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the deductio; the accompanying great nent orator, to whom the youth attached men to the forum or.senate, and back himself, paying his court at his house, again to their houses. The most rem waiting upon him every where, and esspectable attendants, or those who were pecially attending his pleadings. What most in favour with the patron, were glory can be compared to that of orators? nearest his person, himself either walk. It is not only the men designed for buing, or carried in a litter; the others siness who value and respect them, but going before or after him. Thus Martial every youth who has any hopes or exinforms us, he had attended one Bassus, pectations to indulge. The fathers are when he waited on widows, lo prevail on daily sounding their praises to their chile them to leave him a legacy. The same dren; the very populace pride theinpoet also mentions no less a person than selves upon knowing their persons, and Paulus, a consul, as extremely assiduous pointing to them in the streets. The in these early morning-visits, and even first desire of a countryman or foreigner, Hangling after litters: so low was the upon his arrival in Rome, is to see those consular dignity sunk under the empe- men of whom he has beard so much.”rors! Those who led the van in these Thus the custom originally was not a bad processions went by the derisory name one; but it was soon corrupted by ambiof anteambulones, and shewed their zeal Lion and by avarice.

0. for their patron by clearing the way, The third method of insinuating i hem

For the Monthly Magazine.
selves into favour was the assiduitas, Farther Observations on the Term is.
the very extreme of officiousness and

TERVAL, as used in MUSIC,
servility; not returning home after the
mòruing salutation, but waiting on their IN

N consequence of a private letter patron the whole day, wherever he went.'

received from a friend, I nost wil. It is true they were generally of the in. lingly retract my definition of an Inter. digent class who thus loitered away their val, given in the present volume of the cime. A knight or a senator seldom Monthly Magazine, in a paper "On cercondescended so far, unless they were

tain Musical Terms used by the Ancandidati for some employment, and cients,” page 122, line 5 from the botthen only to some person of distinguished toin; defining an interval, “ the differinterest. The assiduitas might be per- number of vibrations, or pulses, in a

ence between two sounds, as to the formed by proxy. The train of these attendants at length becoming inconvenient given time;" and calling an interval "the in the streets, the custom was introduced pitch-difference of iwo sounds," instead of reducing them to a stated number, ac

of which, read, the “ pitch.ratio.*" cording to the rank of the patron. But this

The judicious practice was over-ruled by the tribunes of the people, who delighted pitch in Dr. Rees's Cyclopædia) that the pre

Experiments have shewn, (see Concert. in having a mob at their heels, huzzaing sent practice of musicians is, to pitch C of the as they went along. The compensations tenor cliff-note at such a degree of acuteness which the great made to their followers of sound as is excited by a stretched string after these servilities, to the poor were or other sonorous body, making 240 complets provisions, and sometimes money; to vibrations in one second of time; while be, others their interest in obtaining pro. E, and F, when tuned a true minor third motions.--This custom, however, was (without beatings), a true major third, and a not without its use to the young nobility; true minor fourth respectively, above such C, it was chielly introduced, that they who make 288, 300, and 320 complete vibrations aspire to the chief posts under the respectively, in the same short space of time: government, might not only make inter. their pitctoratios therefore are 246, , and

which not being in their lowest terms, est among the leading men, but, by frequenting them, acquire their eloquence,

we divide the first by 48, the second by 60, their politics, iheir virtues, or their man

and the last by 80, and obtain &, 4, and j, ner. The dialogue de causis corrupte for the pitch-ratios of these three concords or eloquentiæ, supposed to have been write intervals respectively. These are the same as ten by Cicero or Quintilian, has the fol experiments, and the writings of all correct

authors, have assigned to them, in lengths of lowing observations upon this subject: strings or string-ratios; only that the frac“It was formerly a custom for the father tions are each of them reversed, owing to or relations of any young man of rank vibrations increasing in quickness as the length and education, who was designed to of the sounding-string is decreased. In like bold some distinguished place in the re. minner, 360, 384, 400, and 480, have been public, to recommend liin to some emia ascertained as the number of complete vi..



