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must have been derogatory and mortifying to sufficient answer, I trust, to the charge of their self-importance.
plagiarism. “ 2. That in their review of your article, " In the composition of the first volume of they told at least ¢wo falsehoods, knowing this Treatise, I have derived material assistthem to he such ; and, of course, for the mere ance from the labours of several of my preunworthy purpose of injuring you in the decessors in this department of science ; eyes of the world.
though I have not, perhaps, so frequently "3. That it is in vain for them now to cited my authorities as some readers may be urge, that, if you did not copy from an au
ap: to expect : but this will not, I trust, on thor, without acknowledgment when they consideration, be thought a culpable omission; 'asserted you did thus copy from hirn, they for, although I have not, for example, as. have since discovered that you have copied cribed to Prony what I found in succession in without acknowledgment from others. The
the writings of Varignon, Belidor, Bezout, public (and I as one of them) have a short
and D'Alembert, nor to Parkinson, or At. and easy method of settling this point, with- wood, what had previously appeared in the ont troubling ourselves with a reierence, by writings of Galileo, Wilkins, Wallis, Desasimply obse: ving, that the man who could guliers, or Emerson, esteeming whatever I wiltully lie in the first instance, is infinitely found in such circumstances, as common promore likely to lie in the second. He has not perty to be adopted without liesitation ; yet, only betrayed the cloven foot, but avowedly in all cases where I could speak confidently exlubited it to the public : and has nullified of the original author, and particularly wherg his own authority by bis mutive, and his own the matter quoted had been but seldom pubtestimony by his seif-conviction of false. lished, I have not failed to make the corre. houd.
sponding reference. As to the second volume, " 4. All this is confirmed and established it is professedly a compilation; and I have no by the Reviewers' concluding declaration, other meric to claim respecting it, than that that they now "willingly take leave of a of having employed much labour and pains subject, which no consideration shall induce in consulting a great many rolumes of jourthem to resume ;” a declaration, by which nals, transactions, arts, encyclopædias, thethey obviously refuse admission to any thing atres of machines, &c. published in England, you may send them, as they did in the case
France, and Germany; and baving selected of your fornier letter: for why should they from these numerous, and often voluminous, be guilty of so palpable a piece of injustice, works, such particulars as were most likely to as that of excluding you from the only ground be serviceable to my countrymen, when prewhere you can fairly repel their attack to the
senied to them, (separate from every thing satisfaction of all their readers ; except it be, extraneous,) in a moderate-sized single vothat they know you have the means of per- lume." fectly refuting their calumnies, and thus of Such, Mr. Editor, was my language in still farther depreciating their moral charac- December, 1805. At the end of four ter in the estimation of the public?"
years, the active, indefatigable maligo · Thus far from the communication of nity of the Edinburgh Reviewers, (and iny learned friend. • Readers of a differ- in this I must own them superior to all ent description, however, inay very pro- other human beings, except the North bably pass over the self-destructive pas. American Indians,) has collected togesages in the Reviewers' epistle with little ther, out of two volumes, containing more concern, and admit that at least my cha- than one thousand and fifty pages, five racter is rendered suspicious, that there or six instances, in which, according must be some ground for the charges, their representation, I might seem that they must be partly true, &c. &c. have infringed upon the established Many reailers, Mr. Editor, listen with rules of authurship, Sir, I speak with cagerness to an accusation, and balf wish that confidence, ishich a man, whose it true; many are prejudiced, on some moral character is unimpeached, may be account, in favour of the Edinburgh Re- justified in using, when he confronts himviewers, and think they are too honest, self to anonymous writers, self-convicted many more think they are tuo poliuc, to' again and again of deception, prevari. comimit their character thus deliberately cation, and falschood; when I affirin upon a groundless caluinny. I cannot that, in the course of a deliberate search, therefore agree with some of my friends, I have found only one place in which a in apprehending po injury whatever fruna reference that ought to have been made, this unprincipled attack, were I to treat bas been even accidentally omitted. it with silent contempt.
