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tions of these unfortunate revellers, anxious to honour them with funereal obsequies, were unable to recognize their persons in the mangled and disfigured corpses, which lay strewed around, till Simonides overcame this dilemma, by remembering the distinct places each bad occupied at table; and thus pointing out each individual to those who sought his remains. This event suggested to his mind the practicability of making external impressions subservient to the strengthening of memory, by selecting places and images, as so many reposito ries and symbols of ideas. Hence, he was led to propound a method of associating the ideas of things to be retained in the memory, with the ideas of objects conveyed to the mind by that acutest of our senses the sight; and already impressed upon it in a regular series. The invention of this method stamped him as the Father of the Mnemonic Art, Cicero tells us, that when Simonides offered to instruct Themistocles in his method, his offer was rejected in these memorable words: "Ah! (replied the hero,) rather teach me the art of forgetting; for I often remember what I would not, and cannot forget what I would."
the gates. During his absence, the chamber in which Scopas and his guests were carousing, fell in, and in its fall they were crushed to death. The relation on this art, the subject of Cicero's panegyric and discussion throughout a whole chapter of his masterly treatise on Oratory.* Yet Cicero's conviction of its utility did not prevent Quinctilian's assertion of its inefficiency, a short time afterwards; for we find the latter summing up his thoughts upon it, in thes● vehement terms:-"Wherefore, both Carneades, and the Scepsius Metrodorus, (of whom I have just spoken,) who, as Cicero says, had used this exercise, may keep this method to themselves: we will pass over to a more simple subject."+ Fabius, the historian, also ridicules this art in his. XIth book. Mnemonics, however, still continued in great repute; and Cicero, strengthening precept by example, boasted that they were the basis of his excellent memory. It is said, their practice was eultivated with suecess, by others of no less repute; amongst whom, Crassus, Julius Caesar, and Seneca, are particularly noticed.
This art appears to have lain dormant in after-ages, till that luminary of science, Raimond Lulle, thought fit to bring it once more into notice among the learned; and wooed it with such dili gence, that it has ever since been called Lulle's Art,' I shall not detain your readers, by entering into an analysis of Lulle's method, which is amply detailed by Morhof, and in Gray's Memoria Technica.
From this time, Mnemonics became a favourite pursuit with the Greeks; and being brought to perfection by Scepsius Metrodorus, was in great vogue among their orators. They are said to have made use of the statues, paintings, or maments, and other external circumstances, of the places where they ha rangued, for reviving, in progressive or der, the topics and matter of their orations, which they had already appro priated to each circumstance. In the list of those who prided themselves on having perfected their memory by ar
This story is handed down to us, both by Cicero and Phaedrus, in his fables.
tificial means, are enumerated Metro dorus, Hippias, and Theodectes.
The Romans bestowed no less atten
This system of Simonides, is founded on that theory of emblems, which Bacon so justly characterizes: "Emblema verò deducit intellectuale ad sensibile: sensibile autem semper fortiùs percutit memoriam, atque in ea faciliùs imprimitur, quam intellectuale." Emblem reduceth conceits intellectual to images sensible, which always strike the memory more forcibly, and are therefore the more easily imprinted, than intellectual conceits-BAcos's Augm. Scientian. Lib. vi. cap. 2.
‡ Plinii His. Nat. lib. viii. c. 24.
Mnemonics had not yet attained the meridian of their greatness: this epoch was reserved for the sixteenth century; and I question much, whether any art
De Oratore, lib. i. sect. 86, 87.
+ Quare et Carneades et Scepsius (de quo modo dizi) Metrodorus, quos Cicero dicit, usos hac exercitatione, sibi liabeant sua: now simpliciora tradamus. Inst. Orat. ut supra. Dr. Beattie also says, in conclusion of his remarks on Artificial Memory, "I cannot but think with Quinctilian, that the Art was too complex, and that Memory may be improved by easier methods." Diss. Mor, and Crit. chap. ii, sect. 3. Lord Bacon held a similar opinion, as well as Morhof, in whose
Polyhistor Literar." (lib. ii. cap. v. de Arte Lulliana, and cap. vi. De Memoriae Subsidiis,) is preserved an elaborate account of the writers on this subject.
