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Account of the Ukraine.

(May 1, unite the Boristhenes to the Niemen, cularly of the common sorts. The natives would ultimately extend the trade of thé of the Ukraive have their impleinents of Black Sea over almost the whole of husbandry much more perfeci than those ancient Poland; and would join to the of Great Russia : but what chiefly con. advantages of the trade of this Sea, tributes to make agriculture Aourish, is which is already iaunense, that of the the great quantity of catile; which at the Ballic.

same time serves to manure the land, “ The French besides would not have and assists in its cultivation. The Ukraine to encounter on these coasts, as upon ers are more robust and less ignoran the Baltic, any rival nation who would than the Lithuanians. seek to possess themselves of all the Polish L'kraine, in the limits which it trade; und ubo at present, whether owing occupied since 1636, contained no towns po its capital, to the nature of its manu- of any considerable note. Zytonini, factures, or its policy, tornis obstacles and other places of the palatinate of frequently difficuli to overcome. Kiovie, scarcely deserve iu be menti

“ France also by its credit, the proxi- , oned. In the palatinate of Braclaw, mity of its ports in the Mediterranean, besides the city of the same name, there and by its power on that sea, is of all is also Nieme row, wbicle contains about others the nation. most proper to under three hundred and twenty houses, some take this branch of coulinerce."

inanufactories in leather and cotton, Exclusive of these important objects, and a tolerable trade. At Tulozin, the the Ukraine also possesses a production French have established a manufactory formerly held in very great esiimation, of fire-arms, of which they make a conI allude to the seed of the kermes, better siderable exportation by Cherson. Tarknown by the name of Polish cochineal. govica is known by its confederation; It is now suld only to the Turks and and at Human the fine forests of oak Armenians; who use it to dye their Mo- cease, and the extensive plains without rocco leather, stuffs, thread, and horse

The palatinate of tails. The women in the Lerant prepare it Podolia contains the town of Kaminiec, with wine or lemon juice, ar.d thus make situated on a small river which runs into a sort of vegetable rouge, with which they the Niester, and is about three leagues stain the nails both of their fingers and from the Turkish city of Choczyın in their toes.

Moldavia. Its castle, built upon a Locusts are the only remarkable rock, aud fortified more by nature than scourge to which these provinces are by art, was formerly considered as a espo-el.

place of great strength; though now The inhabitants of the Ukraine call very ruinous it was always the best themselves Malo-rosses, which is, Little fortress of Poland, The city at preRussians. According to the historical sent contains about five thousand sis system generally adopted, they are the hundred and sixty inhabitants. Szary. descendants of ihe Russians of Kiowie. grod is niore populous, having near These parts, for a long time usurped seven thousand inhabitants. Barr is by Poland, have returned to their mo. only remarkable for having been the seat ther country. These peasants of Little of a famous confederation.-Such are the Russia, aie botter farmers and eco- towns of one of the most fertile cours nomists in husbandry, than those of trics in the world. Ti e Tartars, the Rus. Great Russia; they do not destroy tbeir sians, and the confederate Pulcs, ly forests. Their houses are not entirely turns, bare banished fiom this country, built of wood, but some of stones and along with peace, industry and cirati white clay mixed. With the exception of zation. some of the gentry, and a few of the in- One cannot describe the l'kraine Labitants of the towns, they do not use without naming Kiow, that famous the warın bath. The peasant makes capital of Southern Russia, reduced it use of no candles to liguli him; but is is true to a population of only twentysatisfied with tallow and oil, which be two thousand souls, but still in a five burns in small pots: or be makes torchics rishing state for a city of this counirs; of different plants, which give a clear possessing an university of great an. light without smoke. Almost all the tiquity, restored and endowed by Catha. persants of the Ukraine have orchards rine li. and Alexander I., and now suund their houses, and they plant fruit- serving as a depot for the mercban. trces in their kitchen gardens. They dise which passes up and down the consume a rast quantity of wood in great river Borysthenes, that washes the preparation of their brandy, parti- its walls. Kiow was founded in 430, 1

