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The Origin and Progress of Minenionics. [Feb. 1, the gates. During his absence, the tificial means, are enumerated Metrus chamber in which Scopas and his guests dorus, Hippias, and 'I heodectes. were carousing, tell in, and in its fall The Romans bestowed no less attenthey were cruslied to death. The rela. tion on this art, the subject of Cicero's tions of these unfortunate revellers, anxi- panegyric and discussion throughout a ous to honour them with funereal ob- whole chapter of his masterly treatise on sequies, were unable to recognize their Oratory.*' Yet Cicero's conviction of persons in the mangled and disfigured its utility did not prevent Quinctilian's corpses, which lay strewed around, till assertion of its inefficiency, a short time Sinionides overcame this dilemma, by afterwards; for we find the latter sumremembering the distinct places each ming up his thoughts upon it, in these had uccupied at table; and thus pointing vehement terms:-"Wherefore, both out each individual to those who sought Carneades, and the Scepsius Metrodorus, his remans. This event suggested (of whom I have just spoken,) who, as to his mind the practicability of making Cicero says, had used this exercise, may external impressions subservient to the keep this niethod to themselves : we will strengthening of memory, by selec ing pass over to a more simple subject." places and inages, as so many repositue Fabius, the historian, also ridicules this ries and symbols of ideas. Ilence, he art in his . Xlih book. Mneinonics, was led to propound a method of asso- however, still continued in great repute; ciating the ideas of things to be retained and Cicero, strengthening precept by in the memory, with the ideas of objects. example, boasted that they were the conveyed to the niind by that acutest basis of bis excellent memory. It is said, of our senses-the sight; and already their practice was cultivated with sueimpressed upon it in a regular series. cess, by others of no less repute ; amongst The invention of this method stamped whom, Crassus, Julius Cæsar, and him as the Father of the Mnemonic Artit Seneca, are particularly voticed. Cicero tells us, that when Sinonides This art appears to have lain dormant offered to indtruct Themistocles in his in alter-ages, till that luininary of method, his ofter was rejected in these science, Raimond Lulle, I thought fit to memorable words: “Ah! (replied the bring it once more into notice ainong the hero,) rather teach me the art of forget- learned; and wooed it with such dilia ting; for I often remember what I would gence, that it has ever since been called Dent, and cannot forget what I would." * Lulle's Art.' I shall not detain your
Froin this time, Mnemonics became a readers, by entering into an analysis of favourite pirsuit with the Greeks; and Lulle's method, which is amply detailed being brought to perfection by Scepsius by Morhof, and in Gray's Memoria Metrodorus, I was in great vogue among Technica. tbeir orators. They are said to have Mnemonics had not yet attained the made use of the statues, paintings, or- meridian of their greatness: this epoch truments, and other external circum- was reserved for the sixteenth century : stances, of the places where they hu- and I question much, whether any art rangued, for reviving, in progressive or. der, the topics and matter of their ora
* De Oratore, lib. i. sect. 86, 87. tions, which they had already appro
ti Quare et Carneades et Scepsius (de priated to each circuir.stance.
In the quo modo dizi) Metrodorus, quos Cicero dicit,
usos hac exercitatione, sibi liabcant sua : non list of those who prided themselves on
simpliciora tradamus.'Inst. Orat. ut supra. having perfected their meinory by ar
Dr. Beattie also says, in conclusiun of hie
remarks on Artificial Memory, “I cannot This story is handed down to us, both
but think with Quinctilian, that the Art was by Cicero and Phaedrus, in his fables.
100 complex, and that Memory may be im. + This system of Simonides, is founded on that theory of emble.ns, which Lacon so
proved by easier methods."
Diss. Mur, and justly characterizes : " Emblema verò deducir similar opinion, as well as Morhof, in whose
Crit. chap. ii, sect. 3. Lord Bacon held a intellectuale ad sensibile : sensibile autem semper fortiùs percutit memoriam, atque in ar facilia's Arte Lulliana, and cap. vi. De Memoriae
“ Polyhistor Literar." (lib. ii. cap. v. de inprimitur, quam intellectuale." Emblem re. ducech conceits intelleciual to images sen
Subsidiis,) is preserved an efaborate account
of the writers on this subject. sible, which always strike the memory more forcibly, and are therefore the more easily Doctor Illuminatus,' terms him, with jus
| Gaspar Scioppius, speaking of this imprinted, than intellectual conceits-Ba- tice, “ jutulentum et ineptum scriptorem, cus's Augm. Scientian. Lib. vi. cap. %.