Gaspar Scioppius, speaking of this Doctor Illuminatus,' terms him, with justice, "lutulentum et ineptum scriptorem, sed portentosi acuminis," Commens. de Styla
has ever been the subject of a more tedious and obstinate controversy; has been brought forward under more illustrious auspices, with greater solem nity, or a more bare-faced impudence. These will be sufficiently manifest in the account I shall now render of the Mnemonistic Duumvirate of Lambert Schenkel, and his haud indignus' plenipotentiary, Martin Sommer.
Lambert or Lamprecht Schenkel, born at Bois-le-Due, in 1547, was the son of an apothecary and philologist, He went through his academical course at Lyons and Cologne, and afterwards became a teacher of rhetoric, prosody, and gymnastics, at Paris, Antwerp, Malines, and Rouen; not forgetting, as the custom of the age required, to claim his title to scholarship, by writing Latin verses. From these, however, he acquired no celebrity proportionate to that which was reared on his discoveries in the Mnemonic Art. The more effectually to propagate these discoveries, he travelled through the Netherlands, Germany, and France; where his method was inspected by the great, and transmitted from one university to another. Applause followed every where at his heels. Princes and nobles, ecclesiastics and laymen, alike took soundings of his depth; and Schenkel brought himself through every ordeal, to the astonishment and admiration of his judges. The rector of the Sorbonne, at Paris, having previously made trial of his merits, permitted him to teach his science at that university; and Marillon, Maitre des Requêts, having done the sa.ne, gave him an exclusive privilege for practising Mnemonics throughout the French do minions. His auditors were, however, prohibited from communicating this art to others, under a severe penalty. As his time now became too precious to admit of his making circuits, he delegated this branch of his patent to the Licentiate Martin Sommer, and invested him with a regular diploma, as his plenipotentiary for circulating his art, under certain stipulations, through Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the neighbouring countries. Sommer now first published a Latin treatise on this subject, which he dispersed in every place he visited, under the title of "Brevis Delineatio, de utilitatibus et effectibus admirabilibus Artis Memoriæ." (Venet. 1619, 12, 24 pp.) In this he celebrates the rare feats of his master, and announces him
self as commissioued by Schenkel, to instruct the whole world.
"A lawyer, (says he,) who has a bundred causes and more to conduct, by the assistance of my Mnemonics, may stamp them so strongly on his memory, that he will know in what wise to answer each client, in any order, and at any hout, with as much precision as if he had but just perused his brief. And in pleading, he will not only have the evidence and reasonings of his own party, at his fingers' ends, but (mirabile dictu!) all the grounds and refutations of his antagonist also! Let a man go into a library, and read one book after another, yet shall he be able to write down every sentence of what he has read, many days after at home. The proficient in this science can dictate matters of the most opposite nature, to ten, or thirty writers, alternately. After four weeks' exercise, he will be able to class twenty-five thousand disarranged portraits within the saying of a paternoster:-aye, and he will do this ten times a day, without extraordinary exertion and with more precision than another, who is ignorant of the art, can do it in a whole year! He will no longer stand in need of a library for referring to. This course of study may be completed in nine days"-(perhaps in the same way that foreign languages are now-a-days taught in twelve lessons!)"and an hour's practice daily, will be sufficient: but, when the rules are once acquired, they require but half an hour's exercise daily. Every pupil, who has afterwards well-grounded complants to allege, shall not only have the premium paid in the first instance, returned to him, but an addition will be made to it. The professor of this art, makes but a short stay in every place. When called upon, he will submit proofs, adduce testimonials from the most eminent characters, and surprise the ignorant, after four or six lessons, (observe!) with the most incredible displays." Here follow testimonials from the most celebrated universities. Nine alone are produced from learned men at Leipzig, and precede others from Marburg, and Frankfort on the Oder."
