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Dringing, crowding. D. c.

En, (a pronoun) used both for him and
Drive, co, to agree. "Did you drive it, “ I told en;" “ I bought en."
a bargain with him?" that is, “ did zou Es, ise, ish, used for I.
upree wilh him," c.

Eute, to pour out. Exm.
Drow, to, to dry. Drowd, dried. c. B. Eutrir, to, to pour from one vessel io

Drowy, to, to dry; drying. Drowy another. D. Lyttelton.
weather," c. D. Lyttelton.

Evil, a three-pronged fork. c.
Drumbledrane, a drone.
Dry, thirsty.

" Siecus inanis F, is generally pronounced like V. sperne cibum vilem.” Hur.

Fadye, to, to fure. “ How d'yo Dubbed, blunt. Exin.

fadge" How d'ye fare?". D. Dugged, draggletailed. Exm.

Falky, long-stemmed, luxuriant; as Dull, hard of hearing. c.

applied to barley grown so high, that it Dumble-dory, the humble bee. C. requires the reaping-hook. c. (From Dump, thump. D.

falr.] Dumplin, a Devonshire dumplin. Fang, to, to take possession of; to reGay calls his third pastoral "the Dumps;" ceive; lo eurn. "I fang'd to that estate and “ dumps," (says he) “which is a last Christmas;" that is, “ I took posses, grievous heaviness of spirits, comes, in sion of that estate last Christmas. "I the opinion of our English antiquaries, fung'd a child;" that is, “ I received a from the word dumplin, the heaviest child.. I fing'd a shilling;" that is, kind of pudding that is eaten in this I earned a shilling." country." Gay's l'oems, I. 89.

Farm, firm.."Make it farm;" that Dumps, diinpse, dampsé, dimmet, is," muke it firm or strong." C. twilighi. D.

Fast. The fast is the underslratum, Dung-pois, vessels slung across a horse supposed never to have been moved or to curry munuré, &c.

broken úp since the creation. Durnes, the side-posts of a door.

Feather-bog, a quagmire, a bog. C. E.

Fend to, to find. N. D. E is often used for 1, as chemes, chimes; Fescue, (pronounced also vester) a chield, child; wieli, wild.

pin or point with which to teach children Earn, to, to give earnest.

to read. Possibly a corruption of very Eart, sometimes. “ Eart one, eart secue; verse being vulgarly pronounced to'ther,” Exm. Farthridge, a few feet of curth round Few, lilile.

“Give me a few broth;" 4 field, which is ploughed up close to the that is, "give me a little broth." hedges, and sometimes ofler huring pro. Fig, to, “to big a borse;" that is, “ to duced a crop of potatoes) is carried out ginger him.into the field for munure, and there mixed Figs, raisins. A figgy pudding;" with dung, sund, fc. &c. C. See Fore- pudding with ruļsins in it; a plumb pud. head.

ding." Edgy, to, to move. See Croom. Fineney, to, to mince ; to be ceremo. Eelthing, ill-thing ; St. Anthony's'tire, nious. • Zit down to table, good now,

draw in your chair, dontye fineney zo." DA Het a voreoll, notwithstanding. N. D. Fire-pan, u fire-shocel. c.

Eeves, thuur. “ It eeves;" that is, it Fitcher, the fitchet, or polecat. Co thaus. D. “ It is uneeving;" that is, it Fitchole, id. thaus.

Fitpence, five pence. Elicompanie, a tontit ; screecher, Fitiy, clever." A very fitty fellow;" There is a vulgar tradition that the eli- that is, a very good looking man. companie is a bird by day, and a toad by, Fittily, cleverly, well-dune, niglit.

coat is fittily made;" that is, “ that Ellem, elm-tree, D'.c.

coat is well made." C. D. Fitty, or Ellet-hole, oylit-hole. D:

fittily, is, I think, a contraction of fea. Flong, slanting. Exni.

teously. See Johnson.
Elsh, new. * An elsh-maid;" that is, Flam, flume. C.
an uncouth one." D. Lyttelton.

