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dicting the business of the day, the go- the object of his clemency was reported vernor's cars were assailed by a horrid to have been singularly undeserving, human shriek, proceeding from an in- were secretly well pleased with the occlosed area under a window of the cour currence, and the only effect produced cil-chamber. Springing instinctively by it on the mids of the inhabitants at from his seat to the widow, lie beheld a large, of Guadaloupe, and the other miserable wretch fast bound to a post; French islands, was to increase the.s

pou fixed upright in the ground, with one teg pularity of their British conunander, who, strained violently back towards the thigh, wbile he remained m the West Indies, by means of a strong iron-hoop, inclosing never heard that recoorse was had to bath the leg and the thigh at some dis- torture, in judicial proceedings either in tance, above and below the knee. Witha Guadaloupe, after its restoratioù tó Hi this loop, along the front of the leg, France, or in any other French colony. : was an iron wedge driven in by an exe- Having finally closed his relations with cutioner, armed with a sledge hammer. the West Indies, as a governor and com Near the sufferer sat at a small table, a mander in chief of the forces, with entire person habired like a judge, or magistrate, satisfaction to all concerned at home and and a secretary, or cierk, with paper be abroad, as well as to his own mind, (for fore bim, to mark down the declarations in the seven years during which he disa to be extorted from the criminal in charged all the duties of chancellor in his agony. Filled with horror at this sight, government, not one appcal from his and regardless alike of the assembly decisions was brought home to the king around him, and of the consequences of in council,) Gener M. seized the earlie liis act, with respect to himself, the est opportunity of turning his attention General, throwing open the window, or- to what had always been his favourite dered a serjeant in attendance to rush study-military history and antiquities. forward, to prevent a repetition of the he had already visited Paris, Spa, &c. stroke on the iron wedye, and to release but the years 1774, 1775, and 1776, he the wretch from his torture. Wbile this devoted to tour through France, was going forward, the members of the Switzerland, Italy, Germany, the Low council, no strangers to his dispositions, Countries, &c. during which; besides the hind surrounded the governor at the win- objects of the fine arts, in which he posdow, and the attomey-general of the sessed a very delicate taste; with great colony respectfully, but earnestly, remon- sensibility of their beauties and defects, sirated against this interruption of the hic examined the scenes of the most me course of justice, ftyling it an infraction morable battles, sieges, and other milio of their capitulation, which in every tary exploits, recorded in antient or moother point and title, le acknowledged, dern history, from the Portus Ithis of has been most religiously fulfilled by the Caesar, on the margin of the Englithe governor, whose conduct in his office Channel, to the Canna of Polybius, oir had, he added, given universal satistic- the remote shores of the Adriatic; and tion.

from the fields of Ramilies, toʻthose of To these representations, General M. Derringen and Blenheim. With Polybius' answered, that he had always beent, and and Cæsar in his hand, and referring to always would be, inost sohcitous to merit the most authentic narrations of moderno tle good opinion of the colony, by a warfare, he traced upon the ground the conse ientious discharye of his duties ; positions and operations of the most disa bot that bither boy his lateral feelings, tinguished commanders of various pes por by his education as a Briton, could riods, proting where their judgment, skill, be be reconciled to the practice of tors and presence of mind, were the most conia türe. He concluded by solemnly de. spicuous, and treasuring up for future' use cliving, that whether torture were, or the evidences of the mistakes and errors, were not, authoused by the French laws; from which the most eminent were not a point he did not presume to determine, exempted. Relying on the authority of such a practice, where he commanded, Polybius, and guided by la ruison de be never would endure, and that they guerre, or common sense, appliett' to war, would find his conduct, on that occasion, he traced the route to Italy pursued hiyo jf.an infraction of the capitularion; șhe Annibal; from the point where probably only infraction on wirich they would ever he crossed the Rhone in the neighbour. þave it in their power to complain. hood of Roquemaure, mpihe left bank of

All the inembers of the council clined that river, nearly to Vienne, across' Dana that day with the governor; and although phiné, to the entrance of tbe mountains

