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by some of the liquor used in exciting the “ The absolute effect," he says, " of a large battery, to which was added a Voltaic apparatus, seems to be in the small portion of fresh sulphuric acid, he compound ratio of the number and size readily decomposed potash and barytes: of the plates: the intensity of the elec. in that state it produced the metallization tricity being as the former, the quantity of ammonia with great facility; it ignited given out as the latter; consequently recharcoal vividly; it caused great diver- gard must be had in its construction to gence in the leaves of an electrometer; the purposes for which it is designed. and it gave a vivid spark after being in For experiments on perfect conductors action iliree hours. Hence it is inferred, very large plates are lo be preferred, a that Mr. Davy's theory is accurate, viz small number of which will be sufficient; "ihat the intensity increases with the but where the resistance of imperfect number of plates, but that the quantity conductors is to be overcome, the comof electricity increases with their size." bination must be great, but the size of Thus the platina wire being a perfect the plates may be small; but if quantity conductor, and not liable to he oxydated, and intensity be both required, then a presents no obstacle to the free passage large number of large plates will he of the electricities through it; which, pecessary. For general purposes, four from the jinmense quantities given out inches square will be found to be the from so large a surface, evolve, on their most convenient size." mutual annihilation, heat suflicient to Mr. F.verard Hous, in examining the raise the temperature of the platina to internal structure of a Squallus maximus, the point of fusion. With the iron wire met with a peculiarity in the interverthe effect was diferent, on account of tebral substance of the spine, not hitherto the low intensity of the electricity, (suffi- noticed ; an account of this subsiance, as ciently proved by its not causing any found in fish and quadrupeds, he has laid divergence of the gold leaves of the elec- before the royal society. It is fuid of trumeter) which being opposed in its the consistence of liquid jelly, with a passage by the thin coat of oxide formed tendency to coagulation. In the squal. on the iron wire at the moment the cir. lus, the form of the cavity is nearly spbecuit is completed, a very small portion rical, capable of containing three pints only of it is transmitted through the wire. of liquid. The fuid being incompresTo the same want of intensity is to be sible, preserves a proper interval between attributed the inability of the large bat. the vertebræ to allow of the play of the tery to decompose the barytes, and its lateral parts, which are ligamentous and weak action on inperfect conductors in elastic, and forms a ball round which the general. The small battery, on the con- concave surfaces of the vertebræ are trary, exerts great power on imperfect moved, and readily adapts itself to every conductors, decomposing them readily; change which takes place in the form of although its whole surface is more than the cavity. The elasticity of the digathirty times less than that of the great nents, by its curistant action, renders battery: but in point of number of the joint always firm, independently of plates, it consists of nearly ten times as any other support, and keeps the ends many as the large one. The long.con- of the vertebræ opposed to each other, tinued action of the small battery, shews so that the whole spine is preserred in a the utility of having cells of a sufficient straight line, unless it is acted on by capacity to hold a large quantity of lic muscles or some other power. When a quor; and in large combinations, a certain muscular force is applied to one side of distance between each pair of plates is the spine, it stretches the elastic ligament absolutely necessary to prevent spon- on the opposite side of the joint, and as taneous discharges which will otherwise soon as that force ceases to act, the
Mr. Children also made expe. joint returns to the former state, whicla riments to ascertain whether there was is one of the most beautiful instances in any striking distance in the Voltaic nature of elasticity being employed as a spárk; and he found that with twelve substitute for muscular action. The er. hundred and fifiy plates, four square tent of the motion in each particular inchies surface each, the striking distance joint is undoubtedly small, but this is was about oth of an inch in length, compensated by their number, and the and be assu:nes, that by increasing the elasticity of the rertebræ themselves. number of the pla:es, inie striking dis. Fish in general bave their vertebræ tance will also be increased.
formed with similar concavities to those
of the squallus maximus; these, when snake there is a regular ball and socketdead, contain a solid jelly, but in the joint between every two vertebræ; so living state it is found fluid.