This one relates to Venturi's disquisition Allow me, now, Sir, to quote a passage on the exhaustion of vessels through orifrom the Preface to niy Treatise of Me. fices, in their bases ; wbich I now regret chanics, which alone would be held a having inserted, because, however elegant
36 Dr.Gregory's second Answer to the Edinburgh Reviewers. [Feb.1, the investigation may appear, it is deos vate ends, not necessary to be mentioned fective and useless. I may also affirm, here; it becomes' an imperious duty to with equal confidence, and equal cer- expose their
artifices to the public in. tainty of being believed, that the Edin. dignation. This duty, unless it soon fall burgh Reviewers, in their new string of into better hands, I shall not shrink from accusations, have charged me with steal- discharging: and I have long been in ing from works which I never saw; with possession of numerous facts, which, copying the article " Thrashing Ma. when I can find time to prepare
them chines," from the Encyclopædia Britan. for publication, will illustrate much of nica, ihough I never read that article, the secret history of the Edinburgh Re. and do not know to the present moment, view. Such an exposure of the motives, (except from their disputable testimony,) and conduct of its proprietors and printhat any such article is there; with co- cipal writers, will no doubt'be called, pying the account of Verrier's mill,from, however temperate, a “violent and Brewster's Ferguson, when they must abusive attack';" but the public in general know, because I refer expressly to the will thank me for unmasking their moral work, that the account was taken from character, will rejoice to hear their pi. Dailey's Collection of Machines in the teous exclamations, and “mock when Repository of the Society of Arts, pub- their fear cometh.” For my own part, lislied more than thirty years ago! Afier anxiety for my reputation has given me all this, it cannot be necessary for me to but little uneasiness, compared with the attend seriously to their insinuation re- pain of beholding talents which, bowever specting a new title-page, instead of a overrated by the multitude, I am willing new edition. Let them tell me how it to respect, associated with a depravity is possible to print a new edition of so which I am compelled to abhor. extensive a work, with the dispatch re
Your's, &c. quisite to nieet a rapid demand, without
OLINTHUS GREGORY. distributing the matter into the hands of Royal Military Academy, different compositors; sheets A, B, C, Woolrich, Dec. 1809. D, for example, to che; sheets E, F, G, P.S. Permit me to throw into a Postscript H, to a second; sheets I, K, L, M, to a some particulars, which, though I forgot to third, &c. and, farther, how it is pos. introduce them into the body of the letter, sible to effect this, without contriving may perhaps be too important to be omitted every alteration, so that the quantity entirely: viz. that Dr. Brewster, (whose name in each respective sheet shall remain as
has been of such singular service to the Edinbefore. Let them tell me this, and I has more than once expressed his obligations
burgh Reviewers, on the present occasion,) shall then be quite ready to reply to any thing else upon the subject, which their notice. I have taken of his performances, and
to me, both personally and by letter, for the copsummate cunning, and mighty malice, for referring to theme that we have conimumay devise.
nicated to each other nutually, in the most I will not now, Mr. Editor, intrude friendly manner, hints for the improvement farther upon the patience of your of our respective works; that he has applied readers. At some future period, when to me by letter, more than once, to prepare I have more leisure than I now possess scientific articles in the Edinburgh Encycloto devute to a disgusting employment, pædia, of which he is the editor, though he I may develope the train of motives knew at the same time, that I was editor of a which have led to an attack upon my cha- similar work publishing here; expatiating, in racter, unprecedented in the history of marks even the commercial part of litera
his applications, upon the liberality* whicha literature. I may probably do more.
ture ;” that he has spoken to me in the highWhen men combine together, not for the
est possible terms of the utility of my Treusise purpose of fair and honourable criticism, of Mechanics, and has recommended it warmly hut with the design of hunting down in his own work, as well as in treatises he talents and merit, whereier they appear prepared for the Encyclopædia Britannica, in on this side of the Twecd, besides grati- the formation of which, he declared my work fying private feelings, and pursuing pria was of essential service to him: and that,
even after the Edinburgh Reviewers' first Even here, however, I may remark, ihat attack upon me, he said, (Mr. Teltord, the but a few pages farther on, (viz. page 433,) civil engineer, being present,) that I could I refer expressly to Venturi's work, in such not pertorm a more important service to the terms of commendation, as would induce a
British seader to consult it; which I should hardly
Or this liberality, his book ellers, and have done, had I wished to conceal my au- his friends and companions, the Edioburglu thor,
Reviewers, have furnisheu noble specimens.