according

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according to the Polish historians. In house of Ostrogski, passed to the house 880, this city became the place of resi- of Lubomirski, and afterward to that of dence of a prince of the race of Rurick; Sangusko: it yields an immense revenue. in 1037 it was declared the capital of all Olyka, another duchy, belongs to the Russia, and the grand-dukes continued Radzivills. The small village of Czarto reside there till 1157. In 12:10, it toriski is reported to be the origin of the passed under the dominion of the Tar. illustrious family of that name.

The tars; then under that of the Poles and Lubomirski, who are still more rich and Lithuanians. In 1686 it returned de. powerful, are also originally of Wol. finitively under the Russian sceptre. hynin, or at least its vicinity. The Joss of this place, which as it were The country of Chelm has a sandy coinmands the navigation of the Borys- chalky soil. The wheat is of a most exo thenes, was one of those remote causes cellent quality: large quantities of yellow which prepared and accelerated the amber are also found here. subjection of Poland.

(To be continued.) To the north-west of the Ukraine extends Wolbynia, a province no less fertile. Its chalky soil produces in great to the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

QUERIES. abundance millet, barley, and the hea

SIR, viest and most farinaceous wheat of all Poland. Some mines of iron are found I SHALL be obliged if some one of your nu

merous chemical readers will inform me, here; and near Dubno is found yellow through the medium of your valuable misamber. A great part of this province is cellany, of the best method of discovering covered with imniense forests. In the whether there be vitriolic acid in what you woods are found, in a wild state, rose- generally purchase for vinegar. There is licnary, asparagus, and various other tle doubt, from the different taste vinegar now plants, which, though growing without has, from what it used to have, that it is cullivation, are with difficulty to be dis made from a different material ; and from the tinguished from those which are reared very increased consumption of vitriol, there in our gardens with the greatest care

is some reason to think it is manufactured and attention, The rivers and lakes

from that mineral acid. The publicity of an abound with fish. But even this delight others, as well as to

answer to this may be serviceable to many fal country bas, at different times, exe

A CONSTANT READER. perienced great devastation; particularly in 1618, when the Tartars carried off no

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. less than thirty thousand prisoners, and

SIR, an inimeuse quantity of plunder. The inhabitants are Russians, as their lan. THE late celebrated Dr. Priestley, many guage, their religion, and their customs, tract, entitled “Considerations for Young

years ago, wrote and published a small prove. They are a very warlike race of Men, and the Parents of Young Men;" which people, and make excellent soldiers. has long been out of print: and it is a pity

We shall now enumerate the principal that it should be, since a wide circulation of towns of Wolhynia. Since 1774, Dubno it might be productive of grod. A friend of has become the seat of a kind of fair, at mine wishes to reprint it, but cannot procure which all the nobility of the province

a cupy; and I believe it is to be met with assemble, in order to settle their affairs. only in private hands. Perhaps it is in the We also meet there with Turks, Arme. possession of some one of the numerous nians, Germans, Swiss; in short, some

readers of your valuable miscellany who times there is a conflux of not less than

may see this (if you will kindly give it a

corner there), and will probably favour me thirty thousand souls: the ordinary po

with the pamphlet; either to take a copy pulation is estimated at six thousand. from, as it is but a very short one, or to forLuck is the ancient capital, and Novo- ward to my friend for the purpuse of its being grod-Wolynski that of the present day. reprinted. I saslaw, with five thousand and sixty

CHRISTOPHER EARNSHAW. inhabitants, and Ostrog, with four thou- 43, Chancery Lare. sand six hundred, are the two most in dustrious places; the latter is the chief To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, town of very ancient duchy, now SIR, transformed into a majorat, which, after JF any reader of your entertaining miscel. Zaving, for its sovereigns, dukes of the lang can inform me of means to remove DIONTHLY Mag. No, 198,