that the means employed for the motion The structure of the intervertebral of the back-bone in different animals, joint, wbich appears to be common to comprehends almost every species of fish in general, is evidently contrived for joint with which we are acquainted. It producing the quick vibratory lateral appears then, that the intervertebral motion, which is peculiar to the back- substance of the human spine does not bones of fish while swimming, and ena. consist entirely of elastic ligament, dense bles them to continue that motion for a in its texture at the circuinference, and great length of time, with a small degree becoming gradually softer towards the of muscular action. This joint is not centre; but the middle portion is commet with in any of the whale tribe, whose posed of materials which render it very motion through the water is principally pliant, though not at all elastic, fitting it effected by means of their horizontal to keep the vertebræ at the proper distail : in them the substance employed to tance from each other, so as to admit of unite the vertebræ, is the same as in the action of the lateral elastic ligaments, quadrupeds in general. The external “When this knowledge,” says Mr. portion is firm and compact; ranged in Home, “is applied to che trcatinent of concentric circles, with transverse fibres curvatures of the spine, a coinplaint so uniting the layers together, it becomes commonly met with in young women, softer towards the middle, and in the whose strength does not bear the necescentre there is a soft pliant substance sary proportion to the growth of the without elasticity, but admitting of ex- body, it will shew the great impropriety tension more like jelly than an organized of overstretching the intervertebral li body, corresponding in its use to the gaments, since in that state the central incompressible fluid of fish. In the hog substance no longer supports the perand rabbit, in the central part, there is a rebræ, and the joints must lose their cavity with a smooth internal surface of proper firmness, which will be attended the extent of half the diameter of the with many disadvantages.". vertebra, in which is contained a thick Mr. BRANDE has analysed the substance gelatinous fluid; so that in some quadru- described, and he finds it to approach peds there is an approach towards the nearer to mucus, or mucilage, than to intervertebral joint of the fish: but in the any other animal fluid. By mucus, he bullock, sheep, deer, monkey, and man, means a glary fluid, which does not mix the structure corresponds with that of readily with water, which is neither cothe whale. In some animals, as the al agulated by heat or acids, and which ligator, the vertebræ through the whole does not form a precipitate with solutions Jength of the spine have regular joints containing taunin. Though it resembles between them, the surfaces are covered mucus, it is, under certain circumstances, with articulating cartilages, and there is capable of being converted into modi. synovia and a capsular ligament. In the fications of gelatine and albuinen.
VARIETIES, LITERÁRY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
Authentic Communications for this Article will always be thankfully received. THOF
HE Rev. Mr. Hayter, chaplain in the repeated remonstrances of this gens
ordinary to the Prince of Wales, tleman to the Neapolitan court to have who has been superintendant for his them removed, ur sent to England. Royal Highness of the Herculaneum We learn however, that Mr. Hayter bad MSS. since the year 1802, has just previously copied and corrected NINETYarrived in London from Palermo. We FOUR of those which he had unfolded, regret to have it confirmed that the and that these copies, which are fac-siwhole museum at Portici, including miles, were transioitted by him to the 1500 of those MSS which had not been Prince of Wales, and have since by his unfolded, and 230 originals which had Royal Highness, through Lord Grenbeen unfolded, partially or wholly, by ville, been presented to the university of Mr. Hayter, were suffered to fall into Oxford. Ainong these was a Latin poeli, the hands of the French, notwithstanding which Mr. Hayter conjectures to bave
472 Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. (June 1, been a composition of Varius, the friend ment of erery circumstance connected of Virgil. Of this Latin poem, as well with the detention of our countrymen. as of an ingenious treatise on Death, by This work contains: An account or their Philodemus, the fac-similes have been arrestation; detention at Fontaine and engraved. Unfortunately, bis Sicilian Valenciemes; continement ai Verdun; majesty also lett behind him at Naples, incarceration at Bitche; amusemenis; engraved fac similes of three books and sufferings; indulgences granted to some; a half of Epicurus de Natura, of which acts of extortion and cruelty practice the discovery was an invaluable acqui- on others; characters of General and sition; but we diave the pleasure to an- Madame Wirion; list of those i ho have bounce that the fac-simile copies of those been pennitied to leave, or who bare and other four books, are among the escaped, out of France; occasional poetry binety-four now at Oxford.