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Menoirs of the late General Melville. [Feb. í, at Les Echelles, along the vale to Cham. at an object which, in the usual mode berry, up the banks of the Işere, hy Con- of research, had remained for ages unfians and Moustier, over the gorge of the known. of the former mode of inte Alps, called the Little St. Bernard, and vestigation, an example has just been down their eastern slopes by Aosti, and given, in the discovery of the true route Ivrea, to the plains of Piedmont, in the of Annibal across the Alps. Of the latneighbourhood of Turin.

ter mode, a pregnant instance was, his Io tracing this route,which seems to have Theory of the Order of Battle employed been strangely disregarded by commen- by the Ancient Romans. It has been fators, bistorians, and antiquarians, of assigned as one reason, why military anthe greatest note, although certainly the tiquities have been less satisfactorily ex. most obvious for that illustrious Cartha- plained than the other branches of antiginian to have followed, General M. quarian research; that scholars and antifound the nature of the country, the dis quarians have seldom been military men; tances, the situations of the rivers, rocks, and that military men have seldoın been and mountains, most accurately to tally scholars and antiquarians. Polybius's with the circumstances related by Poly- Treatise on Tactics has unfortunately bius ; nay, even the Leucopelron, that perished; and the other ancient writers celebrated crux criticorum, he discovered who have noticed military affairs, have still to subsist in its due position, and only mentioned the legionary arranger still to be known under the identical ment in battle, in a cursory way, as a denomination of La Roche Blanche. Not subject familiar to their readers; little satisfied however with the evidence arising direct information therefore has been affrom so many coincidences, General M. forded by them on the subject. On the crossed and re-crossed the Alps in various revival of learning in Europe, ecclesiasother directions, pointed out for the track tics, and other men of a recluse lite, of: Annibal's march: but of those not were almost its only encouragers and proone could, without doing great violence moters; it is not therefore a wonder if indeed to the text of Polybius, be brought these should, by their writings, furnish but in any reasonable way to correspond to little light on this matter. In the end of the narrative.

the sixteenth century, Justus Lipsius, of Newton is reported to have said, that Louaio, a writer not more distinguished if he possessed any peculiar advantage by his learning than by his singularity over lis fellow-labourers in the field of and love of paradox, sent into the world science, it consisted merely in his allow- a system of the Roman art of war, proing himself to consider matters more pa- fessed to be drawn from certain passages tiently and deliberately than the genera. in Polybius. This system, borrowed, lity of mankind. It was General M.'s with very little acknowledgment indeed, practice, in his researches into truth, first from a preceding work of Patrizzi, of to collect all the information to be pro- Ferrara, coming from such an author, cured on the subject, next to weigh the was implicitly received and repeated by authorities and evidences the one against all succeeding writers on the subject, the other, in order to ascertain those to The absurdily, nay, the uiter impractiwhich the greatest credit was to be alcability, of the Lipsian system, placed in lowed, and lastly to apply his own reason contrast with the learning and ability of in tracing out the object of his enquiry, its propagator, reduced other enquirers conformably to the evidences he had ap- to the necessity of abandoning the matproved. By this process, simple in ap- ter as altogether inexplicable. Amongst pearance, but which few men are able these enquirers was General M. when to follow, he solved difficulties and disa but a young man : but happening in covered truths, which had been aban- Scotland to be shown what was called doned by many able investigators, as in- a Roman gladius, or legionary sword, soluble aud unattainable. On other oc- (not however genuine,) be discarded at casions, when evideiftes were evenly ha- ' once all his systematic knowledge, and lanced, or where testimonies were per- handling the weapon, asked himseli in plexed, his method was to enquire what wbat manner inen armed with that sword, would be the conduct of a given person, in the riglit haud, and with a legionary endowed with ordinary faculties, and shield in the left, ought to be arranged, posses£ed of a due portion of information in order that they might be able to make on his subject, for the attainment of a the best possible use of their arms, offens certain end. Placing himself thus, in sive and defensive. lle immediately Liat person's situation, he often arrived saw that they ought to be placed, not in

