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Proceedings of Learned Societies.
By Robert Fellowes, A. M. 2 vols. 8vo. embellished with Views of Public Buildings, 18s.
Tombs, Monuments, Statues, &c. and a Remarks on the Version of the New Tes. whole sheet map of Chelsea, from an ancient tament, lately edited by the Unitarians with
survey. Interspersed with biographical the citle of 66 An Improved Version upon Anecdotes of illustrious and eminent Persons, the Basis of Archbishop Newcome's new who have resided in Chelsea during the three Translation, with a corrected Text, and preceding centuries. By T. Faulkner, of Notes critical and explanatory.” By the Chelsea. Royal 21s. demy 15s. Rev. Edward Nares. 8vo. 9s.
A Description of Britain, translated from Elements of Religion, Natural and Re- Richard of Cirencester, with the original vealed. 1s.
treatise “ De Situ Britanniæ," and a ComA Sermun preached before the Grateful mentary on the Itinerary. 8vo. 18s. large Society, in All Saints' Church, Bristol. By paper 11. 16s. the Rev. George Hunt. 1 s. 6d.
VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.
A Trip to Coatham, a Watering place in An Historical, Topographical, and Statis. the north Extremity of Yorkshire. By W. tical, Description of Chelsea and its Environs, Hulton, F.A.S.S. 8vo. 9s.
PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. "produced by the action of ammonia on MI
R. Davy las laid before this learned potassium, thus describes them: 1. It is
society an account of some new crystallized, and presents irregular taanalytical researches on the nature of cers, which in colour are not mlike the certain bodies, particularly alkalies, protoxide of iron : it is opaque, when exphosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous inat. amined in large masses, but semitranspater, and the acids hitherto unde- rent in their tilns. 2. It is fusible at a compounded. In these experiments beat a little above that of boiling water, he employed potassium, procured by and if heated much higher, einits globules electricity; but he soon substituted for of gas. 3. It appears to be considerit the metal obtained by the action of ig- ably heavier than water. 4. It is a nonmied iron opon potashi, in the manner conductor of electricity. 5.' Then discovered by MM. Gay Lussac and melted in oxygen gas, it burns with great Thenard, because it gave the same re- vividness, einitting bright sparks. Oarsults, and could be obtained of an uni- gen is absorbed, nitrogen is emitted, and form quality, and in infinitely larger quan- potash is formed. 6. When brought in tities, and with much less labour and ex- contact with water, it acts upon it with pense. When aminonia is brought in much energy, produces heat, and oftret contact with about twice its weight of inflammation, and evolves ammonia, potassium, at cominon temperatures, the 'When thrown upon water, it disappears metal loses its luostre, and becomes white; with a hissing noise, and globules from it there is also a slight diminution in the often move in a state of ignition upon the volume of gas. The white crust proves surface of the water. It rapidly efierto be potash, and the ani:monia is found vesces, and deliquesces in air; but can be to contain a small quantity of hydrogen, preserved under naphtha, in which it On heating the potassium in the gas, by seems partially to dissolve.
Wlien means of a spirit-lamp applied to the plunged under water, it disappears inbottom of the retort, the colour of the stantly with effervescence; and ibe noncrust is seen to change, through various absorbable clastic tiuid liberatexi, is found shades, into a dark olive. The crust and to be hydrogen gas. Frou accurate exo meral 'fuse together, and the brilliant periinent, Mr. Dary bas no doubt, that surface of the potassium appears. In the weight of the olive-coloured sube this state, as the potassiuin cools, it is stance, and of the hydrogen disengaged, again covered with the white crust; and precisely equals the weight of the poiasin the operations a gas is evolved, which sium and ammonia consuined. gives the same diminution by detonation As an inflammable gas alone, haring with oxygen, as hydrogen, and the am, the obvious properties of hydrogen, is monia disappears. Dir. Davy, having given off during the action of potassium exanıined the properties of the substance upon ainmonia; and as nothing but gases.
