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transformed into honey. He was cer Venice in 1594. But Moschus has saf. tainly a cotemporary of Theocricus,t ficiently established his own identity is and lived about 300 years B.C.
the same elegy on the death of Bion, alMoschus, froin whon all our knowledge ready mentioned; where he introduces of Bion is derived, has left us no memo. Theocritus bewailing the same misfortune rial of himself, excepting what relates to in another country, (either Egypt or Sihis connection with the other. We are cily) which he himself was lamenting in told that the uncominon sweetness of Italy. Bion's numbers attracted several admi Bion and Moschus, however, hare rers, among whom Moschus principally been always united: and such is the same dis:inguished hiinself. He was a native ness of style, sentiment, and imagery, in of Sicily, and, according to Suidas, was both, that ihe same observations will for some time a teacher of grammar at apply equally to the bucolics of the one, Syracuse. But he appears to have write and to the idylliums of the other. Their ten his epitaph on Biou during bis resi language is pure and correct, always in dence in Italy. Suidas also represents the higher style of pastoral, that is, on. him as the friend of Aristarchus, the mixed with any of the low ideas and celebrated critic, whose death is placed colloquial terms which occasionally of in the year 157 B.C. But this account fend us in Theocritus. The thoughts would appear to be contradicted by the are frequently ingevious and delicate; same elegy on Bion, where Moschus but the general strain is monotonous, and describes hiinself as the cotemporary of absolutely divested of variety. There is Theocritus, who flourished some years besides an appearance of affectation and before the critic of Alexandria; art, which makes us doubt if they surless indeed we assume, with fleskin, that veyed the face of nature with the enrapMoschus, when young, may have seen tured eye of genuine poets. Avoiding Theocritus in his old age, and himself rusticity and plainness, they are more lived long enough to witness the rising uniformly elegant than their great cotemfaine of Aristarchus.f Weknow nothing porary, but with less of nature and senof the subsequent life or death of Mos. sibility. Their subjects indeed not rechus.
quiring, like his, the direct talk and conIt is not a little singular, that for some versation of shepherds, they are excusable time Theocritus and Moschus were con. for having bestowed a greater share of sidered as one and the same person. grace and elegance, so long as the origi“The prodigious credit of Theocritus, nal simplicity is not destroyed. We (says Kennet, ş) in the pastoral way, ena- miglit extend this comparison farther; bled hiin not only to engross the fame of but stop here, that we may not encroach his rivals, but their works too." Heine too much upon the subject of Theocritus, siusll conjectures that in the time of the which we reserve for the next number. later Grecians, all the ancient idylliums We cannot conclude, however, withwere formed together into one collection, out pointing out to the reader of sensibi. and the naine of Theocritus prefixed to lity, the beautiful elegy by Moschus upon the whole volume. And thus they ap- the death of Bion, which is highly finished peared in the Aldine edition, printed at throughout. A strain of mournful sweetTõs TIū tos Xtidest solidpapes når it irresistibly affecting. As specimens of
ness pervades the whole, that renders - έγλυκανθη και Τις δε βρίλος τοσύτον αναμερώ», και κεράων peculiar beauty, we refer to the passage
beginning thus: *Η διναι καλέων τυι φαρμακον, εκφυγεν αδαν.
Αϊλινα μος σοναχετε νάπας και Δάρι» υδες + See Heskin's short account of Bion and
Και ποταμοί κλαίοίε τον ίμεροελα Βίωνα, . Moschus, prefixed to his edition.
I Sed tamen conciliari possunt et Moschus Ye woods with grief your waving summits et buidas, si pro concesso sumamus, Moschum
bow, juvenem bonem Theocricum vidisse, ipsum Ye Dorian fountains murmur as ye flow; autem lonem Aristarchum juvenem vidisse
From weeping urns your copious SOITOWS Heskin.
And bid the rivers mourn for Bion dead, § Part 2, p. 77. | Dan. Heins. in Theoc.
