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It appears that the revenue would be every pool where danger is apprebended, very slightly affected, by government or every two or three hundred yards of allowing a quantity of malt, proportioned river or canal, which may pass through to the number of his family, to be issued a populous neighbourhood, is required to to the peasant, free from those duties have its buat, where shall the ardour be which it is now judged expedient to found to promote the design? Another make it pay. The parish-officer, with objection which strikes me forcibly, is cuinparatively little trouble, might su the probability of its becoming from its perintend the distribution; and render weight so entangled with the broken ice, an account to the exciseman, or person

as to render it difficult, if not impractinamed for that purpose, of the receipts cable, for the operator to return without and issues of malt taken from the aitja assistance, but which could not always cent malt-house, for the use of the poor. be calculated upon; added to this must The same money, or less than the sum, be the ditliculty which the distressed now paid by the labourer for what the sutierer would have to contend with, in country dealer thinks proper to name grappling any thing so unsteady or so tea, would enable hiin to purchase quite much out of his reach as the edge of the sufficient malt for the use of his family, boat, and the danger also of so small a it free from the enorinous duties to boat being upset by lifting an almost which it is subject. It is almost needless helpless creature into it from the water. to remark that the health, the comfort,

All these difficulties would, I conceive, and the manners, of the peasant, (as the be ellectually removed, and every secupossession of beer at home might, at rity given, by the simple expedient of length, wean him from the habit of using a common ladder, which might visiting the ale-house of the village,) be procured at a very inconsiderable would be benefited by this indulgence. expense, or which, from its easy car

When a certam senator projected riage, almost any neighbourhood might plans for ameliorating the state of the quickly supply. Its length would give poor, I publicly submitted to him this security, by furnishing so long a bearing idea, in a more detailed form. Ile on the ice : it may be slided across the thought it futile, for he paid no attention bole so as for the sufferer to grasp some Possibly the reader may think so of its rounds; and any person may walk

I. N. B. on bis hands and feet close up to, and Hurst, Berks.

even over the spot, with as little hazard To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. - instantly become an easy and safe de SIR,

posit for the body, and the operator N the cause of humanity, no effort might drag his charge to a distance from

is lost; for whatever excites public the hole; or, if time and opportunity attention, must eventually contribute its should serve, a rope might be attached share towards the improver

vement of the

to one' or to each end of the ladder, for public mind. On this principle I was the spectators to lend a hand, and it pleased with the suggestion of T. C. would then become an etlectual and communicated by last January's Maga- expeditious sledge. zine, on the advantages of an ice life I was once unfortunately a witness to boat, which certainly on first considera a scene where I was instantly struck tion appears a plausible and praise-wors with the idea, how readily a life might tly invention. There are however some have been preserved by the mode here objections which I fear will overilirow its recommended; and have since procured proposed utility, but which I would not a ladder for the spot, made lighter than atiempt to bring forward without stating for common use, with the uprights the what I think in.he a more simple and same strength throughout, and the cross practicable expedient. In the first bar's two or three inches longer : and lo instance, however perfect the thing may this I can conceive neither objection nor be in itself to answer the desired purpose, improvement. is it likely that such an expensive appa

Birmingham.

J. L. Jatus should be prepared at every place wliere bumanity might wish the precaulion, considering the great uncertainty

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, of its ever being wanted ? Its size, and

SIR, weight would render it too unwieldy to

II

AVING frequently experienced the serve for an extensive district; and if inconvenience and even disticulty

of

to it. too.

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of reading off minute divisions on the the purpose of subdividing oulier divisions tables of philosophical instruments, a me. by means of a noveable scale; hence it thod presented itself to me, by which might commence where divisions in the apparently the present way of graduating present way are found to become srk. justruments might be much improved. some to reckon, viz. at the hundred in The method I mean, anci which, as far the inch, dividong in this instance any as I know, is perfectly new, is, instead tenth of an inch into ten, thus giving of engraved or black lines with spaces bundredihs; any hundredth of an incha between them, to use lines of the di into ten, giving thousandth; and so on mensions required, of different colours, tw any required or possible extent.* in contact with each other; thus the It will be apparent, that having prespaces, which in the present way occupy viously assigned a specitic number to room, without forming a part of the cal- every different colour, which after a little culation, would be entirely done away, practice would be recollected, but which and every set of divisions upon an equal inight at all times be instantly known by scale would be comprized in at least half referring to a similar scheme upon a the compass

scale of convenient size ready for the The divisions in present use, are to the purpose, the trouble or irksoneness of tenth, twentieth, or fiftieth of an inch: reckuning minute divisions would be ena greater minuteness than this quickly tirely obviated; the line of colour pointed becomes irksome in practice.