apparently the same as hydrogen and nie lower part of the tube, where the heat trogen, ucarly in the proportions in which had been intense, was found surrounded they exist in volatile alkali, are evolved with potash in a vitreous form; the upduring the exposure of the compound to per part contained a considerable quali. heat; and, as the residual substance.pro- iity of potassium. In a similar experiduces ammonia, with a little hydrogen, ment, the same elastic products were by the action of water, it occurred to evolved. The tube was suffered to cool; DIr. D. that it ought, according to the the stop.cock being open in contact with antiphlogistic theory, to be a compound mercury, it was first tilled with mercury, of potassium, a little oxygen, and nitro- and then the mercury displaced by gen, or a combination of a suboxyde of water, when two cubical inches and potassium and nitrogen; for the hydro- three quarters of hydrogen gas were gegen disengaged, nearly equalled the nerated ; which prured, that at least two whole quantity contained in the ammo- grains and a half of potassiuin hac been nia e:Aployed: and it was easy to explain revived. the fact of the reproduction of the am- "If,” says the professor, “ a calculamonia by water, on the supposition, that tion be made upon the products in these by combination with one portion of the operations, considering them as nitrogen oxygen of the water, the oxyde of potas- and hydrogen, and taking the common siuin became potash; and by combina- standard temperature and pressure, it tion with another portion and its hydro- will be found, that by the decomposition gen, the nitrogen was converted into of 11 cubical inches of ammonia, equal volatile alkali." To ascertain this, he to 2:05 yrains, there is generated 3.0 cue made several experiments on various bical inches of nitrogen, equal to 1.06 tes duuins, procured from the action of grains, and 9.9 cubical inches of hydro. equal quantities of potassium on dry gen, which, added to that disengaged in annonia, each portion of metal equals the first operation, are equal to .383 ling six grains; and in the trial which he grains; and the oxygen, added to the regarded as most accurate, two cubical potassium, would be 6 of a grain or .0; inches and a half of oxygen were abs and the whole amount is 2.04 grains; Siw bed, and only a cubical mch and one and ?')5—2:04 =:01. But the same tenth of nitrogen evolved. The solid guantity of aminonia, decomposed by substance produced, was pure potash. electricity, would have given 5 5 cubical The quantity of nitrogen existing in the inches of nitrogen, equal to 1.6 grains, ammonia, which this residuum would and only 14 cubical inches of hydrogen, have produced by the action of water, equal to •33 : and allowing the separation supposing it had been decomposed by of oxygen in this process in water, it electricity, wouid have cqualied at least cannot be estimated at more than :11 or two cubical inches and a quarter. “On •12. So that if the analysis of ammonia wbit," says Mr. D. “ could this loss of by electricity approaches to accuracy, nitrogen depend? had it entered into any there is a considerable loss of nitrogen, unknown form with oxygen, or did it not and a production of oxygen and intiam. Teally exist in the residuum in the saine mable gas; and in the action of water quantity as in the ammonia produced upon the residuum, there is an apparent trom it?"
generation of nitrogen. He made an experiment, by heating “ How can these extraordinary results the entire fusible substance, from six be explained? -The decomposition and grains of potassiuin which had absorbed composition of nitrogen scem proved, twelve cubical inches of ammonia, in an allowing the correctness of the data; iron tube. The heat was gradually and one of its elements appears to be raised to whiteness, and the gas collected oxygen; but what is its other elementary in two portions. The whole quantity matter? - Is the gas that appears to posgeneraterd, making the usual corrections sess the proper ies of hydrogen, a neve tur temperature and pressure, would species of inflamınable aerilorm sube have been, at the mean deyree of the stance?-Or has nitrogen a metallic babarometer and therinometer, 141 cubi- sis, which alloys with the iron or platina ? cal inches. Of these, nearly a cubical --Or is water alike the ponderable matiis inch was ammonia; and the remainder a of uitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen?--Or gas, of which the portion destructible by is nitrogen a compound of hydrogel, detonation with oxygen, was to the in- with a larger proportion of oxygen ihau destructible portion as 2.7 to 1. The exists in-water?”