deep deep and dense bodies, as had been sup- difficulties, arising from the placing of posed, where it would be impossible for the rowers, the height of the ship's side, then to attain the enemuy, but in shal- and particularly from the great lengila low lines of two, or, at most, three ranks and weight of ihe oars, by which thuce in depth. Fie discovered, also, that the in the upper rows, or tiers, must have men wught to stand, not in files, or 01e become utierly unmanageable. directly behind another, but the men of Frumm a consideration of these objeca live second sinkopposite in, and cover tions, it was concluded by many enquin iny, the intervals between the men in the rer's on the stiluject, that the number of font rank; and those of the third raili, rowings related not to the rows of oars, opposite to the intervals between the men but to the men employed to manage one in the second rank. Licher words, he car, as is done on board the gallies in the fund that the irgimary soldiers here Neitersane an; so that a trireme, a quinplaced in a yuincuar order, where every quereme, &c. meant a vessel in which two men in the front and third ranks, vue oar was worked by thee men, tive forming a parallelogram is length, fremmen, &c. That this, however, was not front to rear; the man of the second the case, is too clearly shown in various rank occupied its centre, where removed passages of the antienis, 10 aumit of any from the men before and behind luin, at coubt on the head. the greatest possible distance, or balt General Melville, whose repeated the diagonal of the parallelogram, he voyages across the Atlantic had enabled had the greatest possible room in the him to unite to the theory of wavigation sainc actual space, and from which he much more practical knowledge than could, without interruption, employ his usually falls to the lot of a landman, arms freely before, behind, or on cither desparing of being enabled to untie this side, as necessity might require. Gordian knot, by his researches amongst

This theory once discorcied, and duly the most enlightened and experienced seaunfolded, all scemiing contradictions in men, at last, on his way home from his antient writers were reconciled, all per- government, laving authorities and thicoplexities were untraselled, and all dithicul- ries of every kind entirely aside, eutics were removed.

quired in himself what wcie the objects By a similar train of reasoning, the of the antients in the arrangement of General hadiho good fortune to solve the their rowers. To this question, the nalong-contested question respecting the tural answer was ccleriiy and impetus in manner of distributing the oars and the their bioveinents. The next questions Towers, in the war gallies of the antients. was, how this celerity was to be ohIt is evident from lustory, that the anti- taind; and the answer could only be by ents had vessels of different denomina introducing the greatest possible quarie tions, called by the Romans, triremes, tity of motive power lito a green space. qucdriremnes, quinqueremts, &c. and hy By placing the rowers not vertically, but the Greehs, irières, letrères, pentères, in diagonal order, up the perpendienar &c. terms expressive (if the word may be side of a ship, it was true that they could used) of three, four, five rowings, &c. be placed in considerably less space It is also esident, that by these rowings, than when arranged one directly orer the were meant distinct rows of oars, trom bcad of another. This, iowever, was sten to stern, of the lessel, raised in not enough : and, it occurred to the Geonler, the one abore ihe otlier, from the neral, that, by means of a double oblia water upwards. Commentators being quity in the arrangement of the towers, in veneral still more ignorant, it possible, every possible advantage might be obof vaval than of military affairs, bad tained. Ile therefore supposed ihat the propounded the most absurd nociens side of the ship, insiend of vising vertia concerning the nature of these antient cally from the water, wils at the distance ships. The notion, however, the most of a few fiet fra de surface, tani erta generally received was, that the ship's wards, diserging froin the perpendicular sides being perpendicular, or nearly sa, at an angle of perba;'s fo:ti-tie deyrees. to the surface of the water, the oars were upon this inclined side, the scats for the likewise placed vertically, the one im- rowers were placed, shanting diagonally mediately over the other below it. upwards; at ine ameume that, by die Other systems were also broached, tenda incimation of the site, they stänted ing, in some measure, to obwinie the diagmaliy outwards. The consequences objections made to the former: but still of tliis itouhle obliquiry werc, that it the best were liable to insurmountable rower raised only from tiiven to eigh

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Memoirs of the late General Melville.