by Mr. Concamon, Sir William Couper, A Miscellaneous Collection of Critical &c. and anecdotes of the principai DeObservations from the manuscripts of tenus. the late Professor Purson, purchased by Dr. Pearson's Lectures on Physic and Trinity college, Cambridge, will shortly Chemistry will re-commence in George. be given to the public by Professor street, on the 4th of June. Moxk, Mr. DUBREE, and Mr. Blom. Dr. Reid will conimenee his summer FIELD; the three gentlemen to whom course of Lectures on the Theory and this task has been entrusted by the mas. Practice of Medicine, on Friday the 15th ter and tellows of the society.
of June, at pine o'clock in the morning, Dr. Drake has in the press, under at his house, Grenvilc-street, Bruns. the title of the Gleaner, a selection of wick-square. Essays from scarce or neglected perio
Dr. STANCLIFFE's Lectures are con. dical papers, with an introduction and uinued every evening at nine o'clock
It will be specdily published in precisely, at the Lecture Roum, 11, four volumes octavo, and will form an Took's-court. A series of Lectures oa elegant and useful accompaniinent to Practical Agriculture, and the Drili Ilus the various editions of our classical essays. bandry, by the Rev. JAMES Cook, Al.A.
Dr. Stock's Life of Dr. Beddoes is another series of select Lectures on Are in the press. It will comprise an ana- chitecture, by M. W. SIEPPARD; and a lyrical account of the doctor's numerous fourth, on the Elements of Commerce, writings, both published and unpublished. buy the Rev. M. WILSON, M.A. will be
Mr. W1.57aLL, R.A. exlibiis his own speedily given at the same room. pictures and drawings at his house, No. A second edition of Dr. Words 54, Upper Charlotte-street, Fitzroyo wonnu's Reasons for declining to sube square.
scribe to the British and foreign Bible On the jubilee day (25th October lası), Society will appear in a lew days. It. a couple of small bells were made to will be accompanied by an answer to a ring by means of the electric columii, Letter to Dr. Wordsworib, in repis to lately invented by M. DE Luc, of his Sirictures on the British and foreiga Windsor. It is conjectured, that a small Bible Society, by Lord Teigumouth, preclapper may by this column be kept in sident of tliai society. motion for years together without stop. The wlo e of the very rare and value ping: if so, not only might the jubilee abile Collection of Foreign Piants, sobie day have been celebrated by the ringing of which have never been seen in this of miniature beli-, but the whole jubilee country before, late the property of the year. Should Ibis contrivance be brought llon. C. F. Greville, deceasci, on Pade to that state of perfection which it is dington Green, were purchased on More supposed it may be in time, many per- day tiie 2d of April, in one lut, lvy JENE sons, there is little doubt, who do not kins and Gwyner, Nurserymen; and consider thic subject philosophically, will may now te sten, by appling to the le led into an error, by imagining that for tickets, at their Nursery in the New the perpetual motion is at last disco- Road. vered. The principal obstacle to the A third and last volume of the Tenie continuance of the motion, through all ple of Truth is in the press, under de the changes of the atmosphere, appears title of Additional Studies; and may be to be the want of a very accurate insu- expected in the course of next monti, lation of some parts of the apparatus. A work to be called the Mathematical
A1 English gentleman, lately escaped Repository, containing, 1. Two bundred from France, has in the press, a Picture and forty questions both in pure at of Verdun; beivg an interesting stalc- mixt mathcniatics; almost all of which
are entirely new, and in general each is silver, and the printing be executed in a accompanied with several solutions by style of corresponding beauty. The different mathematicians. 2. Thirty- number printed will be limited. The three original essays on mathematical rarity of the first edition of the favourite subjects. 3. Several mathematical me- work is not its only for its chief recome moirs, extracted from works of enia mendation; it is valuable as being the nence, chiefly the transactions of learn- earnest specimen of that style of writing, ed societies, By Thomas LEYBOURN, and really curious, as it differs from all of the Royal Military College : it is in the other editions in having only trvo forwardness.