And a little lower, the passage begiuning Kennet quotes an epigram from the
with these lines : Anthologia as made upon this occasion. But Stobæus, a Greek writer of the fifth century, *AX8ls :xzXxxl Tā 78v883. aşxela Mviras had already rejected some of the smaller 'Aδονες, αι συκινoίσιν οδυρομεναι πολυ φυλλοις, idylliums as not belonging to Theocricus.
Νομασι τοις Σικελις.
Begin, Sicilian mase, begin your mournful mean time, the duke Wladomir, having
found means to escape in 1187, expelled
of his states through the aid of Casiinir,
duke of Poland. The Hungarian prince Bion's sad fate ; Bion is no more. Nor verse, nor music, could his life prolong; in 1213.
kolomau, was crowned king of lsalice He died; and with him died the Doric song.
A prince Damel raised the
independence and the glory of the Bion and Moschus,
Rrissian name; but he was conquered by -Ursini, subjoined to Carmina 9 the Hungariaus under king Bela IV.
illust. Fæmiñas. Antw. 1368. The inonarchs of Hungary, according to 8vo.
the capitulations, could only give to the Hun. Stephani, (wich Theocritus,) country princes of Russian extraction; 12rno. 1579.
but uider Bela IV. and Stephen V. it ---Plantini,(with Calliinachus,) i2nio. belonged to Hungary, in the same
manner as Dalmatia and Croatia. Froni Muschus, Bión, and Theocritus,
several authorities it is proved, that Gr. and Lat. 4:0 Brug. Hand: Hahcz and Wlodomir belonged to the
apud Goltz. 1565. Bion and Moschus,
Ilungarian kings Ladislaş IV. and Louis ---Ab Heskin, 8vo. Oxon, 1748, •
the Fat: this latter in 1352 ceded Ried beautiful edit.
Russia to Casimir, king of Poland, on A. Schwebelio, 8vo. Venet. 1746. condition, that if Casitnir should happeni A and C. Walckenaer, 8vo. Lugo
to have heirs male, he should pay to Bat. 1779.
Hungary a sum of 100,000 forins; and; -A. Wakefield, 12mo. Lond. 1795. on the contrary, Hungary, at his death,
should have nothing to pay for Red RusFor the Monthly Magazine.
siả, but ibat Poland should belong to An ACCOUNT of the ukrainC; extracted Louis the Fat. This latter incident iook in purt from malTE-BRUN's Lute Pic- place in 1870; and in 1381, Louis having ture of POLAND.
died without other issue than two daugh(Continued from p. 341, No. 198.) ters, Maria, the eldest, was crowned IN Nascending towards the south, at queen of llungary, and Hedwiga; the
the foot of the Karpathian moun. youngest, queen of Poland. The first tains we find Red Russia, which now married Sigismond; the second, at the forms the greatest part of eastern Gallit. instigation of her husband Jagellona żia. The Poles simply called it Russia, divided Red Russia and Podolia from and gave the inhabitants the name of Hungary, both which, till 1772, reinained Russinia, or Rustiiaques, in opposition to to Poland; so that the kings of Hungary Roszienie, or Moscowall, who are the should only bear the arms and titles of inhabitants of the Russian empire. Galliciä and Lodomiria: át last the However, according to the vulgar opi- empress queen, Maria Theresa, repurnion, the name of Russia was extended chased the right over the two countries : even to those provinces, by colonies who she took possession in 1772, but in place came from Kiow previous to the ninth of uniting them afresh to Hungary; century. The sons of the great printe according to the requisition of ilie siates Isaslaw formed several principalities, of the kingdom, the policy of the amongst others those of Ilalicz, and of Austrian governinent induced her to form Wlodimir, from the end of that century: them into a separate kingdom. in 1084, Ladislas, king of Hungary, The frontiers of Gallicia and Indo: made himself master of a great part of miria ivere extended as far as possible Red Russia. Casimir, duke of Poland, and besides the tio, palatinates of Red drove duke Wlodimir from Halicz in Russia and Belźk, Austria took all the 1182, and gave the duchy first to Miczia districts of Little Poland between the slaw, and afterwards in i 185 to Roma. Vistula and the Sann, aš well as soinë nus, duke of Wlodimir. The duke of parcels of Wolhynia and Podolia. Halicz took refuge with Bela III. king The provinces thus dismembered, of Flungary, who kept himn confined in received the title of the kingdoin of prison, and at the ebtreaties of the inbå.. Gällicin and Lodomiria. There is no bitants of the principality of Halica, who distinction of the countries which should were äverse to the usurper Romanus, be comprised under either of those sent his second son Andrew with an Dames: the whole of these new posses army to take possession for him. In this sons were organised and cojisidered as
MONTILT Mac, No: 199.