[Feb. 1,

teen inches above the rower below him, Vincent, now so richly stored, under the instead of four or five times that dise management of Dr. Anderson, with the tance, as in some other schemes, would most useful and ornamental vegetable be able to sit and row without receiving productions, was originally projected, any interruption in his labour from the established, and supported, by General others adjoining to him, and that even M, during his governinent, at his own the uppermost oars, in a quinquereme, expense and risk. It was at last taken were not of an unmanageable length. under the special protection of bis Ma

This theory not only removed all the jesty, and the expenses are now defrayeu objections to the former systems, but

out of the public purse. explained a multitude of passages in bis- Of the truly siinple, obvious, and sci. tory, hitherto inexplicable; and it was entific, analysis and arrangement of the discovered to be perfectly conformable faculties of the human frame, and of the to the representations still remaining on objects to which they are respectively antient coins, and in the paintings dis- applicable, invented by General M. atter covered in the subierraneous ruins of mature self-exa unation, it is impossible Herculaneum.

in this sketch to offer any adequate reo But a volume would be requisite to presentatiou. contain a distinct relation of the curious To these very defective outlines of and importitat discoveries and inventions, the life and character of General Melmade by General M. and of the systema- ville, it must now be sufficient merely to tic progress of his mind in such discove. add, that while in private he was the ries and inventions. Amongst those are friend of “the widow, of the orphan, to be reckoned, the discovery he made and of those who have no helper:" in from principles previously laid down, of public, he was a ready and a liberal conthe Roman camps in the vale of Strath- tributor to the support of the most valuaa more, in Scotland; of the construction ble charitable establishments. The' of the catapult, ballista, and other anti- Scotch corporation, or hospital, in Lane, ent warlike machines ; of that species of don, by its management, as well as by artiliery, known by the name of carro. its constitution, perhaps the least susnades, from the great foundery in Scot- ceptible of abuse, of the multiude of land, where they were first made, of similar benevolent institutions, will long which the largest are now generally remember the services, and long regrce called, from the weight of the shot they the loss of its venerable recruiting Genereceive, sixty-eight-pounders. The grand ral. The patron of unassuming merit, improvement, however, which General the encourager of ingenuous youtlı, bis M. wished to introduce into that species stores of knowledye were ever open to of cannon, and of shich the efficacy was the candid enquirer. A genuine and established by experiments at Woolwich, ardent lover of trulli, in every pursuit before che late Duke of Richmond, when in which mankind can be interested, and master-general of the ordnance was, by from whatever quarter it proceeded, adopting a kind of ball, combining the truth was ever by him most cordially properties of the solid shot, the shell, and received. By the uniform tenor of his the carcase, being cast with a bollow conduct, General Melville evinced him. core, so that the weight of a ball, which, self to be, in the strictest sense of the if solid, would be sixty-eight pounds, terms, the true friend and lover of his might be reduced to about forty-two country. pounds; the shot thereby becoming General Melville was a Fellow of the more manageable, and equally powerful, Royal and Antiquarian Societies of Lon. in sea erigagcments, or short distances, don and Edinburg!), by the university of and therefore peculiarly calculated for which last city, his ulma mater, he was the use of British seamen, who it is con- honoured with the degree of Doctor of fessed stand closer to their guns, and Lans. lle was also an honorary member fire with greater expedition, than those of the Buard of Agriculture, and an active of any other nation. The use of these member of the Society in London for Melvillades has hitherto been very the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, confined.

and Cominence. Although he never had Military and antiquarian researches a regiment, a home-governinent, or any were, however, far from occupying the other military emolunvent whatever, since capacious mind of General Melville. It be quitted the West Indies, he was apis not perhaps generally known, that the pointed a full General on the 12th of Royal Botanic Garden in olie island of St. October, 1798; and at his decease was,

the British army,

with one exception, the oldest General in his father was' minister, on the 12th of

October, 1723: his mother was a daughDying a bachelor, General M. is stic- ter of Robert Wbyte, of Bennochy, esa, ceeded in name and estate, by his cousin Advocate, and a sister of the late celeJohn Whyte Melville, of Bennochy, in brated Dr. Robert Whyte (Whytt.) his the county of Fire, esq.

