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svere hefore unknown), accompanied by lations, the hedysarum gyrans, a species as many plates. This was a fine speci- of sainloin, of Bengal, that raises and men of an inportant work; and it will depresses its laterai folioles, clay and night, always be regretted, that notwithstanding without any external incitement. He the preparations which had been made gave an interesting account of the deterfor the engravings, the author did not carryminate directions taken by different parts it forward.

of plants in spite of obs:acles; of the Broussonnet returned from London, progress of the roots to seck for moisture, preceded by the reputation of bis book, and the insections of the leaves in pursuit decorated with the title of Fellow of the ot light. Royal Society, and counting among his Such subjects were far superior to those friends the younger Linneus, Dr. Solan of his first writings, which were inere der, Sparman, Sibthorp, Scarpa, and descriptions of species: but he soon rose several other naturalists of distinction. to still higher; and his Memoir on the

An unreserved contormity to the plan Respiration of Fishes belonys entirely tu and systems of Linneus, would have been the philosopliy of natural history. He of itself no recommendation in the eyes here shews the diminution in the intensity of those who then possessed the most of respiration, and in the heat of thie influence in France; and particularly of blood, progressively from birds to quathe respectable Daubentoni, who enjoyed drupeds, and from quadrupedo lo reptiles; much credit both with the academy and he compares ihe size of the heart, and the the minister: but the amiable character, quantity of blood, in different fishes; exthe mild and engaging inanners, and the plains how it is that those wbich bave modest and dithident tone,of Broussonnet, small bronchial apertures can live out of atuned for his scientific creed; and his the water longer than others; and relates most zealous protector, was the man soine experiments on the ditlerent degrees whose ideas on that subject were in the of heat which fishes can support, and on greatest opposition to his own. Thus substances that prove fatai to them when Daubenton appointed him bis substitute mixed with the water in whicin they swim. in the college of France, and his associate The greater part of these idea, avid facts at the veterinary school; and was the bad before been contained in his doctorat principal means of procuring his recep- thesis. tion at so early an age into the academy:

Ilis Memoir on the Teeth of Animals a conduct which was equally honourable is of the saine class. The dillerences beto both. lle was not elected academician tween ihose of carnivorous and ot' herbiLowever without a competition which vorous animals; the laminæ of enamel continued for six months; and during which penetrate the substance of the late that period he presented a series of me- ter, and give to their crown the incqualimoirs, of such merit as could not have ty necessary for the purposes of triturafailed of ensuring his success, even if he tion; the infinite variety in the number, had not been assisted by any patronage. figure, and position, of the teeth of qua

Among these was the plan of his in- drupeds; and the inference, that from the tended great work on ichthyology. llis structure of the bunian ieejh, man is arrangement was nearly the same as naturally both a frugilerous and carnivos that of Linneus; but he enumerated rous animal, in the proportion of S to 21200 species, though Linneus had then these facts, though now familiar, were only 460. As specimens of his manner then neither void of novelty nor of inpi description, he gave a memoir on the terest. sea wolf (unarrhichus lupus), and another The experiments of Spallanzani and on the scomber gludius. ' lle wrote after. Bonnet on the reproductive power of ward on the speriatic vessels of fishes; aquatic salamanders, at this time excited and shewed that scales are possessed Ivy a lively attention among natural philoso. several animals of this class, which are phers. Broussonnet repeated thein on cominonly thought to be destitute of fishes; and found that these also repro. them. But the article inost likely to duce every part of their fins, if the sinull slrike such men of learning as were not bones are not actually torn out by the professed naturalists, was bis Comparison root. of the Motions of Plants with those of The whole of the above-mentioned laAnimals. In ibis be gave the first com- bours were previous to his becoming a plete description of the vegetable which member of the academy, and they are approaches nearest to the appearance of nearly all that he published on náturut faring souncthing voluntary in its oscil: history. It will doubtless appear sua

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Memoirs of M. Broussonnet.

[May 1, prising that lie quitted a career which he of eloquence. The first of his éloges, had entered upon with so much distinc. that of Buffon, is perhaps rather feeble tion, and in which there was reason to for so great a name; but in two which expect such happy results from his genius followed it, at one time lie charms us and activity. The occasion of this was, with the peaceful virtues of Blaveau, and that in the same year in which he was at another excites our admiration of the adınitted into the acadeny, he was also self-devotion to the public good, and of appointed secretary to the Agricultural the probity and frankness, which marked Suciety; and this was followed by many the conduct of Turgot. At the period other causes of turning his attention into when every wish seemed directed to a a diterent channel.