sed portentosi acuminis, "Canucut. de Styla 1 Plioi His. Nat. lib. viü. 6. 21.
bas ever been the subject of a more self as commissioned by Schenkel, to tedious and ubstinate controversy; or instruct the whole world. has been brought forward under more “A lawyer, (says he,) who has a bunillustrious auspices, with greater solen- dred causes and more to conduct, by the nity, or a more bare-faced impudence. assistance of my Mnemonics, may stamp These will be sufficiently manifest in the them so strongly on his memory, that be account I shall now render of the Mne- will know in what wise to answer each monistic Duomvirate of Lambert client, in any order, and at any hout, Schenkel, and liis haud indignus' ple- with as much precision as if he had but nipotentiary, Martin Sommer.
just perused his brief. And in pleading, Lambert or Lamprecht Schenkel, he will not only have the evidence and born at Bois-le-Duc, in 1547, was the reasonings of his own party, at his fingers' son of an apothecary and philologist. ends, but (mirabile digtu!) all the He went through his academical course grounds and refutations of his antagonist at Lyons and Cologne, and afterwards also! Let a man go into a library, and became a teacher of rhetoric, prosody, read one book after another, yét shall he and gymnastics, at Paris, Antwerp, Ma- be able to write down every sentence lines, and Rouen ; not forgetting, as the of what he has read, many days after at custom of the age required, to claim his home. The proficient in this science title to scholarship, by writing Latin can dictate matters of the most opposite
From these, however, he ac- nature, to ten, or thirty writers, alter. quired no celebrity proportionate to that nately. After four weeks' exercise, he which was reared on bis discoveries in will be able to class twenty-five thousand the Mnemonic Art. The more effec- disarranged portraits within the saying tually to propagate these discoveries, he of a paternoster :-aye, and he will do travelled through the Netherlands, Ger- this ten times a day, without extraordimany, and France; where his inethod nary exertion and with more precision was inspected by the great, and transmit. than another, who is ignorant of the art, ted from one university to another. can do it in a whole year! He will no Applause followed every where at his longer stand in need of a library for reheels. Princes and nobles, ecclesiastics' ferring to. This course of study may be and laymen, alike took soundings of his completed in nine days"-(perhaps in the depth; and Schenkel brought himself same way that foreign languages are through every ordeal, to the astonishment now-a-days taught in twelve lessons !) and admiration of his judges. The rec- “and an hour's practice daily, will be suf. tor of the Sorbonne, at Paris, baviny ficient : but, when the rules are once previously made trial of his merits, per- acquired, they require but half an hour's mitted him to teach his science at that exercise daily. Every pupil, who has university; and Marillon, Maitre des afterwards well-grounded complamts to Requêts, having done the sa.ne, gave allege, shall not only have the premiom him an exclusive privilege for practising paid in the first instance, returned to Mnemonics throughout the French do. him, but an addition will be made 10 it. minions. His auditors were, however, The professor of this art, makes but a prohibited from communicating this art short
every place. When called to others, under a serere penalty. As upon, he will submit proofs, adduce his time now became too precious to testimonials from the most eminent admit of bis making circuits, he dele- characters, and surprise the ignorant, gated this branch of his patent to the after four or six lessons, (observe!) with licentiate Martin Sommer, and invested the most incredible displays.” Here him with a regular diploma, as his ple- follow testimonials from the most celenipotentiary for circulating his art, under brated universities. Nine alone are procertain stipulations, through Germany, duced from learned men at Leipzig, and France, Italy, Spain, and the neighbour's precede others from Marburg, and ing countries. Sommer now first pub- Frankfort on the Oder.” lished a Larin treatise on this subject, At the same time was published, which he dispersed in every place he “ Gazypholium Artis Memoriæ, illustraa visited, under the title of " Brevis Deli- tuin per Lambertum Schenkelinm de neatio, de utilitatibus et effectibus adoni- Strasb. 1619;" but this is far outdone by rabilibus Artis Memoriæ.” (Venet. 1619, the preceding treatise of Sommer. The 12, 24 pp.) In this he celebrates the rare student, destitute of oral instruction, feiits of bis master, and annouuces him. will gather about as much of Mnemonics
ba Meteorological Observations for the Years 1808-9. [Feb. 1,