Majesty's Physician in Scotland, and proGeneral Melville havi nearly completed tessor of medicine in the University of his eighty-sixth year, having been born at Edimburgli. Alonimail, in that county, of which parish

SCARCE TRACTS, WITII EXTRACTS, AND ANALYSES OF

SCARCE BOOKS. It is proposed in future to devote a few Pages of the Monthly Maguzine to the

Insertion of such Scarce Tructs us are of an interesting Nature, with the Use of which we may be furoured by our Correspondents; and under the same Head to introduce also ihe Analyses of scurce und curious Books.

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The Letting of Humour's Blood in the The Muffe's cloake, Spanish hat, Tolledo

Heud-Vuine. With a New Morisséo, blade, duunced by seven Satyrs, upon the Italia ruffe, a shooe right Flemish made; bottome of Diogines Tubbe." Imprinted Like Lord of Misrule, where he comes he'll at London, by W. White, 1011, 8vo.

reuel, THIS is one of those curious little And lye for wages with the lying'st diuell.” tracts, which the commentators on

EPIG. 31. Shakespeare have occasionally called in " When Tarlton clown'd it in a pleasant to their assistance. Ritson, m his Bib

yaine, lidyraphia Poetica, mentions an edition, And with conceits did good opinions gaine with the same title, in quarto, prired clowne's knew the clowne, by his great

Upon the stage, bis merry humours' shop, in 1600 ; and adus, that it was

clownish slop; printed in 1607, under the title of ITU- But now th’ ure gulied, for present fashion inors Ordinarie ; where a man may

sayes, rerie merrie, and exceeding well used Dicke Tarlion's part, gentlemen's breeches for his Sixpence.

plaies : It consists of thirty-seren Epigrams in every street, where any gallant goes, and seven Satires.

The swaggʻring sloppe, is Tariton's clownisli From the former we have selected the hose." 19th, 20th, and 31st, as specimens, il- From the fourth of the Satires, we se. lustrative as well of the manners of the lect a curious enumeration of the sports time, as of the author's poetry. and games, which, in the reign of Eliza. EPIG. 19.

beth and James the First, appear to have " A koefull exclamation late I heard, been most prevalent : Wlrere with Tobacco takers niay be fear'd;

" Man, I dare challenge thee to throw the One (at the poynt wiib pipe and leafe to

sledge, part) Did vow tobacco worse than Death's black To wrestle, play at stouleball, or to runné :

To jumpe or leape ouer ditch or hedge, dart;

To pitch the barre, or to shoote off a guine : And prou’d'it thus : You know (qu. lie) my To play at loggets, nine holes, of ten.pinnes,

friends, Death onely stabbes the heart, and so life' Torry it out at foot-bail by the shinnes :

At tick-tacke, Irish, noddie, maw, and endes.

rufte, But this same poșson, steeped India weede,

At hot-cockles, leap.frogge, or blindman, In head, hart, lunges, doch soote and cob.

buite : weus breed;

To drinke halte pots, or deale at the whole With that lie gasped, and breath'd out such

can , a smoke,

To play ai base, or pen and Yokhorne Sir That all the standers by were like to choke.',

Jhan :
EPIG. 26.

To daunce the Morris, play at barley. brake;
« Behold a most accomplisb'd cavaleere, At all exploytes a man can thinke or sponke:
That the world's ape of fashions doch appear, At shoue-groate, venter-poynt, or cross and
Walking the streets his humors to disclose, pile,
In the French doublet and the German hose; At beshrow him that's last at yonder style :

MONTHLY MAG, No. 195.

At

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