2X

tho

$42

Queries,

(May 1, the shining quality which so much destroys more efficacious, for the purposes mentionet the effect of drawings in Indian ink, the in- in my letter, than the process which he re formation would greatly oblige

commends. A CONSTANT REA D'ER. Simplicity in undertakings upon a large

scale is, at all times, most desirable; and in To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

those for the purposes of general health, ig

most peculiarly so. It would have been ay SIR,

well it your correspondent bad asfixed his real A PUNCTUAL

peruser of your widely-cir. wame to his letter; we should then have had culated miscellany, earnestly solicits of the

an opportunity of judging how far he was incorrespondents who combine to fill its inter- fluenced in his remarks, by a soreness of feel. esting es, a satisfactory conamunication ing on some other subjects to which I have on the subject of encased phosphorus, pre- occasionally adverted, pared for instant use in procuring flame as a Anonymous remarks are hardly fair upon substitute for the common tinder-box. I had those who fearlessly avow their sentiments purchased one of the usual make, the light and their names. from which was to be obtained by suddenly im- Unawed by the letter of E. T. I., I take merging a common match ; but upon the first the liberty of communicating another fact, trial, though done with care, the phosphorus not indeed of as much consequence as acetic became instantaneously ignited, and the ope- acid may be: but it is, at any rate, singular; sator was severely scalded.

and such as perhaps few of your chenical He shall be obliged to any philosophical readers have had an opportunity of witnesse gentleman who will not contemptuously ing. It is, that having occasion to try some smile at his query, but briefly inform him experiments upon blood, in order to the of the most portable and prudent construcmaking of Prussian blue, seventeen years tion of these light procurers, and the best

ago, I put by about four ounces of dried ox method of extinguishing the fame, and blood in a dry place, not having immediate healing the burn, of pliosphorus.

occasion for it ; and this same blood I now

have completely dry and unaltered, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

JAMES JENNING. SIR, IT is frequently asserted, that the body of

dissenting clergymen in London, as well To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. as the corporation of London, and the two

SIR, Universities, enjoy the right of presenting ABOUT twenty years ago I subscribed for addresses to his majesty in person. As I

a print to be engraved after the picture have not heard of the exercise of this right, of the Siege and Reliet of Gibraltar.' Two I should be very glad to learn from any of guineas were paid to Copley the painter, and your correspondents, whether it exists; two more were to be paid on delivery. and if it does, how it originated, and when

The print has never appeared; nor has an it was acted upon.

X. Y. apology been given, that I ever heard of.

Before I make any remarks on this disTo the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. graceful transaction, permit me, sir, through

the medium of your valuable publication, SIR,

to request any information on the suljece, HAVING been lately engaged in trans

which you, or any of your very numerous lating a French work, wherein the term Canards tigres is mentioned, and not knowing any explanation, or apology, has been pube

friends, can give me: particularly whether to what species of the duck the word rigoes liely given; or whether the subscribers have sefers, I shail feel obliged it some one of your still grounds on which 10 found their ercurrespondents, conversant in natural history pectations of the print being delivered, or and French literature, will inform me, through

ALOHA. the medinm of your magazine.

The letter of your correspondent from Bristol, signed E. 'T. I. oi last month, page To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, 134, refers, i presume, to a letter of mine in

SIR, your Magazine for December last, page 461, I SHOULD be glad to be informed by some concerning the atitic acid. Now, sir, I by no of your legal readers, whether the clause means desire to make your valuable magazine in what is called the new police act, aua vehicle for controversy; what I have there thorising the apprehension of reputed chieres, stated, is in the power of any of your readers can be enforced by the city magistrates. The to prove, without having recourse to any very serious depredations that have recently theory whatever. I must however take the been committed in the city by pickpockets, hiperty to remark, that the acetic acid is, in render every precaution absolutely necessary. many respects, more agreeable, not to say

A CONSTANI READIR.