persons engaged in the dialogue, PiscaNo. XX. of BRITTON's Architectural tor and Viator; whereas every subseAntiquities, contains seven Engravings quent edition has the three persons of Roslyn Chapel in Scotland; with his- Piscator, Venator, and Auceps. torical descriptive accounts of Waltham Mr. GEORGE COLMAN has in the press Abbey Church, and Hedingham Castle: a Translation into familiar blank verse and the author announces his intention of the Comedies of Terence. of devoting inore plates to elucidate the Mr. Ramsden is about to publish some architecture of that very singular chapel. Cases of the Cure of the Derangements
The author of the Scientihc Dialogues of the Testicles, illustrative of their being will publish in the first week of June, a sympathetic with the urethra; and showvoluine of Letters on Natural and Ex. ing that most of the diseases of that gland perimental Philosophy, Chemistry, Phy- hitherto deemed incurable, are perfectly siology, and other branches of science within remedy. The same gentleinan is pertaining to the material world. These also preparing some cases of Hydrocele, letters are addressed to a youth settled in which a radical cure has been etfected, in the metropolis, and they are illus- without recourse to any of the uperations trated with twenty plates beautifully en. at present practised for that purpose. graved.
An Abridgment of Hooker's Eccle. The Pleasures of Possession, a poem, . siastical Pohiy, in an octavo volume, will by Mr. Vegnal, surgeon, of Seatord, speedily appear. is in the press: it will form an interesting The Rev. A. P. SCARGILL is preparing counterpart to the Pleasures ofllope and for publication a Hebrew and English Memory, and those who have seen it, Dictionary on a new plan, without points, speak of it as a poem of equal, if not Mr. CRABB has in the press a third superior, merit,
part of the Preceptor and his Pupils, The Life of Thomas Paine is in hand, containing an elucidation of synonimous and nearly completed, by Clio Rick• words in the English language.
This work will be an impartial The Rev. J. WILLIAMS, curate of and comprehensive memoir of that great Stroud, will shortly publish a small vo
lume of Poems, illustrative of subjects The Clarendon press at Oxford is moral and divine, with an Ode on Vacbringing Wyttenbach's Notes on Plutarch cination, adulressed to Dr. Jenner. to a conclusion, The accuracy of Mr. Cowper's Translation of Homer into COLLINGWOOD will be displayed in seve- English blank verse, illustrated by fifty ral of the classics.
engravings from the paintings and designs Messrs. Bliss are proceeding with a of Fuseli, Iloward, Smirke, Stothard, laudable zcal and correctness in the re- Westall, &c. will speedily be published publication of the best continental edi. in four octavo volumes. The engravings tions of the Greek writers.
were originally designed for a splendid A Statement of Facts respecting the edition of Pope's translation, of which late Insurrection in India, delivered to the letter-press of the large-paper copies the Governor-general on his arrival at were destroyed by fire. Madras, by William PETRIE, Esq. se- The Rev. David SAVILLE, of Edina' cond in council, will shortly be laid be- burgh, is printing a series of Discourses fore the public in an octavo volume. on the peculiar Doctrines of Revelation,
Lord KENYON will very shortly publish in an octavo volume. his sentiments on the Roman-catholic The Rev. Dr. Baker, of Cawston, Question.