by wading through this treatise, as by requires that its powers should be at once seeking them in the hieroglyphics of an ingenious and perceptive. Its acquireEyypuan obelisk. It is pretty evident ment is founded on the association of that this “Gazypholium,' was designedly ideas: nor docs it fail to cali wit and intended as a labyrinthal series: the imagination in aid of natural memory, author need closes bis labours by con- Sommer's Compendium,consisting of eight fessing, thai the work was to be intrusted sections, was printed for the use of his only to his scholars, and referring for auditors. After his departive, permisfuriber elucidation to oral precep's. sion is given to his scholars to commu. The very basis of his art is concealed nicate their mnemonistic doubts, obser. beneath a jumble of signs and abbrevis vations, and discoveries, to each other; ations: thus, sect. 9. d. a sect. 99; but no one can be present without lee " “ vidilicet, locus, imago ordo locorum, galizing himself previously, as one of the memoria loci, imagines." And further, initiated, by prescribed signs: and he in setting forth the most important who fails in this, is excluded as a propoints, he amuses himself by evincing a faner. multitude of jingling, and unintelligible In thus tracing the origin of Mnemo. words. As this work, besides being a nics, and their progress, down to the literary curiosity, bad of late years be- sixteenth century, if the reader's curiosity come extremely rare; Doctor Klueber should be awakened by these memoranda not long since published a German of mine, he will find it gratified by a translation of it, and by his happy dex- reference to Cicero and Morhof, than terity in decyphering, has unravelled the whom no writer has so amply treated ambiguous passages in the original, and of Memory, and its assistants. Gray's illustrated them with a profusion of per- Memoria Technica' will supply him tinent annotations.
with much inforınation on this subAt ali events, this work is a singular ject, to which the student's attention is production. Agreeably to the character also directed, in’a plan of artificial meof Schenkel's system, his development mory, lately laid down in Robinson's of the art does liot confine itself to me. • Grammar of History.' chanical ideas alone. It sets the tech
LIPSIENSIS. nical, symbolical, and logical faculties of the memory, in equal activity; and To the Editor of the Monthly Magasine.
N conformity with.the usual plan of
. the year which has jirst expired. I Translated from the Latin, with a Preface and shall begin with setting down the average Remarks, by D. Klüber. Erlangen. Palm. heat of each month, for the years 1808 1801 8 ; pp. 104.
and 1809, which is as follows:
1808. 300.300 89 230 39.230 42 000 64.733 61 000 68 .000 64 +670 60 000 49.000 43 •250 S6 •825
1809. 330.130 44 •200 42.536 12 .200 56 120 58 033 62.316 64 .220 61 000 49 350 41 .500 36.500
Mean Temperature 500.619 490.259 From the foregojny Table it will be the highest temperature was in 1808; seen, that the first four months in the and on the whole year, the average last year, and likewise October and De- height of the thermometer was nearly a cember, were hotter than the saine degree and a half lower in 1809, than in munties in 1808; but in the other months, the preceding year,
In page 32, of vol. xvii, of this Ma- small, we conceive, to account for the gazine, we gave the average temperature quantity of rain fallen during the last for the seven years preceding, as it was twelve inonths; which is equal to 47.875 taken at Camden-town, a village two inches in depth ; and is eighteen inches miles from the metropolis, which was more than the average depth for the 500-48; the average of the last year is above-named period, which will be found therefore rather more than a degree in the page and volume already referred short of this. Ai the saine place, and to, to be 29.613 inches,
This last for the same period, the averaye height quantity, is nearly the average depth also of the barometer was 29.786: for the for six ycars, at Bristol, as will be seen by present year, at Thighgate, the inean the following Table: 'height is 29-522: this difference is too Account of the Quantity of Rain fallen in each Morth, since the Yenr 1802, us ascer. tained by a correct Ruin-gauge. By Dr. Pole, Bristol. 1803. 1804.
1800., 1807. 1808,
Total 27 39 29 77 126 1 34 38 31 31 132
Average Quuntity for euch Yeur, is equul 29.46. : During the year 1809, the number of We shall pass on to the prevailing rainy days has exceeded those that may winds during the year. Froin the obserbe reckoned brilliant in the proportion vations made by order of the Royal 142 to 128; the remainder are divided into Society of London, it should seem that fair, cloudy, and those on which snow or the south-west winds are by much the bail fell, so that the whole will stand thus: most predominant in London: from our Brilliant days
own notes we find the westerly, and Fair
north-west, have had the advantage Cloudy.
during the last year. The following Rainy
Table will enable the reader to draw a Snow or hail
No. of days.