At the same time was published, "Gazypholium Artis Memoriæ, illustra tum per Lambertum Schenkelium de Strasb. 1619" but this is far outdone by the preceding treatise of Sommer. The student, destitute of oral instruction, will gather about as much of Mnemonics
by wading through this treatise, as by seeking them in the hieroglyphics of an Egyptian obelisk. It is pretty evident that this Gazypholium,' was designedly intended as a labyrinthal series: the author indeed closes his labours by confessing, that the work was to be intrusted only to his scholars, and referring for further elucidation to oral precepts. The very basis of his art is concealed beneath a jumble of signs and abbreviations: thus, sect. 9. d. a sect. 99; "vidilicet, locus, imago ordo locorum, memoria loci, imagines." And further, in setting forth the most important points, he amuses himself by evincing a multitude of jingling, and unintelligible words. As this work, besides being a literary curiosity, had of late years become extremely rare; Doctor Klueber not long since published a German translation of it, and by his happy dexterity in decyphering, has unravelled the ambiguous passages in the original, and illustrated them with a profusion of pertinent annotations.*
requires that its powers should be at once Its acquireingenious and perceptive. ment is founded on the association of ideas: nor does it fail to call wit and imagination in aid of natural memory. Sommer's Compendium,consisting of eight sections, was printed for the use of his auditors. After his departure, permission is given to his scholars to communicate their mnemonistic doubts, observations, and discoveries, to each other; but no one can be present without legalizing himself previously, as one of the initiated, by prescribed signs: and he who fails in this, is excluded as a pro
At ali events, this work is a singular production. Agreeably to the character of Schenkel's system, his development of the art does not confine itself to mechanical ideas alone. It sets the technical, symbolical, and logical faculties of the memory, in equal activity; and
In thus tracing the origin of Mnemo nics, and their progress, down to the sixteenth century, if the reader's curiosity should be awakened by these memoranda of mine, he will find it gratified by a reference to Cicero and Morhof, than whom no writer has so amply treated Gray's of Memory, and its assistants. 'Memoria Technica' will supply him with much information on this subject, to which the student's attention is also directed, in a plan of artificial memory, lately laid down in Robinson's Grammar of History.' Your's, &c.
From the foregoing Table it will be seen, that the first four months in the Jast year, and likewise October and December, were hotter than the same months in 1808; but in the other months,
1808. 30°.500 89 230
43 250 S6 .825
1809. 33°.130 44 200
41 500 36 500
the highest temperature was in 1808; and on the whole year, the average height of the thermometer was nearly a degree and a half lower in 1809, than in the preceding year,
In page 32, of vol. xvii, of this Magazine, we gave the average temperature for the seven years preceding, as it was taken at Camden-town, a village two miles from the metropolis, which was 50°-48; the average of the last year is therefore rather more than a degree short of this. At the same place, and for the same period, the average height of the barometer was 29.786: for the present year, at Highgate, the mean 'height is 29-522: this difference is too Account of the Quantity of Rain fullen in each Month, since the Year 1802, as ascertained by a correct Rain-gauge. By Dr Pole, Bristol.
small, we conceive, to account for the quantity of rain fallen during the last twelve months; which is equal to 47·875 inches in depth; and is eighteen inches more than the average depth for the above-named period, which will be found in the page and volume already referred to, to be 29 613 inches. This last quantity, is nearly the average depth also for six years, at Bristol, as will be seen by the following Table:
1 56 0 28
100 of an inch.
1 94 1 S2 3 73 27 39 29 77 26 1 34 38 31 31 32 8 Yeur, is equal 29.46.
100 of an inch.
100 of an inch.
1 5 053 0 35
4 36 5226
3 8 1 52
We shall pass on to the prevailing winds during the year. From the observations made by order of the Royal Society of London, it should seem that the south-west winds are by much the most predominant in London: from our notes we find the westerly, and north-west, have had the advantage during the last year. The following
Table will enable the reader to draw a comparison.
Observations at Highgate, for 1809.