at, indicating at once the number of sub The divisions above-mentioned, are division. afterwards subdivided by mcans of a In descending to extremely minute divernier, so as to extend to the hundredih, visions, the moveable scale, instead of thousandth, and even ten-thousandth of containing len lines of colour, might have an inch, by means of a good magnificr; one-haif only, in coloured lines; which and here the difficulty I have alluled to, would lie sufficient for indicating any of calculation, is increased.

number of the ten, the blank space of My method is, to use ten lines, each of the scale indicating five occasionallyf. a different colour, contrasted in the best This mode of division admits in course inanner, each being as strongly tinta as the use of the vernier, consisting in possible, and placed in contact with each this instance of coloured lines, as well other. The order of the colours I have as in the usual method, and with at least adopted, is represented in the following equal advantage. sketch:

A scale of division consisting of 10.000 in the inch, is sometines required in practice; and doubtless minuter divi, sions still might be desirable, were they

malle so as to be scen and reckoned with 10. 9. 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1.

facility; wbich, I flatter myself, the methe whole running in the order here ex

thod bere proposed will be found pera bibited; and assigning the number spe- fectly adequate to. cilied, respectively to each of the several In my experiinents I made use of card, colours, so that each colour shall signify paper, and tin-foil, as I lave mentioned er express that number.

above, inerely by way of trial; and having Maving found some difficuliv in

pro

found then auswer, I should recommend curing such lines of colour, drain with the use of Jamii æ of bra:s, copper, or the required exactness, I succeeded com- silver, which, compacted together into pletely to my wish, by placing toge her laminæ of card, paper, or tin-til, com I am into' med from unquestionable au. pressed together, as it were, into one subse thority, that microscopes are made for sale stance, the edge of each lamina having which magnify, the diameter of an object 600 been previously prepared with the pro. times: hence it will follow that such di.

visions as I have mentioned, mig'it be ex. By this method, experience has proved tended to the number of 69,000 in the length to me that divisions to the number of a

of an inch, pruvided coloured lanina sutlia hundred in an inch can be casily read offciently thin could be procured, or an artist

had dexterity enough to draw such coloured by an ordinary eye, unassisted by a mag. lines. nifier; and to two thousand by a mag t Whenever five colours only are used, nifier of ordinary power.

perhaps the following arrangement might be It will be obvious that this method by the best : 1 white; 2 blue ; 3 red; 4 yel. coloured lines, is applicable cliefiy to low; 5 black,

1

per colour.

on

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tieth year:

one substance, would form an uniform place till he was removed to Rome in series of coloured lines, without any his twelfth year, where he studied under space between them.

Palemon the grammarian, and Virginius It appears, from what I have stated Fiaccus the rhetorician. He ipbibed before, inat it might be possible, by the those austere principles of the sinics method here proposed, to exhibit even which are so frequenily displayed in bis the difference of ibe 00,000i ha part of an writings, from Cornuius, his friend and inch, on a scale; but for ordinary use, I master in philosophy. He is said to base believe from one hundred to one or two written many things in very early youth; thousand are sufficient; and this, I can but it was by reading the tenth book of venture to say, a scale formed on this Lucilius that he was led to the purpuit principle will give with the utmost per of satire. He was the intimate friend of spicuity, without the use of a vernier, Lucan, and shared with that young and but which, when minuter divisions are re- interesting poet a just detestation of the quired,might be conveniently adapted toit. arrogance and tyranny of Nero. The Having given an account of my expe

character of Persius appears to have riments on this subject, which were made been very amiable. Contrary w what merely for the sake of putting my plan might be expeeted from the harsh style, to some kind of practical test, I shall sarcastic severity, and the indecent alleave it to others to determine on the lusions, which too frequently occur in bis practicability and utility of it in general Satires, he was mild

his manners, application.

warmly attached to his family and friends, RICHARD WALKER. and of a disposition so reserved and Queen-street, Orford.

modest as to excite the wonder of his April 5, 1810.

licentious contemporaries. His state of P. S. I first contrived this new mode of health was generally weak, and he died division for the purpose of measuring small of a complaint in his chest (vitio sto variations in the barometer, to which instru. machi*) before he had attained bis thirment it seems particularly applicable.