The fate of earl Stanhope and M. Be- opinion, seemed on a review less plausible; inetzrieder, owing to their not attending and in the end, I still retain my convicto the distinction between difference and tion, that Linné is the name which good ratio, loudly calls upon me to beware manners require us, both in writing and of adding to the confusion which has speaking, to give to the illustrious knigtit already arisen on this simple subject. It of the polar star. is probable, that in the course of a I admit that the curious, and to me twelvernonth, results will be published, as new fact, mentioned by Dr. Smith, rela. to the different schemes of the tempera. tive to the assumption of surnames by ment of the musical scale proposed by the Swedes, refutes, as to the leiter, my various authors, and the mode of works arguinent built on the assertion which I ing these calculations rendered intelligi- have seen in some work whose uitle [ ble to those who merely understand the cannot now recal, that in Sweden, the common rules of arithmetic. If any termination aus is deemed a mark of experienced organ-tuner would have the plebeian oriyin ; yet I must comend goodness to transmit to the writer of this that Dr. Smith's subsequent admission w article, the number of beats in fifteen proves the validity of the argument as to seconds, made by the fifths and other its spirit. For if, at the time of ennobling

intervals which do not beat too rapidly Linné; it were the fashion in Sweden · to be counted, such a communication for the nobles to have a French termic

would confer an obligation on one who nation to their names, it follows irresistis is engaged in a work, in which the great- bly, that not to have this mark of diso est deference will be paid to experiment; tinction was proof of plebeian blood; and indeed, much greater than to the autho- consequently that in Sweden, no man rity of writers; who appear not sufficie who did not mean to insult his learned ently to have attended to the distinc. countryman, would think of calling him tion of a temperament bearable on the Linnæis, after bis new dignity was once piano-forte, yet intolerable the announced. Accordingly, the Swedes organ. It is highly probable, that in lay- then, and ever since, have called him by ing the temperament on an organ, as is his new name Linné. Now it does not commonly done, the tuner is influenced appear to me that we can excuse our. neither by professional policy, professi- selves froin following their example, as onal prejudice, nor mathematical igno. Dr. Smith seems to think, because the rance, but by the sound maxims of utility. fashion which led to this change of deNorwich,

C. I. Smyti.

signation was absurd or temporary. As April 9, 1810.

well might we object to give his name to

the learned bishop of Carlisle, because To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. probably his ancestors assuined the naine

of Coodenough froin some anti-puri. Il

F I had supposed that the hasty binţs tanical fashion, as absurd as the contrary

I threw out on the subject of the fashion introduced by the members of proper designation of the Swedish Pliny the Long Parliament. As well might we would have been honoured with the resolve to cail Dillenius, Dill, because notice of the learned president of the his German ancestors were so called. Linnean society, I should have endea. Nor have we any thing to do with the voured to give to my argument more ex

barbarisms of a Gothic or Latin prefix tension and precision. The defect of to a French termination. It is enough these I now wish to supply, by adverting for us that the fashion did exist, and that to the arguments of Dr. Šmith; which, the Swedes have not seen reason to though so strongly put, that at the first abrogate the change of name to which it glance alınost, they persuaded me to his gave rise. Even if all other countries brations made by G, 6 A, A, and C, next

persisted in retaining the old denominaabove the foregoing noles, their several

Lion, I do not think their practice would filches when tuned a fifth, minor sixth, ma

be any rule for us; for I conceive it ought jor sixth, and octave, above the tenor-cliffc, to be a fixed axiom in every case wbere each being a true or perfect concord respec.

the prescription of centuries has not eively; therefore 348, 34400, and 490 marle the change impossible, to revert to or in their lowest terms and are

the precise naines which foreigners give the pitch-satios of these four concords or inter

to themselves, and to their towns, wlieu yals, as is well known to be the case by expe- these can be accurately ascertained. Not simençers on the lengths of vibrating to do this, is to admit the propriety of strings.