British public, than by publishing the second of them formed an idol like unto that volume of my Mechanics separately; that image, and gave themselves up to idoit only wanted one thing to make it complete, latry. namely, an Essay on Wheel Carriages, and The son of Lamech, the son of Methat he should be much gratified it I would thusalem, the son of Enoch.-Ile was adopt the one he had inserted in his new edi
the first prophet who denounced unto tion of Ferguson's Lectures ; this, however, the unbelievers the punishments of hell; I did not adopt, because I ilought his theory and he was the first by whose curse a incorrect.
multitude of them perished. In the day
of resurrection, he will be the second For the Alonthly Magazine,
person raised from
No An ACCOUNT of the BEGINNING of 100- prophet lived to so great an age as
LATEY amongst the sons of ADAM; Noah. translated from the PERSIAN HISTORY The nations being at this time uniof KHONDEMEER, und originally pub- versally addicted to the sins of giving lished at CALCUTTA, in the MISCEL- companions to God, worshipping of idols, LANY of MR. GLADWIN.
blasphemy, and every other species of THIS subject having given rise to a wickedness, God raised up the prophet abridgment would not contain all the repentance. • According to tradition, he traditions that have been produced in continued for the space of mine hundred support of those opinions, I shall only and fifty years, to point out the true deliver, in a summary manner, .one of road to the sons of Adam ; at the expira. them, which appears to be nearest to tion of which period, finding only eighty truth.'
persons that had faith in his doctrines, It is related, that Enoch had an in, and experiencing great trouble and vextimate friend, who had been instructed ation tiom the unbelievers, he despaired by hearing liis philosophical discourses; of effecting their reformation; and thereand after Enoch's ascension into Hea- fore prayed God to extirpate every soul ven, this friend bewailed the separation of them from the face of the earth. with lamentations and groans, so that God having approved thereof, a voice his days were spent in grief and misery. came unto Noah, saying, “ Plant the This having come to ihe knowledge of Sabin tree, and employ thyself in making Satan, he went to him, and said, " If an ark; for I will entirely destroy these you desire it of me, I will make for you people with water, and coinmit them all an image, which shall be such an exact to the flames of hell." representation of Enoch, that from It is related, that Gabriel brought unto beholding it, your mind shall be relieved Noah a young sapling of the Sabin tree, fronı its present distress.” The man and instructed him how to plant it. accepted of Satan's proposal, who per- After forty years growth, when that formed his promise; and the griet of the tree was arrived at perfection, Noah friend of Enoch was greatly mitigated felled it, and when it was dry he emat the sight of the image. And he ployed himself in building the ark. placed the image in a room of his house, The ark consisted of three stories; the where no one went but himself, and upper one was allotted for the birds; in every evening and morning he comforted the bottom story, were placed every kind hinself with the sight thereof.