19 North 16
Manuscript of the “ Seven at Thebes," [Feb. I, It is stated, from the register kept at this passage as follows: “ Gemit civitas the Royal Society, that the south-west a terru tanquam circumclusa ;" as if wind blows more upon an average in they bad found the word yider. It apeach month of the year than any other, pears, indeed, that the scholiast read particularly in July and August: that the the word so: ctitas (says he,) & spezéps north-east prevails during January, 25. The word om Sex does not seem to March, April, May, and June; and is have any meaning: godsy, on the coumost unfrequent in February, July, Sep- trary, expresses very well that dead tember, and December: the north-west sound occasioned by the trampling of a occurring more frequently from Novem- multitude of men on the earth, and which ber to March; and less so in Septem. is prolonged to a greater or lesser disber and October than in any other tance; but instead of translating it, months. Our observations for the last “ Tunquam circumclusa ;" it should rayear, do not correspond with this state- . ther be, “utpote sub pedibus circumment; and the difference may perhaps $Ese fundentuim ; for the poet did not account for the quantity of rain fallen ; mean to describe the grief of an afflicted for the few hot days, and in short, for people, but the actual noise which anthat small share of suminer weather, nounces the approach of cneniies towards which was open to every person's notice. the ramparts. Highgate,
Your's, &c. Verse 487 offers an interesting variaJan. 3, 1810.
J. J. tion. In our editions we read,
Eπευχομαι δη ταδε μεν ευτυχείς
iw mapouax'spi'r dóuwr. MANUSCRIPT of ÆSCHYLUS'S TRAGETIES, Opto quidem kuie succedere defensor entitled, the “ SEVEN at THEBES," and
mearum domorum." -This dative mpos, "PROMETHEUS."
which is of the third person, cannot acTHE learned French critic, Mons. cord with the vocative, apoucexe. The
Vauvilliers, has discovered in the manuscript before us read's ráde, which library at Paris, formerly called the forms a very perfect sense". Oplo. Bibliotheque du Roi, a MS. copy of the quidem in hoc certamine;"—and it subSeven at Thebes, and Prometheus, by Æs. joins, at the end of the verse, ve, winck chylus (No. 2785) on which he has oifered renders the phrase coinplete, the following remarks :
Eπευχομαι δή τάδε μεν ευτυχεϊν σε. In verse 13, of the “ Seren at Thebes,” As to the measure of the verse, it de the particle to is suppressed
pends on too inany combinations to be Ωραν τ' έχιεθ' έκαςον, ώς τι συμπεπές, come the object of these concise remarks, and in the manuscript ώραν εχονθ' έκαςον; It must, however, be observed, that but the omission of this tetter gives soine in verse 619, Eteocles speaks of Amorder to a phrase, which before had phiaraiis, who, notwithstanding his piety, none; and M. Brunk has found the same was, for having associated with the wicka reading in other MSS. and adopted it. ed, to perish along with them : At verse 250,. a fault occurs, it must
'Ανοσιοισι συμμιγείς be owned, yet it points out a good reading: θρασύς ουοισιν ανδρασι φρενών βία Τατο γαρ'Αρης βόσκεται φθόνων βροτών.
Τεινεσι πομπην την μακραν παλίν μολείο
Δισς θέλοντος συγκαθελκα σθητεται. Our editions have cóle; it is not,
So it is found in our editions. What however, with fright, but with carnage, that Mars is glutting himself; and this
can mano ucasu signify? Those words
are translated by reverli, and that is cere consideration induces us to prefer the reading qórar , which another MS. pre of Argos did not make any criminal ei
tainly the sense of Talır. But the army recognized in the word $bóvæ, as found forts for returning :-the crime with in the ais. before us, and"the faults which Eteocles reproaches them is, that of different copies often yield this of having come to attack unjustly the
M. city of Thebes. In fact, the manuscript advantage to attentive readers. Brunk also has found povers in some Mss. reads moniv. M. Brunk very properly
condemus, as ridiculous, the interpretaand has printed it accordingly. But the reading of yžbev, in verse 253, words by the great journey towards the
tion of the scholiast, who explains these does not here appear. One edition has
infernal regions ; but, in applying them Στένει πόλισμα δηθεν, ώς κακλεμενών.
to the city of Thebes itself, nothing can The Latin translators have rendered be more clear than the meauing.