one single state, to which this double liens particularly, the intrinsic qua. name was merely given, because the lity cannot be better. Yet they have, kings of Hungary had formerly enjoyed and do make some very fine, which at those titles.
the samne time is both very good and very The name of Lodomiria is not to be reasonable. The Austrian government found in any maps; that of Gallicia has given great encouragement to the should be written with a tz, (Gallitzia,) woollen manufactories, which are already in order to approach the Polish etymology. very numerous.
The Karpathian mountains, and their Éastern Gallicia, about twenty years branches, occupy the south part of Rug- ago contained more than a million and sia. Leaving these alps of Sarmatia, a half of horned cattle, and 300,000 agreeable and diversified hills losé horses. Red Russia may probably be themselves in the plains of Wolhynia and stated at about two thirds of these nunthe Ukraine. The sandy districts of bers; since that period the breed of Little Poland extend to Russia; these horses bas been considerably improred, sands begin near Cracow, and continue and the Austrians draw from the sufto Zamosa, and beyond Leszainsk, verg- ficient to remount the greatest part of ing towards Lemberg. The country of their cavalry. Pokutia, which is belween the Pruth and There are no lakes, but many thot the Dneister, is filled with considerable sands of vast and handsome ponds, (if I marshes; but, in general, the soil of this may so call them,) the largest of which kingdom may be divided into three divi- are in the district of Lemberg; some of sions, almost equal.' The mountains them are a league in length and breadth, and marshes forin the first, where the and which, from their fisheries, are worth plougb cannot pass; the second is 60,000 forins a year. formed by the plains of moving sand, The iron miirres, better worked under which rarely produce any winter grains; the Austrian government, are however of the third is good arable and pasture, but little importance. Pokutia yields a wlrich yields-five and six bushels for one: sort of inferior marble. This country this latter produces all sorts of grain, but contains a great quantity of salt and chiefly whert, oats, and bariey. The sulphureous springs that of Lubin has best "lands are in the cantons to the been recently analyzed by a chemist. eastward of Lemberg, and in some parts The water holds in solution sulphur, of the circle of Belzk. In general, in bitumen, gypsum, and iron; it leaves good seasons, they reckon on a return of a crust of sulphur on the borders about five bushels for one; as to the of the spring, in which is found alum, sandy parts, they seldom socorn therė, iron, and sal-ammoniac. The salt but when that is the case, the harvest springs have given name to the city never yields more than one fourth, of Halicz, which became that of 3 oftener one third, and that in the best kingdom. seasons. Asparagus, water-melons, and Such are the principal traits of the many other plants, grow spontancously, natural geography of this country. and in abundance; the juniper is a very Amongst the towns we will only remark common shrubs: in the neighbourhood the following. Lemberg, in Polish of Lemberg there were a few vineyards, Scoow, and Latin Leopotis, formerly the but the rigour of the climate, although capital of Red Russia or Lodomiria, under the parallel of Paris, obliged them at present that of all eastern Gallicia. to discontinue the culture of the vine, It is a large and handsome city, with
In the whole extent of eastern Gal. wide straight streets,well paved, and kept licia, they grow about 20,000 quintals of elean; things very rare in this country. tobacco: at Makrotin, there is a planta. The buildings are in a noble style, which tion of rhubarb, which contains more astonishes the traveller accustomed to ihan 40,000 plants.