of beast in pairs; and the middle apartIt happened that the friend of Enoch ment was the habitation of Noah and bis died in that room, where he had placed family, being in all eighty persons. And the image. And when, after some days, Noah, at the command of God, having bie had not been seen by his neighbours, put the body of Adam into a coffin, carthey came to search his house, and found ried it with lon into the ark. hiin dead by the side of the idol. The And at that time, the sun, the moon, men were astonished at the sight, and and the planets, came into conjunction immediately Satan appeared ainongst in a watery sign, when, by command of them, in a human shape, and said unto the high God, the waters continued to them,
“ Enoch 'and this man, who was rise out of the earth, and the rain fell his friend, worshipped this image, who froin the heavens incessantly, for the is the Lord of the universe; on which space of forty days and forty nights, account they obtained their wishes.” till the whole eart was deluged. It is The temptation of the devil having made related that Noah bad an idolatrous son, impression upon his audience, they cach named Yiam, (also called Kanaan), who,
Essay on the Theory of Inflexion. notwithstanding all the warnings and or clauses, which modify, and of others, commands of his father, would not con- which are modified ; and the same come sent to go into the ark; saying, he would munication will also discover to him, take refuge in the mountains, where he that the characteristic feature of the should be safe from the waters; therefore voice, in the pronunciation of a propothat youth, and his mother, who was sition, indicates either continuation or named Wauilah, not giving faith to completion. As therefore the less sig. Noal, were both drowned.
nification of one or more clauses may be Historians agree in describing the restrained, or altered, by the power and inundation 'as having been so excessive, influence of others more significant; so in that the waters rose to the height of forty the delivery, that the progress and come cubits above the cops of the most lofty pletion of a whole passage may be gras mountains; and they say, that even then dually conveyed to the ear, the attention they did not reach above the knee-pan must be kept alive, by suitable degrees of Awj Ben Unuck, although he was not of suspension in the voice. If from this arrived at his full growth,
we take a more enlarged view of oral The ark, having gone round the earth sounds, we shall find, that in the arsereral times, it ai last rested on the top rangement of diffuse periods, there may of mount Ararat. The rain ceased; and be meinbers, whose completeness as to the earth, after six months, having soaked meaning, have certam degrees of intoup the water, Noah and all the living nation; and which, to indicate their just creatures came out of the ark on the relations to a whole, terminate with prosecond day of the month Ramzan. portionate qualities of sound.
The family of Noah built a city at the Thus, in the most rude and uncultifoot of mount Ararat, and called it Suk- vated appearance of the subject before el-Samaneen. And it came to pass, after us, are we sensible of something like a short space of time, out of those eighty leading principle and rule ; but the inde. persons, there were only left Noah, and finite idea of sound, and its relation to his three sons, ovith their wives.
articulate voice, seems to have involved Noah lived two hundred and fifty years the thoughts of those hitherto interested after the flood; he was two hundred and in the enquiry, in considerable obscurity. fifty years old when he received the gift For this reason, perhaps, the method of of prophesy; and he preached for the conveying information to students in elospace of nine hundred and fifty years. cution, liave not been sufficiently perThe days of Noah were one thousand tinent. four hundred and fifty years. And he
Numerous instances may be adduced, Jeft behind him three sons, Japhet, Shem, wherein the spirit of a proposition, de and Ham, from whoin the whole hunian pends more upon the peculiar turn of race are descended.
voice, than upon that stress which assists
in placing varieties in contradistinction To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. one to another. This has been successo SIR,
fully pointed out by the late Mr. Walker; S public speaking discovers itself and what an ingenious writer, in the inid. and gesture, to be a beautiful copy of marks or signs, for the management of correct coiwersation, that system, which, the voice in enunciation, seems not yet by analogous methods, proceeds from the to have eluded our enquiry on that suhbest portraits of the original, to explain ject, nor is the adoption of such minute the numerous successions of these signs, arrangement, considered metaphysically, must be the most steady mode by which impracticable. That the Greeks had we can attain a jus: and graceful elocu- instrumental accompaniment to their tion. Of this nature appears to be the tragedy, is adequately attested, and unistudy of inflexion. It is lamentable, versally believed; but whether it were however, to observe, that,
notwithstanding exact representation of speaking the very great advantage which such a sounds, or whether it were only a mere theory must afford to the admirers of the musical modulation, cannot accurately science, its efficacy is not generally un. be decided upon: we may, however, derstood, and, consequently, it cannot conceive, that, had the melody been as be properly appreciated.