Flam-new, quile now.
Emmut, stroke; as spoken of the Flaw. A flow is a sudden gust of wind
wind. “ Right in the eminut of et;" that which comes overland, belween tảe hills
is, "right in the stroke of il." -c. unto the sea. c. D. The word, I believe,

Empt, lo, to empty. D. To ent, tu is in general use, but common in the empty. C.

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Devonshire and Cornwall Vocabulary. (June 1, more frequent occurrence than the thing Horace. Sir Humphrey de Andarton, is it would express:

The Old English Gentleman:" Flickets, Aushings of the face. “ Her

“Then, hunger for his sauce, and nothing fiickets are up." C. D. Blushes when in

nice, hculth. D.

Cuts from the buttock a convenient slice, Flisk, a large toothed comb.

And (often to the wonder of his wife) Flood, a heavy rain. “ It rains a Salutes the foreright with as keen a knife."* food.But in Cornwall, a whole day's suent rain (see Suent) is only a shower. Foreward, wilful. D.

Flopper, an under petticoat. D, Forrel, of a book. C.
Floshed out, dashed, flashed out. N. D. Forth, out of temper.

Flostering, “ fostering doings;" that Forthy, forward, pert. C. is, junketings.

Foust, a foust, dirty and soiled cloatis Flurry, hurry, perturbation of spi. D. Rumpled, tumbled.

Fraped, confined, kept buck, as applied Fogan, fogon, a kind of cake. In some to hair, N. D. “ Cryle! how times be parts of Cornwall, the fogan is a cake altered! Their mothers weared their inade of the fat of pork and barley-meal. hair fraped back-way, a forehead-cloth A fogan-cake has been said to be a figgy- under their dou des, and little baize rockcake; but this is unlikely. Townsend ets and blue uperns. They wednt know may supply us with a more plausible their own childern day their frippery conjecture. He tells us, (see Travels in gauzy geer, and their fallals to their Spain, i. 14 that " as fuel is not easily elbows; and their pie.picked flimzy skitprocured, the Catalonians use the utmost tering gownds, reaping in the mus, or frugality in dressing their little dinners, vaging in the wind.” seldom indulging themselves with either French-nuts, wull-nuts. C. roast or boiled, but mostly stewing their Frith, writh, underwood. D.

Wattles, mcat in pitchers over their fogon, or or hurdles, placed in a gap. little furnace." And he mentions, that From, after. D. near Barcelona, there are manufactories Frooze, freeze. C. for these little fogons which are sold very Frozzies, feasts. “They have froz. cheap to the miners. Now the fogon is zies;" that is, they have feasts." out of use with our miners: but the Fudgeę; to, to contrive to do. x. D. name remains to the ineat which is car- " Good now, lovey! dantee think out. ried for the meal at the mine. Thus we We shall fudgee well e fine without et. say, a mug," meaning the beer in the All my turmoiling, carking, and careing, mug: and thus we call wine mixed with will be cor you, an every thing shall water, &c. &c. “ u cool tankard," though be as thee wot ha et: thee shall do what we are drinking it out of a bowl.

t” mọt.Fooch, to, to shove; to put in; to get Full-slated, said of a leasehold estate pter. “ He fooch'd me about;" that is, that has three lives subsisting on it D. he shoved me about." “ I fooch'd it Fulsh, “ fush and thumpen." x. D. through the key-hole ;" that is,

Fump, for frump, sanna, the whole it in through the key-hole." "I thori fump of the business, that is, “ the might ha' fooch'd quay a year or two whole of the jest; the material circun

I thought he might hure got stances of the story." N.D. sver, (that is, 'have lived) a year or two Funny, well, pleasing: "It looks more."

funny;" it looks well, pleasing, reg. Forehead, about sir feet space wide lur." .. of earth round the hedges of a field, Fussing, making a fuss, a bustle. which is ploughed up, mixed with lime, Fustileggs, a big boned person, a great and curted, or wheeled upon the field coarse creature. Exm. for munure. D. (See Earthridge.)

