it to be understood, that in following Jussieu, Mr. Brown has been contented with copying the characters of the orders, or of such genera as are to be found there, from his work. On the contrary, every thing here is new; Mr. Brown's descriptions of the orders are new, the defie nitions of the genera and species are likewise his own, and every part abounds with opservations equally original and useful: nor are these, by any means, confined to the plants of New Holland, but numbers of them are applicable to botanical science in general,
His specific characters, Mr. Brown secms to have formes more upon the plan of Linnæus than of Jussieu ; the latter author, in the Anrales d'Histoire Naturelle, has given an account of the species of several genera, in all of which his specific characters are rather abridged descriptions than definitions. We should imagine that every one who has put it to the trial, will have found how much time is unnecessarily consumed in determining a species dy examining the charac:era of Jussieu; nevertheless, it seems probable, that Mr. Brown proloses, at some future period, to form bis specific characters upon this plan, as he hints at an intention of changing the Linnean punctuation, and the use of the ablative case, in both which he has at prescot tollvued Linnæus. In our opinion these changes will not be for the better; for, al. though since the happy invention of trivial names, the specific phrase is no longer necessarily to be committed to memory, and therefore, perhaps, need not be absolútely limited within the compass of twelve words; yet they oughe certainly to be as short as possibil, and should contain ny character but such as is necessary to distinguish the species from every other. These specific characters must, indeed, be necessarily imperfect and in want of perpetual change, as long as new discoveries are daily adding to the list of species before koown; but this only shews the imperfection, not the want of fundamental excellence, in the system it. sill. While such imperfections exist, abbreviated descriptions are usefully added, but if these should be necessarily subjoined to every species, the practical utility of specific phrases will ever remain; and in the Latin language at least, the ablative case cannot, without inconvenience, be ceded to the nominative. We sincerely hope to see the rare abilities of this excel. dent botanist employed in perfecting, not in superseding, these highly useful specific defini
Naturalist's Monthly Report.
sions. With respect to the Linnean punctuation, though a little awkward at first, it is founded upon true philosophical principles, and often supplies the place of many words, cse pressing that by a sign which would otherwise require a paraphrase.
Two of the natural orders contained in this work, the Proteacce and the Asclepiadee, te been mure fully detailed elsewhere; the former in the transactions of the Linnæın, the latte in those of the Wernerian, societies : in the work under notice they are necessarily limited ta such as are natives of Australasia.
Our limits prevent our entering into any particulars of the contents of this volume, nor is it very necessary, as no botanist who is Gesirous of knowing any thing of the vegetable pradections of this part of the world can be without it; and the bulanical philosopher will find, is every part, much to interest and assist him in his enquiries. Undoubtedly tois Flora of Nea Holland will not only take the lead of all local Floras, but must rank amongst the very first works for promoting the science of botany in general.
NATURALIST'S MONTHLY REPORT.
The mellowed soil.
days; and on the 14th changed again to south-west. The weather was cloudy, and as intervals rainy, till nearly the middle of the month. But from about the 16th to the Sikh, it was unusuaily fine; there was no rain whatever, and during the whole of these days, scarcely a cloud was to br seen. About noon the sun was generally very powerful; and the roads became as dusty as in the middle of summer : the wind was, for the most part, casterly.
April 1. I did not hear the death-watches (priuus tessellatus,) until this day. Jo foraer gears I have generally remarked their appearance a little att:r the middle of March.
Spiders begin to annend and spin their webs.
April 6. The whest, which a few weeks ajo the farmers considered as having been is i great measure destroyrd by the cold weather of the preceding month, is now beginning to put up new leaves from the rouls. The country is enveloped in smoke from the burning of couche grass upon the fallows.
The cow-keep.rs cut the water-crowfout (ranunculus aquatilis,) for their cattle. The growth of this plant is singular. In ponds, and other still water, the submers:d leaves, which are capiilary, grow in an upright direcion, and are of no great length; but, in rapid streams they are borne along by tir current, and, taking root at each join, frequently extend to the length of several teet Cattle cat with avidity the water-crowfoot, when grown in clear streams; but such as is produced in ponds, or muddy places, they invariably refuse. April 7.. I this day caught a nimble lizard (lacerla agilis,) which was basking itself on a
These reptiles appear to me to be of much brighter colour in the south than the north of England.
April 10. After an interval, ten days, 1 again remarked the appearance of a few swallows and niartins in fight.