Nr. Dary means to apply himself to was not in great excess, a substance was the solution of these important questions; formed, spontaneously infiammable at Que as the enquiry now stands, he thinks common temperatures, the combustible zt evident that he is correct with respect materials of which were charcoal and to the composition and decomposition potassium. Here was a strong analogy of amnionia; and that MM. Gay between the action of these bodies and Lussac's and Thenard's idea of the de. sulphur on potassium. Their physical composition of the potassium, and their properties likewise resemble those of theory of its being compounded of hydro. sulphur; for they agree in being non-congen and potash, are unfounded: for a ductors, whether fluid or solid; in being considerable part of the potassinın is transparent when faid, and semi transe recovered enaltered; and in the entire parent when solid, and highly refractive, di composition of the fusible substance, Their affcctions by electricity are likethere is only a small excess of hydrogen wise siinilar to those of sulphur; for the above that existing in the ammonia acted oily bodies give out hydrocarbonate by - pon.
the agency of the voltaic spark, and be The phenomena of the process prove
come broun, as if from the deposition of the same thing. After the first slight carbonaceous matter. But the resinous effervescence, owing to the water ab. and oily substances are compounds of a sorbed by the potash, formed upon the small quantity of hydrogen and oxygen potassium during its exposure to the air, with a large quantiiy of a carbonaecous the operation proceeds with the greatest
baris. The exisience of hydrogen in franquillity. No elastic fluid is given uff sulphur, is fully proved; and the sub from the potassion. The crystallized stance which can be produced from it in substance formed in the first part of the such quantities, cannot be considered as process, may be considered as a combi- an accidental ingredient. nation of a silnenium and potassiuin; for
The reddening of the litmus paper hy ji emits a smell of ammónia when ex. sulphur that has been acred on by volia: posed to air; and is lighter than potas. electricity, might be ascribed to its cun
Mr. D. first thought, that a solid taining some of the suipluretted hydros compound of hydrogen and potassium gen formed in the process; but even the miglit be generated in the first part of the production of this gas is an evidence of operation; but his experiments do not the existence of oxygen in sulphur. lavour the opinion. Potassium is rery Mr. D. beated four grams of potassium, soluble in hydrogen; but, under con- in a retort of the capacity of twenty cukion circumstances, hyo'rogen does not bical inches; it had been filled withi sul secm absorbable by potassium.
phurelied hydrogen, dried by ineans of In the examination of sulphur, Mr. muriate of time: as soon as the potaDavy made use of that which had been sium tused, wbite fumes were copiously recently sublined, and the power applied emitteil, and the poiassion took fire, and to it was that of a battery of 500 double burnt with a most brilliant fame. A plates of six inches highly charred. The small quantity of the residual yas only action was most intense, the beat strong, was absorbed. The non-absorbable gas and the light extremely brilliant : the sula was hydrogen, holding a ininute quantity phur soon entered into ebullition, ciastic of sulphur in solution. A yellow subia mintter was formed in great quantities, mate lined the upper part of the reteri, and the sulphur, from being of a pure which proved to be sulphur. The solid yellow, became of a deep red brown tint. matier formed was red at the surface,
The gas proved to be sulphuretted hydro- like sulphuret of potash; but in the yen. In other experiments, upon the interior it was dark grey, like sulphuret union of sulphur and potassium, it was of potassium. The piece of the retort proved, that these bodies act upon each containing it, was introduced into a jar other with great energy; and that sul- inverted over mercury, and acted upen phuretted hydroden is evolved in the by a small quantity of dense muriatie process, with intense light and hent. In acid, diluted with an equal weight of heating potassium in contact with com- water; when there were disengage pound inflammable substances, as rosin, ed two cutical inches and a quarter wax, camphor, and the fixed oils, it was of gas, which was sulphuretted hydrofound that a violent inflammation was gen. occasioned; that hydrocarbonate was This, and other experiments, concur in evolved; and that wlien the compound proving the existence of a principle in