Norfolk, has put to press the Psalms The lovers of angling will soon be gra- evangelized, in a continued explanation, tified with an exact reprint of the first which is intended to be comprised in an edition of Walton's Complete Angler; octavo volume. the plates will be exquisitely engraved on The Rev. Mr. DAVIES, of Ipswich, MONTALY Mao. No, 199,
474 Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. [June 1, proposes to publish, in a duodecimo vo- means of recovering his right, being in lume, the last sixteen sermons on Grace, an inferior situation in the East India of the Rev. Christopher Love, with an Company's employ; but, nevertheless, account of his Life.
has a mind sensible of the injuries sus. An octavo edition of Lord VALENTIA'S tained; and a long period of depression Travels is preparing for the press, with has sunk him to obscurity with all the many corrections, and some abridgments distresses of uninerited poverty. There of the less important parts of the nar- are now more than a competent number rative.
of witnesses to prove these facts; and a An interesting volume, entitled Tra- few respectable characters acquairited vels and Adventures in Canada and the with this extraordinary case, have con. Indian Territories between the years curred to procure a subscription for the 1760 and 1776, by Alexander Henry, purpose of raising them from their pre. esq. may shortly be expected.
seni distresses. They presume to call The justice, honour, and humanity, upon the nobility and gentry to concur in of the nobility and gentry of the United this humane and honourable measure. Kingdom, has been lately appealed to, At a late meeting of the Society of for their concurrence in the measures Schoolmasters, held at the Crown and now promoting amongst the most emi- Anchor Tavern on the 26th of December nent bankers and merchants in the city, last, Mr. HAMMERSLEY, a friend and in behalf of the ancient, but greatly ine patron of that institution, delivered a jured, family of the late Sir CHARLES written address, of which the following CORBETT, bart. deprived of their pater. is the substance: nal inheritance of many thousands per " To save myself the trouble of much annum, and the present baronet reduced writing and oral explanation, ! propose to to an inferior station in the East India state some of the reasons wbich have induced Conipany's employ. It seldom happens me to become an advocate in the cause of the that a claim so eminently merits the society of schoolmasters. A melancholy generous aid of the affluent and noble occurrence in a school where I had two sons, jamilies of the kingdom for one of their firse brought me to the knowledge of this own order, as from the Corbett line have excellent institution. The family of the descended several of the first families. master, consisting of six children, was, by a In failure of issue from the last Sir Rich- protection and support ; and I was applied to,
singular calamity, left totally destitute of ard Corbett, who was member of par- among other parents, to contribute to their liament for the town of Shrewsbury more relief. The example was set by the commit. than thirty years, the late Sir Charles tee of the society of schoolmasters, who became entitled to the estates. He was commenced a subscription among theme frequently invited to the family mansion, selves; for their institution, being thes in introduced by Sir Richard to his friends its infancy, had not funds to afford much as his beir; and in public assenblies relief. A sum, however, of nearly five bunand other meetings, he was avowed by dred pounds was soon raised, and these help him as successor to his estates; pur
less children were soatched from poverty, suant to which he made his will when and protected by the society; and most of at the age of 68, in which he gives all situations. Seeing the good effects of the
them have since been placed in respectable his estates, manors, &c. to bim and his society in this prominent case, I became imheirs : and, lest any doubts should mediately a subcriber to their charitable fuad, arise as to his intention of giving his and have had the good fortune to procure estates to the issue of Sir Charles, he them niany benefactors. It should be obadds a codicil, making a strict settlement served here, that they have another fund, on the issue male of Sir Charles. He called the jo nt stock, which is entirely supconfirms and republishes his will in six ported by the schoolmasters themselves, aod successive codicils, up to the advanced whose families alone are entitled to its age of 75. The will and codicils are in benefits; and this part of the institution gives the hand-writing of the testator; but at the society a greater stability, by ensuring lengin when the baronet was at a very their charitable fond, which is supported by
the regular attendance of its members. But adøanced age, in renunciation of all bis former purposes, a seventh codicil was applied to any exteni, being intended for
general subscription, may be beneficially added (not written by Sir Richard), general relief; for numberless indeed are the leaving his heir-at-law an annuity of 1001. objects of this part of the institution, in the per annum only, and giving all his estates persons of decayed schoolmasters and ushers, to his steward. The present Sir Rich. and of their destitute widows and orphans. ard unhappily does not possess the To this may be added, if the fund should