G. Foreright,“ u foreright man;" that is, G, pronounced for C, as guckow, for a plain honest mun.

cuckow; sometimes not sounded in the Foreright, the coarsest sort of wheaten bread, made of the meal with almost all • Such provincialisms are, in our opinion, the bran; and not what we term in blotches: the omission of them, in a future Cornwall, second bread, though it may edition of the Old English Gentleman, would probably answer to the panis secundis of be advantageous to the poemer Editer



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middle of a word, as Nortinham; some- Gazetted, published in the news. times not at the end, as something pupers. comin.

Geed, gave. D. Gove, gade. Gairn, a garden. "A hop gairn;" Geowering, quarrelling, La Teut.gherthat is, a plantation of hops ; "a gairn- ran, ritari.] “Geowering and maunder. pot;" that is, an earthen flower-pot. c. ing all the day;" that is, scolding and

Galdiment, a great fright. Exm. grumbling. n.v.

Gale, un old bull castrated. c. A gelt Gerred, (for gorred) dirty, bedaubed. bull, an ox, a bull-stag. D. Dean Milles. Exm. “ Gerred-tailed measles;" that

Gale-headed fellow, a heavy-headed is, filthy swine ; swine spotted from scrostupid man.

phula. Gale-ey ground, ground where springs Gerrick, the gar-fish, or seapike. c. rise in diferent places. e. Goiley ground. Giglot, a female laughing playfully or id. D.

wantonly. See Chaucer, who uses gig. Galinics, galinas, or guinea-fowls. lot for a harlot. " The galinics be got all among the lre Gigloting. D cifer;" that is, the galinas are in the field Gill, a quart. D. of lucern.

Gilly, Julia. c. Thus gilly-flower for Gallibagger, a bugbear. N. D. July-flower. But Nugent says, gilli

Gallied, frightened. To gally, to flower. (Gallice.) frighten. D.

Giroflier, (Ital.) garafolo, (Græc.) Gallies, galliers, a confused noise rapwopulaar. See Primit. p. 348. among a number of people ; a romping Ginged, bewitched. bout. “This is the galliers;" this is con- Gint, joint. N. D. c. fusion indeed. c.

Girts, oatmeal. D. c. Girt is a corGalliganting. N. D.

ruption of groat. And groat is the oat Gambadoes, a pair of. They are with the husk off, which we call the made of stiff leather, and a wooden foot. skilled oat. But we call oatmeal girls; board, closed over the foot towards the that is, groats. c. borse, and on each side; open on the Girty-milk, milk-porridge in the side distant from the horse. They are eastern counties. buckled on, and descend from the sad. dle on each side of the horse, protecting LYCEUM OF ANCIENT LITERAthe foot and leg from dirt. They have

TURE.--No. XXIX. been much out of use since turnpike roads were made. From the stiffness of


N the leather, they acted likewise as desensive armour to the foot and leg, from has generally taken the lead, from the rubbing of crooks and crubs, which erroneous opinion entertained by were before very dangerous in narrow

many, that it was the first kind of poetry roads.

with which mankind became acquainted. Gameleg. c.

Its tendency to celebrate rural scenes Gammerels, the lower hams, or the and the common objects of nature, have small of the leg. D.

induced several critics to consider it as G’and or g'ender, go yonder. N. D.

the earliest of poetical compositions. Ganny, a turkey. n.o.

But this is a supposition that will not Gaoving, chiding. Exm. This, I sup- stand the test of enquiry: Pastrals pose, is jowing:

were not known as a distinct order of Gapesee, any sight inducing idle people poetry till in times of considerable reto gazę. P.

finement. In every age and country Gapesness, & raree shero, a strange where poetry first reared its head, it sight." Fit only for a gapesness;" that was uniformly inspired by actions cal is, fit only to be stared at, us some un

culated rather to rouse the passions of common being. Exm.

men, to excite tbeir wonder and admi. Gaver, the sea cray-fish. C.

ration, rather than to interest their feel. Gaver-haie, the juck-snipe, or judcock. ings, by scenes of siinple nature and In the Cornish language, the literal mean- rural felicity. Innumerable passages, deing of gaverhale is the moor.goot; more scriptive of the pleasures and tranquillity applicable to the large snipe which chate, of the country, may undoubtedly be iers as it rises; and falling with a very found in most of the poets of antiquity, quick motion, makes a noise like a whether epic, lyric, or dramatic.' But hid. e.