To

not.

J.S.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. remains to be solved by a more learned perSIT,

son than myself. An insertion of the above IN reply to a query in the magazine for Sep. in the Monthly Magazine, will oblige a con

tember, whether the sun-flower "follows stant reader. the course of the sun in the day, and in the night-time, (the stalk untwisting) returns to

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the east to face the sun next morning," I beg SIR, leave to observe that I believe it to be ground. On reading a paper in your number for less; having a number of very fine Howers May, 1808, on the state of the silk magrowing in an open garden, not in the least nufacture in this kingdom, I could not but influenced by any surrounding walls or build- feel a regret that an object promising such ing. They have the finest possible heads of national utility, should be so much neglected numerous flowers, growing to face all quar- by us. And it appears deserving of particular ters; but my principal attention has been paid attention at this time, when some of our to the main Aower, and I find it always re- principal manufactures are on the decline, and tains, in the situation it first blows in, either numerous hands out of employment; and Dorth, east, south, or west. Some of the stalks whes our supply from the continent is un. appear twisted, which I consider to arise from certain, and the article increasing in demand. the great weight of the bead when in full I cannot but think that were premiums seed; though, while making these remarks, offered, and due encouragement given to the a friend of mine asserted, he had observed the growth of the mulberry, and the culture of flower changed its position; but he is the the worm, it would produce a spirit of exonly person

I ever beard to believe it, whilst ertion, which can alone ensure, and which I have many observers with myself to the seldom fails of ensuring, success. contrary:

That no local impediment arises, is evi. Also in observation on chalk becoming dent, from the success which has attended Aint, by a natural process. Whilst in Bed- past exertions, when aided by a spirited gofordshire, this was the subject of conversa - vernment, and that still attends the experition; and it was asserted to me as a fact, that ments of individuals on a smaller scale. on the cbalky hills in the neighbourhood of Could any of your correspondents commuDunstable, chalk actually became Aint, nicate information on the most successful though to the observers by an unknown pro- method of rearing the worm, winding the Ctss; and that after removing these flints, yet silk, &c. with the profit attached to it, and the fresh chalk replaced the usual quantity recommendations on the subject either to of finis, and that this would be the case ad persons or books, it would be esteemed a infinitum; by what inherent chemical pro. favour, by an obliged enquirer, $. perty in the chalk, aided by the atmosphere,

MEMOIRS AND REMAINS OF EMINENT PERSONS.

PETER

MEMOIRS of the LIFE and writings of the first establishment of that academy; M. BROUSSONNET.

and he was elected a member of the InETER Marie Augustus Brousson- stitute in his absence; and was continued

net, professor of botany at the in that character though the duties of his Medical School of Montpellier, mem- post at Montpellier rendered this absence ber of the French Institute, Fellow perpetual. From these consideration it of the Royal Society of London, and is evident that he must have possessed formerly associate-anatomist of the Aca- two classes of qualities which are not demy of Sciences, was born on the 28th always united; those calculated to come of February 1761, at Montpellier, where mand respect, and to attract esteemi. his father, Francis Broussonnet, was pro- Being born in the bosom of a celebrafessor of medicine. The life of Brous- ted school, and the son of a man who connet displays a striking series of proofs discharged with honour the duties of inof the high opinion with which he had struction, it may be said that the Sciences inspired the different societies to which surrounded his cradle, and theirs was the lie belonged: for at the age of eighteen language of his lispings. From his ten. he was selected by the university of Mont- derest years he was animated by an inpellier as one of its professors; at twenty- satiable curiosity after the productions of four he was unanimously chosen a mem- nature, in which the fine climate of his ber of the Academy of Sciences, a cir- nativity is so rich; and his father, fearing 'cunstance unprecedented in the whole that such a variety of attractive objecis period (120 years) shat bad elapsed since might divert hin from those long prelimi