popular revolution, he frequently obAgricultural societies had been esta- tained applause by recalling the public blished in the several districts of France attention to agricultural subjects. in 1761: but as they were mostly com- It is well knotn what influence the posed of the great proprietors of land, or activity of an individual can exert on af mere farmers, they had evinced little that of a whole body of men; and how activity in their proceedings; and that of powerfully a young man of an ardent the metropolis had done no more in a pe- character, as Broussonnet then was, may riod of four-and-twenty years, than publish be tempted by such occasions of exersome instructions. Berihier de Sauvigny, cising a brilliant genius, and of acquiring however, who was intendunt of Paris at the public favour: but perhaps it is less this time, made it a kind of point of understood, in what degree that perpe. honour to raise this society to notice; tual self-devotion tu the glory of others, and thought the execution of such a de- which constitutes the first duty of those sign could not be entrusted to any person who are ihe organs of a learned society, more capable than M. Broussonnet, with may prore detrimental to the success whom he had had occasion to form a and display of their personal labours. connection in England. The latter ac- Broussonnet must have experienced this cord ngly lost no time in applying all his more than any body else, in a departexertions to this purpose; and succeeded ment that is doubtless of the greatest in giving, in some measure, a new cha jinmediate utility; but which, being con. racter to the association. Useful me- tined by its very nature to noticing direct moirs were published every quarter of a applications, had also, in an cqual proyear; numerous instruccions were circu- portion, the effect of keeping him from Jailed in tbe country-places; mectings of access to those general truths which are farmers were established in every canton, the only possible objects of really scienfor their more effectual information in tific labours; and of making his situation advantageous methods and processes; rather an intermediate office between the and prizes were solemnly distributed to provinces and the government, than a such of thein as had most successfully centre of the correspondence of learner applied those processes in practice. men. He thus entered insensibly on a These steps quickly brought the snciety new career, from the time of his being into general respect; and induced the appointed to this post; and in that ca. government to form it into a central reer he became continually more and corporation, with a cognizance extending more engaged, particularly when the re. over the whole kingdom, for the purpose volution seemed to have called every one of collecting and communicating intel to the nranagement of public affairs. ligence of discoveries and inventions in A man who is capable of exercising a agriculture. Persons of the first dis- personal and independant influence on tinction did not disdain to enrol thein- the welfare of his couatrymen by the sclves as its members; the society held peaceful investigation of truth, will find public sittings; and in short, it assumed it very hazardous, without previously a rank among the great learned asso- ascertaining his own strength, to agree ciations of the capital.

to become one of the inferior springs of It cannot be denied ibat, in his new the complicated machine of government; office, Broussonnet shewed a great flexi- a machine in which the irresistible and bility of talent. He gradually aban. simultaneous action of so many wheels, doned the dryness which forms a cha- leaves to no individual an uncontrolled racteristic of ihe school that he had fol. motion or will. How much more danjowed in natural bistory; and soon at- gerous must this determination be, at a jawed an elegant and well-supported time when the whole state, delivered up style, rising sometimes to all the warmth to the passions and caprices of the mul

titude,

titude, was borne along by an impetuous ings, character can accomplish every torrent, and when every successive in- thing, and knowledge almost nothing; stant might expose the magistrates to decisions are enthusiastically made in the alternative of crimne or death! the aggregate, which afterwardi each in.

Broussonnet, whose public discourses dividual privately condeinns in the man had gained him popularity, could scarcely ments of reflection; and when a deliberafail of being called to some political tion is opened, no one can foresee to trust in those early moments when the what issue it may be brought by the popular opinion guided each choice; but accumulated sophisms, and the proibe first situations that he filled of this pitious or wayward warmth, of successive kind, must soon have made him look speakers, and by the tumultuous ayitaback with regrei to the pursuit of the rions of party-spirit. M. Broussonnet sciences, and the tranquil occupations of attempted in vain to reclaim the conthe closet. Being appointed in 1789 to tending factions by proposing conciliatory the electoral body of Paris, he was re- views; but his mild and insinuating manners quired, with the other electors, to assume were weapons too weak to oppose the that species of intermediate magistracy universal frenzy. which' for an instant supplied the place After the events which put an end to of the suspended authorities; and on the Legislative assembly, he retired to his the very day of his coming to the town- country-seat near Montpellier; where he hail, he belield his friend and patron the hoped at length to enjoy, in the cultiintendant of Paris murdered before his vation of his lands, that repose to which face. He was afterwards, together with he had been a stranger froin the time of Vauvilliers, charged with the task of pro- his yielding to the allurements of ambicuring a supply of provisions for the ine- tion. But the moment had arrived when tropolis; and saw himself twenty times there was no longer any repose to be threatened with destruction by those who expected by whoever had been concerned were themselves preserved by the results in public affairs, or had attained to any of his solicitude, and who submitted only degree of distinction. In consequence to the guidance of such as were inter of the revolution of the 31st of May, ested in bringing upon them the mise- which gave the preponderance to the ries of fainine.

most violent of the factions that strug. Discouraged by the view of so much gled for power, a great number of the folly and ingratitude, the attliction which departments revolted: their plans how. had now taken possession of his spirits, ever were badly concerted, and by their was vented in his last discourses before failure completed the triumph of the the Agricultural Socicty; and froin that oppressors.