they were only' incidentally used; they





438 Lyceum of Ancient Literature.No. XXIX. (June 1, were merely'so many episodes, or pauses, no such foundation, they are evidently in the principal action, where the poet copied from the ancients, and professedly was allowed to interrupt his narrative, works of fiction. We have never be held and enliven it by the various graces of ä Corydon or Tyrcis: but such may hase poetry. It was amid the brilliancy of existed in Greece and Italy. A taste courts, and in the bustle of society, that for song and poetry was common eren pastorals assumed their present forın, among shepherds. In countries such as It was under Ptolemy Philadelphus that Arcadia, the boasted seat of pastoral, Theocritus wrote liis Idyllia; it was in this taste was general; it sprang from the the splendid æra of Augustus, that Virgil soil, and was the happy gift of nature.. penned his Bucolics.

It is from the too glaring want of re. There is hardly any species of poetry semblance to living in anners, that pasto Jess in favour among the moderns, because ral poetry has rarely met with success in there is not one so absolutely foreign to modern times; and has, not unfrequentis, our manners and caste. This is not al. been the subject of parody and ridicule. together the fault of the suliject, which, The tame elegance of Phillips, and the like most others, is good when exbibited suavity of Pope, cannot always satisfy with correctness and truth, and is capa- the reader, who looks in rain for the ble of affording considerable pleasure to happy innocence and rural felicity which the reader. There are few sutjects they so gratuitously describe. Sweetness perhaps more favourable to poetry. of versification and purity of expression Nature herself presents the most ample may constitute the inerit of a poet, but field for description; and nothing ap- they are absolutely wasted upon a subject pears to flow more of its own accord into so little : usceptible of novelty, variety, poetical numbers, than rivers and moun- or truth of character. This renders it iains meadows and hills, fiocks and trees, of all others the inost diticult and onand shepherds devoid of care. But this grateful. The poet cannot be expected pleasing view of the country and its in- to delineate the manners of the peae habitants, is not verified by our own ob. santry, such as they now are. Their servation; the genuine anodels of pastoral condition is inean, servilc, and laborious; life have never been palpable to our their envployments often disgusting, their

It is only in clinates peculiarly ideas generally upon a level with their favoured by nature, ander a sky serene station. He is reduced to the necessity and clear, and wliere the peaceful natives of closely copying the language, senti are blessed with contentment and ease, ments, and imagery, of the ancient pas that the inhabitants of villages can be torals, which, troni their frequent repesaid to resemble, in ary degree, the tition, are become trite and insipid; or, shepherds of Theocritus and Virgil. This what is infinitely more absurd, to the resemblance miglit be found, even at a ease, innocence, and simplicity, of the late period, in the island of Sicily, if it early ages, he adds the polished iaste and be true that the peasants were accuse cultivated manners of modern times. tomed to exercise ihemselves in musical Inco one or other of these extremes, mocontests, particularly upon the fule. dern pastorals have invariably wandered, This would prove that pastoral poetry Hence it is, that this kind of poetry has had a more natural foundation than generally been the employment of young merely the imagination of poets. In and inexperienced munds. At a maturer general, descriptive poetry is the faithful age, the barren and fruiiless path has copyist of surrounding objects; and that been deserted for works of higher dig. of ancient Greecc had, no doubt, purer vity and more permanent merit. models than the miserable peasantry We are willing to admit, hunever, that who now cover so large a portion of Eu- pastoral poetry is a species of corpo sope. In every ngc, the fancy of a poet sition which may be rendered both liamay have embellished whatever' lie tural and a.rccable. Considered as a touched; but the object inust have struck work of fiction, so far at least as the clase him before he thought of adorning it.' racters are concerned, we see no sulid Iliyot'so graceful and alluring as his lancy drew it, there was at least something of * Dr. Martyn, in his preface to the Eclogues nature left. There may have been pe. of Virgil, describes Arcadia as a country riods in society wliere peasants were gay « mountainous, and alınost inaccessible;" and artless, living in a state equally dise which seems to favour the idea, that its astant fioin refinement and grossness. cient inhabitants exclusively devoted theo. Qur roudera bucolics, indeed, can have selves to pastoral amusements