sulphuretied hydrogen, capable of de oxygen furnished to the potassium by stroying partially the inflaninability of the larger quantity of the sulphur. putassium, and of producing upon it all “ From the general tenour of these vaThe effects of oxygen. Sulphuretted hy. rious facts,” says Mr. D.," it will not, I drogen may be formed, by hearing sul trust, be unreasonable to assuine, that phur strongly in liydrogen gas. Now if sulphur, in its common state, is a comire suppose sulphuretted hydrogen to be pound of small quantities of oxygen and sormed by sulphur dissylved in its unale hydrogen, with a large quantity of a iered staie in hydrogen, and allow the basis that produces the acids of sulphur, existence of oxygen in this gas, its exist. in combustion; and which, on account
must likewise be allowed in suls of its strong attractions for other bodies, phur; for we have no right to assume that it will probably be very ditficult to obtain sulphur in sulphuretteri hydrogen, is in its
forin." combined with more oxygen than in its in metallic combinations, it probably cominon form: it is well known, that retains its oxygen and part of its hydroalen electrical sparks are passed through gen. Metallic sulphurets can only be suiphurerted bydrogen, a considerable partially decomposed by heat; and the poruon of sulphur is separated, without small quantity of sulphúr evolved from any alteration in the volume of gas. thew in this case, exists in its ccinmon Hence the intense ignition produced by state, and acts upon potassium, and is the action of sulphur on potassiuin and atfected by electricity in the same man. sodiuin, must not be ascribed merely to ner as native sulphur. the attinity of the metals of the alkalies Mr. William Sewel, of the Veterinary for its basis, but may be attributed like. College, discovered, some years since, a wise to the agency of the oxygen that it canal in the medulla spinalis of the horse, contains. The minute exainination of bullock, sheep, hog, and dog. Upoa the circumstances of the action of po- tracing the sixth ventricle of the brain, tassium and sulphur, confirins these which corresponds to the fourth in the opinions. When iwo grains of potas. human subject, to its apparent termia sium, and one of sulphur, were gently nation, he perceived the appearance of a heated in a green-glass tube filled with canal, continuing by a direct course into hydrogen, there was a most intense igni- the centre of the spinal marrow. Upon tion produced by the action of the civo closc examination, he finds its diameter bodies, and ove-eighth of a cubicnl inch large enough to admit a large-sized pin; of gas was disengaged, ich was sul from which, incision, a sinall quantity pluretted hydrouen. Now sulphuret of of colourless fluid issues, like that cona potasi produces sulphuretted hydrogen, tained in the ventricies of the brain. by the action of an acid; and if the su! The canal is lined by a membrane, phur had not contamed oxygen, the hy. resembling the tunica arachnoiden, and drogen evolved by the action of the is situated above the fissure of the mea potassium ought to have equalled at dulla : it extends as a continued tube least two cutical inches, and the whole through the whole length of the spinal quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen ought marrow; and a free coinmunication of the to have more: and that so much less sul- limpid fluid which the canal contains, phuretted hydrogen was evolved, can is kept up between the brain and whole only be ascribed to the larger quantity of extent of spiral marrow,
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPILICAL.
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
Authentic Communicutions for this Article will always be thankfully received. D
R. Jonathan Scots is preparing a Scott's literal version to those who study
dew edition of his Persian Tales, en- the eastern style of composition, and ritied, the Behar Danésh, or Garden of particularly to those who wish to acquire kuowledge; and we are assured that sir a knowledge of the manners and custouns Gore Ouseley, sir William (useley, and of flindoostan. other orientalists who have collated the Mr. GEORGE CUMBERLAND, of Brise translation with the original, have spoken tol, author of Thoughts on Outline, in the highest terms of the utility of Dr. llafod, Life of Bɔnafoni, &c. has in the
364 Literary and Philosophicul Intelligence. [May 1, press, and will publish next month, two in which the examples from antiquity are volumes of Original Tales. He is like drawn to one scale, will also appear at wise preparing for publication a work the same time, under the auspices of the with sixty plates, on the Principles of Same society. the Composition of the Ancients.