Commissioners were now time it might have been apprehended sent into every part of the country, to that be would never again be tempted proceed with rigonr against such as had to exert his knowledge and zeal for the taken an energetic part in those meapublic welfare. He fiad seat however sures: and as Broussonnet liad been de. in that celebrated assenbly (the Second), puted by his fellow-countrymen (though which, though it existed only for a few against his will) to the committee of inmonths, will leave such deep traces in surrection at Bourdeaux, and appointed the annals of france; which, at the first member of a convention which the in. moment of its meeting, received almost surgent depa, tments projected to assemon its knees the same constitution from ble, he was imprisoned in the citadel of which afterward it daily tore some one Montpellier; and would soon have had of the pages; which shrunk under the to undergo the same fate as so many fall of a Throne that it had sworn to other illustrious scholars and virtuous support; and, in quitting the scene, apo magistrales, if he had not ctfected liis peared wantonly to multiply the chances escape in an almost miraculous manner. of anarchy, to the nation for which it On this occasion he took refuge with had undertaken to hold the reins of go. his brother, who acted as a physician in vernment. In this situation he might the army of the Pyrenees; and here he perceive the wide difference between the for a short time concealed binself, under calm reasonings which are adapted for the appearance of an inferior physician : the persuasion of the solitary philosopher, but as he knew too well that this expeand the violent arguinents which alone dient could not give him permanent sea, are capable of producing effect upon a curity, he eagerly sought a favourable bumerous body of men. In such rect. opportunity of passing the frontiers." 3

One

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Memoirs of M. Broussonnet.

[May 1, One day, on pretence of gathering herbs ticular, received him with npen arms at for the military hospital, he ascended Madrid; but no one displayed more ea. the mountain in a slight dress to avoid gerness and delicacy in serving bin than suspicion, and accompanied only by some sir Joseph Banks. As soon as he learnt young physicians belonging to the army: he the flight of his old friend, he inmefound means to escape from their sight at diately took every active and precauthe turning of a valley; and after climbing tionary measure for securing to himn not the raggedest patlıs, which exposed him only a refuge but an honourable subsisi. least to the risk of being seen, as expe- ence, in case of his being still further ditiously as his strength permitted, he pursued by dangers, as the turn of darted forward through one of the out. affairs about this time rendered possible. lets. But fresh dangers now awaited This kindness proved of more early utility him. Even the arrival of night did not to the subject of it, than M. Broussonnet allow him to rest, for the appearance bimself could have anticipated; nor did of a French patrol would have been cer. the persecutions which the latter bad suit tain death to himn; and tbus he wandered to undergo, proceed from the quarte: among the rocks, in a freezing cold, scan. that he dreadeid. tily clothed, and without food, having Spain was already the resort of numeonly a little snow tu quench bis thirst, rous French emigrants wiro bad left their starting at the smallest noise, and fearing country at a previous stage of the revoabove all that some of the winding patlis lution, and the political principles of might lead him back toward the fatal these made them averse to associate with territory which he had just left. At one who bad borne an active part in the day-break his foot struck against some ionovations which they had themselves object, which proved to be a corpse; opposed. They determined therefore to perhaps that of a wretched exile, like get rid of him; and in consequence of himself, whom dread of the execu- iheir suggestions he was first banished to tioner hurried froin bis native country. Xeres, and afterward embarked at Cadiz A second night, pore terrible than the in an English vessel; which being met by first, closed in upon him before he had two French frigates that were cruising off discorered any inhabited place; and it St. Vincent, he was compelled to take was not till afier eight-and-forty hours retuge at Lisbon. But even here he did spent in this manner, and when he was not venture to land openly, lest he should quite overcome with fatigue and want, incur new persecution. M. Correa de that he met a poor man who directed Serra, a celebrated botanist, obtainen and supported him to the nearest Spa- from the duke de la Foens (a prince of nish cottage. His sufferings were hardly the blood), president of the Academy of inferior, in pursuing his journey to Ma- Sciences of this city, permission to condrid: on fout, without money, and almost ceal him in the house of that society; and without clothes, he offered himself as an though this was still a sort of prison to assistant to several village-barbers, for him, how much he must have pre'erred no other reward than-his victuals, but it to that of Montpellier! He slept in was refused.