reason why it may not be made to afford the unexpected successes or misfortunes as inuch pleasure as any other of that of families, miglit gire occasion to many description. But in order to succeed, a pleasing and render incident; and the poet must discard all the common- were more of the narrative and sentia place topics which have filed every mental intermixed with the descriptive eclogue froin the days of Theocritus to in this kind of poetry, it would becoine the present time. The general appeare much inore interesting than it now geneances of nature, indeed, are the same as rally is to the bulk of readers.". Thus formerly; but hier ample volume stiil diversified and improved, it would be presents a sufficient variety for the exer- come in time the most pleasing of all tion of genius. Rocks, mountains, woods, poetical attempts; for it would conse God rivers, still form the principal tea- nearer to nature than most others. The lures of a lavdscape; but superior cul- Idylls of Gesner are a proof that a motivation, and a thousand inprovements dern pastoral, founded upon some patieupou nature berself, unknown to the tic storv, enriched with sentiment, and ancients, would furnish an endless succes- enbellished by a style elegant without sion of images. Variety, indeed, inust be being too refined, may not only be enduthe principal object: what might be ori- red, but even read with delight, ginal and pleasing in an idylliun of Bion or Moschus, becomes, by ihreadbare repetition, disgusting or insipid. But the

It is an additional proof that pastorals great difficulty will be in the delineation were not cultivated till at a very late of characters ; in preserving a nice dise period, when alınost every other species tinction betwcen vulgarity on the one of poetry had been successfully tried, taand, and too much appearance of re

that we have no account, or at least have finement on the other. If the poet can.

not the works, of any poet who, in the not, consistently with truth or probability, earlier ayes, had directed his attention give to modern characters and incidents exclusively to them. Bion, Moschus, the purity, innocence, and simplicity, of and Theocritus, all of thein wrote doring the early ages, his shepherds may be the reigns, and the two latter were patroplain and unaffected without being dull nized by the Prolemies, of Egypt. or insipid. lle may gire thein sense

Of Bion, our very scanty notice must and reflection, sprightliness and ease,

be gleaned from the poems of Moschus, with those feelings that are common to

his disciple and successor. all men who are not in a state of actual posed to have been born at Siyrna, depravily. If he cannot describe them from the compliment which Muschus as challenging one another to sing, or pays to the river Meles, that hathed its rebearsing alternate verses, be inay give walls, as having witnessed the birth of two them topics more analogous to the pre- cuch poets as Homer and Bion, and after. sent state of society, and yet equally na

wards being doomed to lament their loss. tural and pleasing.

For as Dr. Blair We are not ir formed in what part of the judiciously asks, “Why may not pas

world he livert, though it is conjectured toral poetry take a wider ranye? llu. that he resided chiefly in Sicily, or in man nature and human passions are inuch that part of Italy called Magna Græcia. the same in every rank of life; and But from his epiiaph it may be presuined wherever these passions operate on ob that he died in Sicily. From the same jects that are within the rural sphere, authority we collect that he expired log they may be a proper subject for pase poison, not voluntarily or accidentally toral. One would indeed 'chuse to re. iaken, but at the command of some move from this sort of composition the great man whom he had offended. Wbac operations of violent and diretul passions, this ofience was is not explained; and is and to presente only such as are consistent now, of course, beyond the reach of conwith innocence, simplicity, and virtue. jecture. Moschus only exclaims, in

geBut under this limitation there will still neral terms, gainst the wretch who could be abundant scope for a careful observer prepare the bitter draught; and wonders of nature to exere his genius. The 1a

thai the envenoned potion, by touching rious adventures which give occasion to

the hallowed lips of bis master, was not those engaged in country life to display their disposition and temper; the scenes * Blair's Rhet. vol. 3. 120. of domestic felicity or disquiet; the at- + Tětò ó 706, xilapião Aorputz?dèulegur. tachments of friends and brothers; the sivalships and coinpetitions of lovers; THT MEAL vigyány."


Ile is sup

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