the barbarous manglings of the proper




do so.

naines of other countries, of which the Latin aş, in Swedish. How does lie call French are so ridiculously guilty. I himself in the last edition of his Systema would certainly not imitate them in en- Naturæ? He does not say Systeina Nadeavouring to naturalise Marcus Aurelius; turæ Caroli Linnæi, but 'Caroli a and, though I would not atteinpt to sub- Linné.” Indeed, not to have preserved suitute Wien, for Vienna, now naturalised this designation in Latin, in which lanbeyond recal, I would doubtless say guage nine-tenths of his works were Taheitee rather than Otabeisee, since the composed, would have been to give up prefis is proved to be superfluous. But the distinction conferred upon him. not only do the Swieles always call their 2. The assertion that the Swedes in countryman Linné : the same title is Latin now always use Linnæus, is by constantly given to him in Germany; and much too unqualified; and I am greatly I should have added France, had not Dr. mistaken if, on re-examination, Dr. Smith Sinith assured us, that there they are will not find just the contrary to be more beginning to use Linnæus. Certainly nearly accurate. It is true, that in this change is of very recent dale, and I Latin coinposition, where oblique cases should much doubt its becoming general; occur, the Swedes say Linnæi, Lindən, at any raie, the naturalists of Gerinany &c. as they are forced to do to be inteland of Sweden, more numerous hy farligible; but in the nominative, they inthan those of all the rest of Europe com. variably, as far as my experience goes, bined, al says use Linné. The question use a linné, never Linnæus. I have now then is, whether a due respect for the before me one of the most recent Latin memory of this great man does not re- works in natural history, that have been quire that we should conform to their received in this country from Sweden example; whether, in fact, it is not an --Gyllenhal's Insecta Suecica, published apparent though doubtless unintended in 1808. In the preface to this work, insult upon his countrymen, not to wherever Linné's nanie

nccurs in the

nominative case, it is constantly written To judge of the validity of this mode a Linné; in one case even after the preof reasoning, we should bring the case position ub. I am well aware that Linhome to ourselves. Suppose that the næus ainalgamates much better wille order of the Bath were in this country as Latin composition than a Linné; but I honourable as that of the PolarStarin Swe. do not see that this is any reason for deden; and that in conferring this distinc- priving him of his real name and honourtion on any one, it were our custom ever able title. Indeed, modern authors seein afterwards to give a Latin termination to to be getting sensible of the folly af bis name. Sir Joseph Banks would then, Latinising our often barbarous Gothic on becoming a knight of the bath, have names, and generally leave thein as they been called Banksius. Now, would it find them-surely the most rational plali. not have been deemed a mark of the Happé, the author of “ Icones Plone. grossest ignorance or ill-breeding, should Crypt." does not call himself Slappæus. any Englishman in future have persisted And the effect upon our jaws will be not in calling his illustrious countryman by greatly different whether we read Wig. his foriner name of Banks? And should gers, or Wiggersius; Scheuchzer, , or ke not lave applied the same epithers Scheuchzerus; Schkuliz, or Schlulizins. tu any foreign nation, which, after learn. Howerer strange it may seen to Dri ing the new bionour conferred upon him, Smith therefore, I am of opinion that persisted in using the old designation; not only in English, but in Latin, at least especially if all other countries had in the nominative case, we ought to say adopted the new one? But this is pre- Linnć. cisely what we are guilty of in the case But Dr. Smith will here repeat his obe of the ininortal Swede,

jection, that to be consistent we ought Dr. Sunith will urge however, that this to call him a Linné, or von or de Linné. argument applies only in the vernacular In Latin, I think doubtless we ought to Hame of Lime; that“ in Latin, even in follow the Swedes in saying a Linné ; but Sweden, he is now always called Lin. in English, as I observed in my first letter næus ;" and that it is the Latin title in obviaring this objection, I conceive we which we profess to adopt. In reply to may safely follow the Germans and this I must observe, 1. That if we are French, who always say Linné without in admit a inau to be the best judge of the prefix. In matters of this kind, the mode of writing his own name, Line custuin is omnipotent; and the decision se's designation ouglit to be the saine in of the majority should be submitted to.