nary weig

944
Memoirs of M. Broussonnet.

[May 1, nary studies without which there is no had at the same time directed most of true science, thought it necessary to have those who engaged in that pursuit into a him removed froni home, and according- wrong path; and the zoologists and minely placed hiin in succession at ditterent ralogists were not yet familiar with the colleges appropriated to the belles lettrrs. commodious nomenclature and the rigosBut young Broussonvet, at the same time ous synonymy of Linneus. It appeared that be distinguished himself anong his as if that great man had written only for companions in the common objects of botanists; and as these had all become their studies, found opportunities also for his disciples, they seemed to form a sepa• pursuing his own particular inclination. rate class, whose example had yet but He was able to indulge himself niuch little influence on the investigators of the more in this respect, on his return to other two branches of natural history. Nontpellier for the purpose of studying Broussonnet had himself imbibed the medicine; where, by gathering herbs in Linnean doctrine in all its purity; and the day.tiine, and dissecting in the night, he now resolved to establish it in France, he crowded ihe apartments of his father and to attach bis reputation to the success with his botanical collections and his of this undertaking. anatomical preparations. Yet notwith- As it is in the distinction of the species standing these accessory labours, he made that the advantage of Linneus's method such a rapid progress in the regular course is particularly conspicuous, and the cabiof medical study, that at the age of nets of Paris did not then present a eighteen he received the degree of doctor, sufficient number of new ones to serve and the university of Montpellie; solicit- as materials for labours of any importance, ed the chancellor of France for his he deterinined to visit the most valuable succession to the professorial chair of of the foreign collections: and he direcihis father on its future racancy.

ed his first steps to England; as its univerHis Thesis on Respiration, which he sal commerce, its immense colonial pose had maintained some months before, in sessions, its extensive maritime expedireality justified this proceeding, which tions, and the taste which many of its otberwise bore the appearance of being most eminent personages entertained for premature. It is an excellent piece of natural history, had rendered that colina comparative anatomy and physiology, try the richest emporium of the produce exhibiting such facts as were then knun tions of the two worlds. The house of with equal genius and learning, and anti- sir Joseph Banks was at that time a recipating tiie rudiments of several of thic sort of the most illustrious characters of discoveries which have been recently Europe, and an open school for such made on this important subject.

young persons as were incited to emula. He visited Paris for the first time, fortion by these distinguished examples. the purpose of procuring the confirmation According to his usual practice, he made of his appointment as eventual successor M. Broussonnet undergo a sort of novito his father's chair: but the minister, ciate for a year; and when he felt assured perhaps forming an opinion of him froin that his visitor was worthy of his esteein, his youth, or influenced by some irrelevant he bestowed it on him unreservedly, and suggestions, was not forward in dispatch- continued to give him proofs of it through ing, this business; and Broussonnet, con- out the rest of his life. ceiving new ideas in the metropolis, and Under the roof of sir Joseph Banks, feeling that he could there open for him. Broussonnet began his labours on the self a different prospect from that which subject of Fishes; and the presents which he had contemplated at Montpellier, de he received from that generous friend of sired his father 1190 to urye it.

the sciences, consisting of a multitude of llis characteristic sagacity enabled objects collected by sir Joseph in captain him at once to perceive, from the man- Cook's first voyage, would have supplied ner in which natural history was then the materials of coutinuing those labours, studied at Paris, that he might easily and if it had not been for the different events quickly attract motiçē by the next and which prevented the author from the furbrilliant turn which it was in his power ther prosecution of his design. The first to give to that science. Indeed, though Part of this work was published at Lone the eloquence of Butfon had inspired a don in 1782, under the title of " Ichthye general taste for the study of nature, it ologia Decus I :"it contains the Latin des

scriptions, in the Linnean style, and per. Printed as Montpellier in 1778, under haps with too mucha minuteness of deial, ghe title: Veria Positiones circa Respirationein. of ten rare fishes (of which number hat

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