see the wretched Polish architecture. A great quantity of hemp and flax is I can easily venture to attribute this cultivated, especially in the district of phenomenon to the proximity of ConPrzemisl; but they only fabricate some stantinople, from whence some Greeks coarse linens, which produce them but may have inken refuge at Leopol, and little. The mountains are peopled with perhaps to the influence and example of weavers, tradesmen in the different the Jesuits, whose taste and talents no branches of iron, and various others; person will deny. There were formerly their manufactures only want the finish seventy-two churches, each richer and ang pars to please the eye: for, in their more magnificent than the other : under
the reign of Joseph II. the number was Austria has no doubt greatly improved diminished to twenty, which was suf- and ameliorated tbeir condition, yet they ficient for a populati in lately estimated are still but few degrees removed from at 38,378 souls, amongst which are savages; their pointed sheep-skin caps, 13,232 Jews. Another third of the their buskins made up of a bundle of population consists of Greeks and rags tied round with thongs of raw hides; Armenians; all these sects have their in fact, their whole appearance indicates different teinples and churches, and, as poverty and filth: their food chiefly in all Gallicia, the free exercise of their consists of milk, old cheese, sour-krout, religious worship. Lemberg carries on and potatoes. an extensive and advantageous trade The different sovereigns who have with Russia, Turkey, and the other ruled over this country have endeavoured neighbouring countries. The city is sur- lo entice colonists from all nations. The rounded by a rampart, which is now Russian princes invited and encouraged changed into streets and promenades. the Armenians: their morals, and the The suburbs are extensive and handsome; unanimity which prevails amongst them, the environs afford a nunber of delightful are entitled to much praise. Under the views and situacions.
Polish government, the Jews formed a Brody, the second city in eastern second part: having made themselves Galicia, is inhabited by 5,000 Chris. masters of all the trade, and almost all tians and 15,000 Jews. It has a con- the capital, they exercised an almost siderable trade; the castle is well for- sovereign influence, and even held the tified: the other towns are but inconsi- nobility as it were in their power. In derable. It is computed there are 5,400 later years, Gallicia has received whole souls at Przemysl or Premislaw, a town colonies at once from Germany, it being situated on the Sann, which there begins the policy of Austria to give every ento be navigable: we are not acquainted couragement to these new settlers. with the population of Jaroslaw, a flou In my next I shall give you a descrip. rishing place, situated on a gentle plea. tion of Polish Prussia, and the duchy of sing ascent from the Sann. The hand. Courland.
W.H. sowie church of Panna Maria, that is the holy Virgin, is much adınired; as well as For the Monthly Magazine. the delightful situation of the ancient On the PRACTICABILITY of DISCHARGING college of the Jesuits. The trade in wax
the NATIONAL DEBT. is considerable, and a great deal of lin. WHAT the national debt is a subject bouring forests abound with bees. considerations of the greatest national Sambor , a town of about 3,000 souls, importance, few persons, I am persuaded, has also its manufactories and bleach- will be disposed to deny. It would be grounds. Belz has a manufactory of pot- no difficult matter to shew, that so long ash. Halicz, the ancient capital of Galli- as it exists to the same extent, and in cia, does not reckon more than 4,000 inha- nearly similar circumstances, it will be bitants: we have already noticed the impossible, in the present situation of salt springs near that city.
Europe, for this country to make peace In the country between the Pruth and with France without being liable to be the mountains called Pokutia, is the made in some sort tributary to ber. It flourishing town of Sniatyn, with a po- must necessarily be tou on account of the pulation of fron 6 to 7,000 souls, which revolutionary apprehensions of the stockis much frequented on account of the holder, an almost insurmountable bargreat fairs which are held there: quan- rier to every species of reform, and an cities of cattle, horses, wax, and honey, obstacle to every amelioration both of are annually sold there, which chiefly the moral and political condition of the come from Moldavia. Kutty contains great bulk of the people. 5,800 inhabitants, who make consider Struck with the various mischiefs it is able quantities of salt, as well as at calculated to occasion, and persuaded Colompa.