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If we write the name (as we ought to do) its value; and as a description of these with the accent, there need be no fear fainous mines may be amusing, I shall that it will he Anglicised into Linny, send it for your perusal. Surely few of those who.will pronounce the name are likely to fall into such an An account of the UKRAINE; extracted absurdity, when every volunteer appren. in part from Malik-BRUX'S late Pica tice gives the French pronunciation to ture of POLAND. . corps.

Of all the ancient kingdom of Poland, I have thus diffusely given the reasons the finest part is that which borders on that prevent me from acceding to Dr. Turkey in Europe, wd comprehends the Smith's opinion on this subject. For palatinntes of Russia and Beiz, with the Dr. Smith however I have the greatest free state or Chelm, the palatinate of respect; and should be glad even, so little Woliynia, which forms a province of the wedded am I to my own notions, it my sanie name, and those of Kiovie, Bracconviction would allow me to bow to the law, and Upper Podolia, generally coin. decision of so excellent a botanist, who prised under the name of the Ukraine, has such just claims to be admitted the that is, the frontier provinces. arbiter of disputed points in an empire The suit of these countries, more eles where his authority stands so high. I vated and less morist than that of Lithua. do not myselt intend to say any thing nia, enjoys also the influence oi a more more on the subject : but it' Dr. Smith southern climate, for Polish Ukraine condescends to make a rejoinder in this extends nearly from the 48th to the 52d amicable controversy, I promise him the degree of latitude, which corresponds most unprejudiced attention to his ar. wich the parallels of London and Paris. gumelits; and that if I am convinced by Yet it appears that the clinate is not ihem, I will at once conforın to his more temperate than that of Holstein, practice. I argue for truth, not for to which it bears a resemblance by the victory.

wetness of the winter. Every sort of April 8, 1810.

A LINNEAX. grain thrives here in great abundance:

the earth only requires to be slightly To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. moved, to return its produce with usury. SIR,

Many of the grains return from fittylu HE rapid strides which the French sixty per cent.; and in general manure is

emperor has made in the subju- dispensed with. A spot of earth is covered gation of continental Europe, and ine with a thick verdure in three days: and great acquisition of territory he has late- it is a fact, thal vegetation in the ly made by the annexation of Gallicia to Ukraine exhibits the greatest vigour, bis dominions (a part but little kuown), variety, beauty, and magnificence. Inmakes the following account of the numerable sorts of flowers abound, and Ukraine peculiarly interesting.

perfuine the air with their aromatic His constant anxiety to extend bis sweets. The grass grows to such a commerce, and his perseverance in height in the meadows, as just to leave endeavouring to destroy ours, makes the horns of catile visible; rosemary, this article curious, as it affords a new thyme, asparagus, and pumkins, grow proof of his retaining the sentiments ex- spontaneously, and of the finest quality, pressed in the report published by his Vines also grow, but they pay little regard orders by a French Polish writer of much to the cultivation of thein. The forests celebri:y, Monsieur Malekousky. contain oak, and other sorts of timber,

By ile treaty concluded in October, at but not every where equally good: droves Vienna, he has gained an immense tract of wild horses are met with; and also of of country abounding in timber, iron, the subak, a species of antelope. hemp, saltpttre, cattle and com. Ali One cannot give a better idea of the tiis evinces his eagerness io raise a pow- importance this country might be of to ertul navy; and eventually to shut us out France and the Ottoman empire, than from the Mediterranean, as he has done by quoting the words of a celebrated from the Baltic: this is evident from the Polish writer, monsieur Malekeusky. tenor of the report. He has also got “ The abundant and various produce possession of the celebrated salt-mines tions of Poland, were for a long time only of Wielicza, which produced an immense exported by the Baltic. In the last years revenue to Austria. Though this may to of their political existence, the Poles, many appear trining, yet be well knows barassed with the cuormous taxation or