the library of the academy; and there he Fortunately, in the bosom of political passed his time in learning the Portue associations there exists an association guese language, and in making valuable of a diferent nature, which aims at ren. extracts from ancient manuscripts con. dering service to them all, without taking taining the narratives of the earliest voypart in their continual dissensions. The ages performed by that once enterprising true friends of the sciences, at the same people. time that they yield to no class of men The emigrants at the court of Porti. in feelings of patriotisın, are also united gal however, by means of communica. ajgong themselves by the same general. tions from those of Madrid, discovered ves that attach them to the great cause him in this concealment. He was now of humanity. The mere mention of M. subjected to the interference of the Broussonnet's name, and a knowledge of inquisition, on pretence of having been his situation, were sufficient to procure a freemason; the prince who protected l.in a kind reception, protection, and him was publicly accused of jacobmisia assistance of every sort, from all votaries in a pamphler; and matters proceeded of science, without distinction of coun. so far, that Broussonnet was glad to try, religion, or political engagements. assume the character of physician in the Alessieurs Cavanilles and Ortega, in par- . train of the ambassadur-extraordinary

from

from the United States to the emperor of natural history itself, as well as merely Morocco. What severe reflections on the school of Montpellier, was indebted human vature, and on the springs which to the hand that brought himn back wholly actuate the roachinery of nations, inust

to their service. have arisen in the mind of the man who During the short period that he was thus found himself reduced to the necese professor at Montpellier, he succeeded, sity of seeking some degree of personal by the assistance of M. Chaptal's prosofety in Morocco, for the crime of tection, in rendering the public garden haring thought that one of the most of the school there an object of adinirarefined communities in Europe was com- tion to botanists, by the order which he petent to bestow on itself a rational con- introduced into it, and the number of stitution! Yet it was here that he again plants that he collected. His lessons at. found happiness, in finding repose, and tracted a great concourse of students; resuming bis original studies; -and here be bad resumed his original labours on he received intelligence of the change the animal kingdom; and he hoped to that took place in the political sentiments retrieve the loss of those , fifteen years of his countrymen, and of their exertions which a single error in his conduci had to re-establish a regular system of nearly rendered useless to science and to government.

his fame, when his career in both was But the excesses which he had person. cut short in the prime of life. ally witnessed among them, had mare His last illness was one of those which too terrible an impression on his imagi- always surprise ts, bowever common nation, to allow hiin to confide in these they may be : it was perhaps brought on first appearances of tranquillity; and by griet for the loss of his wife, and the accordingly, aficr obtaining of the direc. sufferings of his daughter (whom he tentory the erasure of his name from the derly loved) in childbed; and a fall which list of emigrants, he employed all the he had received in the Pyrénees, doubtinfluence of his friends to procure his less contributed to its production. He return to Morocco in the character of one wight sustained a slight stroke of consul. Being subsequently driven from apoplexy: but under the care of his bro. this post by the plague, be was appointed ther, and M. Dumas his colleague, he consul at the Canary islands; and, as if soon recovered the use of his limbs and he thought he could never be tar enough bis senses; and even bis memory, wbich from his country, he finally solicited the bad formerly been so prodigious. A consulship at the Cape of Good Hope. single point of the latter failed him: he A minister who was one of his relations, was never afterward able to pronounce and who has always felt a tender interest or write correctly substantives and proin the concerns of the school in which per names, either in French or Latin; they both were pupils, was obliged to use though he retained a perfect command a sort of violence, for the purpose of over the rest of both these languages. determining him to accept a situation in Epithets and adjectives presented them. that establisbment.

selves to his wind in abundance; and he It must be acknowledged that botany, contrived to multiply them in his diswhich had again become the favourite pure course, in such a striking manner as to suit of Broussonnet, had a considerable make bitnself understood. If, for inshare in his motives for desiring to live stance, he wished to speak of any partia abroad. During the whole period of his cular person, he described his appeare residence at Salee, Mogadore, Morocco, ance, his qualices, and his occupation; and Teneriff, he employed his leisure or if of a plant, he described its form and moments in studying the plants of those its colours. He recognised the name places; and the interesting observations when pointed out to him in a book, but which he frequently sent home, were it never occurred to him spontaneously. well adapted to atone for his absence. His case suggests a curious question cone But whatever importance might charac- cerning the nature of memory: Whether terize his researches, they were still of this incomprehensible faculty is divided 100 particular a

The proper into different and independant departe post for such a man as Broussonnet, was ments, in which ideas are distributed & professor's chair; from which his genius according to grammatical classes, instead and activity might extend the general of being connected by the sensations domain of science, as much as his elo- from which the ideas themselves flow? quence would diffuse a taste for it; and His health continued to amend daily, MONTHLY Mac, No. 198,

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