propriate to the sounds of delivery, the Å slender converse with logical deduc. Romans would have adopied similar tion, will inform the student, lhat phra- modes, and a plan and scale of their seulogy is made up of certain members, notes, would have been transrgitted is
us by Cicero, in his Disquisition on ments, and not upon the different forms Sounds.
ations of the mouth-the whole diversity Although the accent and quantity of of articulation may be accomplished in words, with the genuine import of simple any one note of a diatonic or chromatic and complex articulation, should occupy scale of music. This idea appears to a very considerable share of the student's agree with that inelodious arrangement regard, the acquirement of these different of sound called singing; for the leaps, or combinations, forms a distinct part of intervals of sound, may be heard, unpronunciation; for it is possible to pos- derstood, and compared, with any nota sess a correct idea of the proper force of the same measurable ganut or scale, and accent of each individual character, after the articulation shall have ceased. separarely, or independent of each other, If we extend the subject to the speaking without the capability of displaying, with voice of man, we shall be led to suppose, just emphasis and discretion, the relative that it is formed of such minute and evasituations of words, arranged in due nescent variations and inflexions of sound, order, forming discourse. In conformity, as could not possibly be represented by therefore, with this position, a general any scale of notes, or formula, hitherto survey of articulate voices, will serve as invented. To this definition of vocal a substructure to the theory of inflexion. sounds, the student will further observe,
Audible voice is produced by a set of that musical notes are not susceptive of muscles acting on the cartilaginous the slightest elevation or depression of cavity at the top of the trachæa, or sound; thus, each note, however coin. wind-pipe, called the larynx, while the prehensive as to time, is of the saine air is passing through the glottis. When quality from the beginning to the end; the recurrent nerve, on one side of the but speaking sounds are of very short dularynx is cut, the voice becomes remark- ration; they are “ emitted with ease, ably weaker; when both are cut, it is through the glottis, at the pronunciation entirely and irrecoverably lost.* Arti- of every distinct syllable, frequently culation is either a definite, or indefinite, shifting at once, or gliving in a wavo-like quality of sound, modified by the palate, manner, through small but not“ inteeth, lips, nostrils, and cavities of them. measurable intervals; and now and then When the common current of breath, is leapin, trom one musical note to anourged more forcibly through these vari- ther, considerably distant; but in ali ous apertures of articulation, without cases articula;ed by the aitluent breath, much affecting the larynx, we have an as it is differently affected by the organs instance of the indefinite sound, known of the mouth." by the name of the whisper. What is In this essay, we have already had octermed hoarseness of voice, proceeds casion to speak of certain sounds, which, from various causes, foreign to the pre- in their general sense, indicate the contisent purpose. It may not, howerer, be nuation or completion of a thought or unnecessary for the student to know, that proposition; but as these sounds, in anatornists state, when the larynx is their fullest meaning, are discernible ia injured, the air though the cartilages a single word of four or five syllables, acted by the muscles, passes through the with a little method, the student may be wind-pipe, without yielding the ordinary readily furnished with a more determisound. In audible voice, then, the air, nate idea of their more essential parts. while passing froin the lungs to the inout, In order, therefore, to acquire a clearer inust atfect the larynx. We may have conception of these distinctions, ie an opportunity of further deducing, by must select an appropriate word, ard experiment, that, from the peculiar na- then mark the change of sound prociuced Cure of the cousutuent parts of the larynx by the “ accentuation." A little atteuand its orifice, the whole diversity of tion, while progouncing the word, placed sound, may be distinctly heard, though at the close of the last period, within the the mouui be shut; and from this may signs of the quotation, will show the disbe easily conceived, that, as the souncit tinction required, As it is perfectly and cont of the voice depend upon the easy, in this instance, to discover, th. t diameter of the glottis vera, or orifice of the voice siunities incompletion on the the Zotein, with rhe telision of its liga- three first syllables of the word de.cri.
Whytie † Sound as to high and low.
her, viz. “Uceniu-" so it will not be 1 'lone as to quality, whether natural or ditlicult to perceive, that the terminatnig feig aede
sound of the saing word, siguifying com