that it is impossible to discharge it More than two thirds of the peasantry fairly, Mr. Cobbett, and some others, of Red Russia or of eastern Gallicia, have proposed that it should be canare of Russian origin; their language is celled at once. This, no doubt, is a very different from that of the Poles, and harsh measure, and can only be justified they have also a diferent ritual for their on the supposition that the ruin of the worship. Although the government of country is inevitable without having re
course to it. In my opinion, however, any arguments to prove the equity of his this is far from being the case. I am proposal, and the Edinburgh reviewers, persuaded that the debt may be dis. in their third volume, in reviewing a charged fairly; and that it would be much speech of his, intended to have been de more advantageous to the country to do livered in parliament, and published in so, than to get rid of it by means of the 1803, in which his lordship again recom sponge. Ti is my present object to mends the same measure, are by no shew the practicability of paying it; and means disposed to adınit its justice and the importance of the subject must be propriety. They observe, "the direct my apology to you and your readers, for taxation of the national creditor, in prorequesting your attention and opinion on portion to his debt, by refusing him paythe subject.
ment of a certain part of it, is extremely About a year ago, a pamphlet of mine like a palpable breach of faith.” I am was published by Mawman, entitled, persuaded, however, that the arguments “ Observations on the National Debt, i bave brought forward in my pamphlec with a Plan_for. Discharging it, &c." above-mentioned, in support of this mea. That which I then considered as the sure, will be found abandantly suficient novel and distinguishing feature of my to establish its equity. * plan, was a proposal ihat the funds In estimating however the amount of should contribute towards their own dis- the national property from the announc charge, exactly in the proportion which of the income tax, I did not then take they were found to bear to all the ex• into consideration that there is a great isting property in the country:
deal of property which does not conThus, taking the national debt at four tribute to that tax; but since every spehundred millions, (which I shewed would cies of property ought to contribute in at that time be about its amount, recko proportion to its value towards discharge oning the interest of money at 5 per ing a national debt, an estimate for that cent, and supposing the s per cents. purpose which does not take into acpaid off at 60, and all the other 'stock count all property of whatever descrip, after the same ratio) and taking the ex- tion, must be defective and erroneous. isting property on the country at 1600 Property of the kind just mentioned, millions, (which from the returns of the is such as household furniture, books, income-tax, would appear to be about pictures, &c. &c. and, in short, everything the mark) in this case, the proprietors of which does not yield a direct income. stock would bave to pay from their property in the funds 80 inillions, (fth of * I cannot here refrain from noticing the the whole national debt) or deduct so disingenuousness of the Monthly Review. In much from their claims on the public, their remarks upon my pamphlet, they oband the other proprietors would have to serve, as ncar as I can recollect, to tbe fol. pay the remaining this, or 320 millions, lowing effect: “The writer has told us being sth of their whole property. Some what we all knew, that if the national debi of your readers will be alatmed perhaps be paid off, every person ought to contribute at the magnitude of this sum, but they if we look at : heis review of the bishop's are to recollect, that if it would require pamphlet, in 1798, we shall find that they 3th of their property to pay the principal fike most, or I believe all those who replied of the national debt, it takes more than to it, did not then know that the stock holder fth of their income, more than fth of the ought to contribute from his funded proproducc of their property, to pay their perty toward's paying the debt. For, in com. share of its interest. And that by pay, menting upon the bishop's proposal that they ing off the national debt, every one would should contribute, the reviewers observe: save his share of the expense of collect “ We will not say how far he is right in reing its interest, wliich, tockoning their commending the taxing of the funds." Now direct wages, and the loss to the nation I think it is fair to conclude, from the manof the labour of the collectors, is very
ner in which this is said, that they were eonsiderable. In my proposal for
then of opinion that the bishop was not right Faxing the funds towards discharging clear that they then knew little or nothing
in his recommendation ; at any rate it is very themselves, I was not at that tiine aware that I had been anticipated by the bi- Bocd of new light has burst in upon them,
about the matter, but now it seems such a shop of Llandaff, who recommended the that they can see clearly that the bishop was sanie measure in an “ Address to the right; and they affect to believe that every People of England," published in 1798. body else must have done so too, without any His lordship, however, has not adduced information of mine on the subjects