It is stated, from the register kept at the Royal Society, that the south-west wind blows more upon an average in each month of the year than any other, particularly in July and August: that the north-east prevails during January, March, April, May, and June; and is most unfrequent in February, July, September, and December: the north-west occurring more frequently from November to March; and less so in September and October than in any other months. Our observations for the last year, do not correspond with this statement; and the difference may perhaps account for the quantity of rain fallen; for the few hot days, and in short, for that small share of summer weather, which was open to every person's notice. Highgate, Your's, &c. Jan. 3, 1810. J. J.
For the Monthly Magazine. MANUSCRIPT of ESCHYLUS'S TRAGETIES, entitled, the "SEVEN at THEBES," and "PROMETHEUS."
HE learned French critic, Mons.
library at Paris, formerly called the Bibliotheque du Roi, a MŠ. copy of the Seven at Thebes, and Prometheus, by Aschylus (No. 2785) on which he has offered the following remarks:
In verse 13, of the "Seven at Thebes," the particle is suppressed
Ωραν τ ̓ ἔχονθ ̓ ἑκαςον, ὥς τι συμπεπές, and in the manuscript ὥραν εχονθ ̓ ἕκαστον; but the omission of this letter gives some order to a phrase, which before had none; and M. Brunk has found the same reading in other MSS. and adopted it.
At verse 250,. a fault occurs, it must be owned, yet it points out a good reading:
this passage as follows: "Gemit civitas a terra tanquam circumclusa ;" as if they had found the word yer. It appears, indeed, that the scholiast read the word so: Tal, (says he,) & huerépe 7. The word MS does not seem to have any meaning: ynder, on the contrary, expresses very well that dead sound occasioned by the trampling of a multitude of men on the earth, and which is prolonged to a greater or lesser distance; but instead of translating it, "Tunquam circumclusa;" it should rather be, "utpote sub pedibus circumsese-fundentuim; for the poet did not mean to describe the grief of an afflicted people, but the actual noise which announces the approach of enemies towards the ramparts.
Τότο γαρ Αρης βόσκεται φθόνῳ βροτῶν. Our editions have pó; it is not, however, with fright, but with carnage, that Mars is glutting himself; and this consideration induces us to prefer the reading p, which another MS. pre sents. This reading may be easily recognized in the word éve, as found in the MS. before us, and the faults of different copies often yield this advantage to attentive readers. Brunk also has found pov in some MSS. and has printed it accordingly.
But the reading of neev, in verse 253, does not here appear. One edition has
Στένει πόλισμα δηθεν, ὡς κακλεμενών. The Latin translators have rendered
Verse 487 offers an interesting variation. In our editions we read, Επευχομαι δὴ τῷδε μεν ευτυχεῖν ἰω προμαχ ̓ ἐμῶν δόμων.
"Opto quidem huic succedere defensor mearum domorum."-This dative rade, which is of the third person, cannot accord with the vocative, poμaxe. The forms a very perfect sense Opto. quidem in hoc certamine ;"-and it subjoins, at the end of the verse, σɛ, winch renders the phrase complete,
Επεύχομαι δὴ τάδε μεν ευτυχεῖν σε. As to the measure of the verse, it de pends on too many combinations to become the object of these concise remarks.
It must, however, be observed, that in verse 619, Eteocles speaks of Amphiaraiis, who, notwithstanding his piety, was, for having associated with the wicked, to perish along with them: ̓Ανοσιοτι συμμιγείς Θρασυζουοῖσιν ἀνδράσι φρενῶν βίᾳ Τεινεσι πομπην την μακραν παλίν μολείν Διος θέλοντος συγκαθελκά σθητεται.
So it is found in our editions. What can wady μche signify? Those words are translated by reverti, and that is cerof Argos did not make any criminal ettainly the sense of air. But the army forts for returning-the crime with which Eteocles reproaches them is, that of having come to attack unjustly the city of Thebes. In fact, the manuscript reads oxiv. M. Brunk very properly condemus, as ridiculous, the interpretawords by the great journey towards the tion of the scholiast, who explains these infernal regions; but, in applying them to the city of Thebes itself, nothing can be more clear than the meaning.-"Con