Miss Lucy Alvin has in the press, The amateurs of the fine arts Epistles on the Character and Conditim will be pleased to learn that it is in- of Women, in various Ages and Natius, tended to publish by subscription, a fac- with other poems. simile of Wilson's Sketch Book, being Mr. Walter Scott has in the press Studies and Designs by that great artist, a poem, in six cantos, entitled, the Lady made in Italy and Roine, the year of the Lake. 1752. It will consist of filty Plates, the His Royal Highness the Prince of size of the Originals, to be engraved by Wales has addressed a letter to Lord Mr. J. W HESSELL, and will form a demy Grenville, chancellor of the university of quarto volume.
Oxford, requesting him to present to the Mr. Dallas is preparing for the press university, in the name of his royal highe a new edition of the novels of Percival ness, four of the papyri, or roils fruin Aubrey, and the Morlands, to be printed Portici, together with fac-simile copies, in a uniforin manner; making together plates, and engravings, tron other roils. six volumes instead of twelve. To these A life of the late Mr. HOLCROFT is he proposes to add a seventh volume, just gone to the press. The earlier part containing poems, dramas, and moral was dictated by bimself during his last
illness; and it was his intention, had bis The Royal Free School, Borough Road, life been prolonged, to have completed Southwark, which is the establishment his own biography, The portion which of Mr. Josepu LANCASTER, has in it he was unable to finish has been drawn above one thousand scholars, the expense up by a gentleman with whom he was of whose education last year did not cost for a considerable time in habits of four shillings per annum each child. intimacy. The seminary for training schoolmis. Translations of the Medea and Octa. tresses, is under the care of his sister, via of Seneca, with other poems, origiMiss MARY LANCASTER The governess nally translated by a member of Trinity of the school, in conjunction with her college, Cambridge, may soon be exsisrer, has reduced to practice a recent pected to appear. discovery in the art of teachiny necdle- A collegiate seminary is establisbing work, which will soon be published, but by subscription at Llanddew]breti, under at present is not understood by any per. the patronage of the learned and beneson except the above, who are anxious volent bishop of St. David's. It is into establish its self-evident perfection on tended to be on a large scale, for the the most clear basis, before the details admission of youths designed for the are submitted to the public. By means church; who will have all the advantages of this, any girl may teach others to ofan university education, free ofexpen-r. work with the same facility, as they may The medical student and practitioner be taught to read after Mr. L.'s original will soon receive from the pen of Dr. inethod. Any school of girls, however G. HI. Totimin, of Wolverhampton, a large, may be supplied with materials at work under the title of, Elements of the the most trilling expense; and one mis- Practice of Medicine, in which that imtress may superintend the needlework portant subject will, for the first tine, with as much ease to herself, as one assume all the interest of a practical master on the British system can teach science. eight hundred or a thousand boys read- Miss MARY HOUGHTON has a work in ing, writing, and arithmetic. This plan the press, in three volumes, entitled, is just at present hept from public view, Mysteries of the Forest, which bids faie but in a few weeks is intended to be to rival the best productions of the adpublished.
mired RADCLIFFE. A new volume of essays, by the Lon. The Rev. F. A. Cox proposes t» pobdon Architectural Society, will be ready lish by subscription, the Dissertations, for ibe public in a few days.
Ilistorical, Critical, Theological, and Au bistorical and scientific disquisition Moral, on the most memorable events on the Doric Order of Architecture, by of the Old and New Testaments, of Mr. E. Albin, in folio, with seven platcs, Saurin, Roques, and Beausubre. s