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the customs and duties of the Prussian lard, hops, and spirits distilled from government, began to be persuaded, grain, are also very plentiful. that the way by the Black Sea would in “ Wax and gums are at so low a every respect be more to their inter- price in the Ukraine, that the Austrian, ests. The ancient government of France, merchants have them brought over-land well acquainted with the fertility of the from this province into Gallicia; from southern provinces of Poland, and the whence they transport them also by land dinportance of their productions both for across Moldavia and Austria, even to the navy and the trade of France, was Trieste; where they sell them, notwiths prepared to encourage the Poles in this standing the length and expence of the new enterprize; but it was only just carriage, for a very considerable profit. planned, and the cabinet of Versailles “ The tobacco of the Ukraine is was then in its decline.

excellent. A trial of it was made in “These provinces form almost one-half France in 1757, and it was found almost of the extent of Poland. Three great equal to that of Virginia. rivers water them: the Nieper or Borys “ Put and pearl ashes, which for a long thenes, the Boy, and the Niester. These time were exported froin Poland only by rivers traverse a nuch greater extent of the ports of Dantzic, Krenigsberg, and country than the Nienien and the Vis- Elbing, are also among the productions tula, the only great roads (if they may be of the Ukraine; and it is easy to observe, so called) of commerce by the Baltic; that the difference of the carriage by the and the countries which they flow Baltic or by the Black Sea, must make a throughi, in spite of the neglect of culti- difference in the price. vation, may with justice be called the

" These countries, which present so Land of Promise, for ilie first wants of great riches to us, in provisions and arti

cles of necessity, are almost entirely de“ In order to prove how provisions rived of manufactures; and the French abound in these countries, it is only trade would find by the Black Sea an open. necessary to mention that the Ukraine ing cqually advantageous to both couralone subsisted the Russian armies tries, and a market for clothis, silks, jewelduring all their late vars with the Turks. lery, wines, fine oils, liquors, sugar, cof

“ Timber for building is found of very fee, spices, drugs, colours, &c. The ato adiancest growih, and in great abun- tempis made before the revolution, have dance : ot' ibis it is easy to be convinced clearly proved of what importance this by the report of the master mast-maker trade would be to France, and more para of the dock-vard of Toulon, who was ticularly for those deparunents situated sent expres-ly to visit the forests of this on the Mediterranean. country. The masts which arrive by

“ French ressels could even bring all the way of Riga, are eighteen or tiventy the merchandize of the Levant into this months froin the forests by the Baltic; country. This branch of commerce is while those by the way of Cherson hare now solely in the hands of the Jews and arrived in three months a: Touion, accor Armenians, and carried on across Molding to the experiment made by the old davia; a long, tedious, and expensive French government: and tie calculation way, and in which these poor men are of monsieur d'Animoine bas proved subject to many insults and great extor. aritlometically, that for the Polishi masts tions. and timber the way by Cherson is far “ The great mass of the exports of preferable to that of Riga.

these countries by the Black Sea, would “ The salt provisions of the Ukraine become more considerable for the are better than those of Ireland; and the French than those which the English low price of horned caitle, as well as of and Dutch obtain by the Baltic: and the salt of Moldavia and the Crimea, the imports on that side would far exceed according to experiments made, allows those of Dantzic, Königsberg, or Riga; them to be delivererl at Akerman or because the three rivers, the Nieper, Bug, Cherson, at one-half the price they could and Nester, when once rendered combe got for in Ireland.

pletely navigable, would penetrate more Hemp, hair, common wools, linens into the interior of the country than the bleached and unbleached, saching, raw Niemen and the Vistula. The canal of and tanned hides, are in great abundance. Muchawa, which already connects the

" Salt petre, pitch, tar, tallow, rape Vistula and the Pripetz, and that of and linseed oils, honey, butter, hog's- Oginski, which when improved would


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