April 12. The cuckoo. flower (cardamine pratensis) and greater stichwort, (stellaria bai lastea) are in flower,
April 16. Sand. wasps (spbex sabulosa, of Linnæus ; ammophila vulgaris of Kirby in the Linnæan Transactions) fly abuut dry sandy barks.
Field crickets (gryllis campestris) open their holes.
April 21. Swaliows twitter on the chimnies. These birds and the martins are now to be observed in as great numbers as at any time during the summer.
April 23. The slve thorn is in bloom, and the hedges are hecoming green.
The following herbaceous plants are in flower : Narrow-leaved mouse-ear, (cossis vulgatum.) Least mouse-ear, (cerastium semidecandium.) Naked-stalked candytutt, (ibera miudicaulis.) Germander speedwell, (veronica cbume drys.) Ribwort plantain, (plantago lase ceolata ;) and sheep's sorrel, (Rumex acetosella ;) and upright pearlwort, (sagina erecta.)
April 27. On this day I caught for the first time in my life, a specimen of that extreee's beautiful insect, caralus nitens. I found it upon somę bog-mosa (sphagnum) which grew in : peaty place of an extensive beath,
April 29. The cuckoo-pint, or spotted arum (arum maculatur, ) is in fiower.
Numerous kinds of insecis of the selpba, dirmestes, and carabus tribes, are now seen run. ning and flying about the dusty roads.
April 30. Ivy-leaved ranunculus (ranunculus bederaceus.) Annual knawel (sclerantbus annuus.) Common shepherd's purse (tblaspi bursa-pastoris.) Hemlock-leaved cranesbill, (eredium cicutarium.) Subterranean tre oil (orifolium subterraneum ;) carex præcox, and carex riparia, are in flower.
The cuckoo was this day heard.
Leeches begin to crawl out of the weeds and mud, and to swim about. But hitherto, the persons employed in catching them have not been very successful.
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE late warm weather has brought forward the spring corns in a remarkable manner, and
considerably improved the wbeats in most places ; they are however still thin on the S'ound in many situations.
The grass-lands, both in pasture and for mowing, appoar unusually backward, there being scarcely any where yet a full bite. In the former, the clovers are mostly good, as well as some other sown grasses.
Grain of most sorts has risen much in price since our last, though it rather declined the last market day.- Wheat fetches from 76s. to 104s. per quarter; Rye, 44s. to 52s. ; Barley, 34s. to 48s.; Oats, 22s. to 30s.
Fat stuck still keeps up to its price.-Beef fetches from 45. 60. to 6s. 6d. per stone of 81b.; Mutton, 5s. 8d. to 6s. 8d. ; Veal, is. to os. 8d. ; Pork, 5s.8d. to 6s. 8d ; Lamb, 5s to 7s. 4d.
Hay continues nearly the same as in our last Hay fetches from 41. 48. to 71.; Straw, 31. Ss. to Sl. 5s.
METEOROLOGICAL REPORT. ()bservations on the State of the Weather, from the 24th of April 1810 to the 24th of May 1810, inclusive, Four Miles N.N.W. of St. Paul's. Barometer.
Thermometer. Highest, 29-87. April 25,& severalother days. Highest, 679. April 29. Wind S. E. Lowesi, 29.1. May 16. Wind N. W.
This difference Greatest 34 hun- has occurred seve. Greatest variation in dredths of ral times in the variation in
of the 24 hours. month.
On the 19th of May the mercury, was at tbe highest only 50°; on the next day it stood at 600.
24 hours. S
Notwithstanding the dryness of the season during the last month, we have had but little saio since our former report; it shall be estimated in the next Magazine. On ten days we have had showers, but the remaining days of the month have been very fine and brilliant; the weather however has been, and scill is, cold for the season, the average height of the thermometer being but little more than 50%, which is nearly 60 short of what it was for the same period last year.
The average height of the barometer is 29.576: from the 23th ult. to the 2d of May, tile mercury was almose stationary, scarcely varying a tenth of an inch in those days ; it then began gradually to fall, and continued to sink till the 8th, with scarcely a single shower; it again rose, and again fell, beture rain appeared.
The wind, as is usual at this time of the year, has blown chicfly from the easierly quarters. It was a south-easterly wind that brought the showers on the 19th, and subsequent days. In the Isle of Wight the arerage height of the thermometer for
January was $6.43.
43.40. The height of the thermometer was taken at nine o'clock every morning. The quantity of rain fallen during the months January, February, and Mareb, equal to 6'1 inches in depth. Highgate.