Six Satires are all that reinain of this LICÆUM OF ANCIENT LITERA. young and rigid poet. They appear to TURE.-No. XXVIII.

have been well received in his own time,

and admired by those whose serious AVING already in á late num

tempers and virtuous dispositions inber trespassed so largely upon spired them with a love of study and the field of satire, we hasten to close

a conteinpt for pleasure.

That they this part of our subject with an account

were not calculated to please the greater of Persius, the only remaining poetical part of his countrymen, may be readily

The satirist of antiquity. Upon bis merits it supposed.

fastidious Romans, will not be necessary to descant much at

among whom vice and corruption were large; his life was short, and his remains completely naturalized, might be laughed are unusually scanty.

into decency by the delicate raillery of There is a life of A. Persius Flaccus, Horace, but they turned with fear and supposed to have been written by Probus, disgust from the keen invectives and which, though abounding in errors ac.

harsh pictures of Persius. Severity was cording to Casaubon, yet seems to be foreign to Horace; he disclaimed it als the source from which every account of together. His sharpest touches were him bas been taken. He was born in comparatively innocent. Admissus cire the 22d year of Tiberius, and of Rome

cum præcordia ludit. lle endeavoured 787, while Fabius Persicus and Lucius

to laugh men out of their vices; and, to Vitellius were consuls. The place of his

use a bonely expression of Creech, t lie birth has been contested; some assigning did not lance or cauterize the sores, but

But the stern Volaterra, a town of Etraria; and others, tickled till he healed. the province of Liguria, but apparently maxims of Persius, his rigid sirtue, bis uponi no other authority than these lines, insulting sneers, and cutting reproaches, which occur in the sixth of his Satires :

alarmed without correcting, and provoked

instead of amending. And it be failed mihi nuric Ligus ora Intepet, hibernatque meum mare, quâ latus please as a poet. Superior to Horace,

as a moralist, still less was he likely to ingens Dant scopuli, et muitâ litus se valle receptat. See Casaubon in Vit. Pers. At all events, he continued in the former + Creech, Pref. to Hor.

and

PERSIC'S.

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were more numerous.

and perhaps to Juvenal, in virtue and while he expounded the doctrines of the learning, lie was inferior to both in ele- stoics to his friend Cornutus, or expagance and wit. His style, which is some tiated to the poet Bassus on the true tirnes noble, figurative, and poetical, was use of riches. In answer to this last suited to the dignity of his sentiments ; objection, the common argument may which have all the grandeur that the be used, that what is obscure or unina philosophy of the stoics, when judiciously telligible now, was not so at the time in applied, could give them.. But he was which he wrote, particularly to the equally a stranger to the delicacy of line learned persons to whom his satires are race, and the majesty of Jurenal. It addressed. Many allusions, and hints of was seldum indeed that he permitted circunstances then universally known, himself to unbend the severity of his are lost to us. Though satirical writings muse, and he is always unsuccessful in his may be preserved from the injuries of attempts to

a lighter style.f time, and be read in after-ages, their Energy, acuieness, and spirit, are his views were present, and intended for the characteristic features : though his lan. age in which they were written. While guage is rude and uncouth, his sense is therefore we adınit the charge of obscu. always manly and bold. These qualities rity, we do not allow it that weight made hin a favourite with the few whose which it might have in other cases.' virtue and learning rendered them su. We may as well complain of the rust. perior to the prevailing follies of the age. upon an ancient coin, as of the obscurity Considering the very scanty efforts of of an ancient satirist. The brevity of his pen, he obtained a greater share of style which Persius affected, and hig applause than many others whose works close philosophical turn of thought, may

Quintilian and have contributed to his obscurity; and Martial have borne testimony to his there was perhaps a melancholy in his merit, and to the reputation he enjoyed. I temper that infected his writings, and

Modern critics have however censured made them want the spirit, though they him for defects of composition, from abounded in the gall, of satire. which it is not easy to defend him. Even Considered inercly as a poet, it must Casaubon, his fondest adınirer and best be confessed that Persius has little claim interpreter, admits that bis style is ob- upon the admiration of posterity. His

But if any apology can be made verse is unpolished, his comparisons are for this first sin against good writing, it coarse, his allusions indecent and low. is in the case of a satirist, and above all His ungraceful transitions from one subof one who dared to reprobate the follies ject to another, betray his contempt or of a tyrant. If Persius be obscure (and bis ignorance of elegant composition. we acknowledge that he is), let it be re His great merit is in the zeal, the ear, membered that he wrote in the time of nestress, * with which he inculcates maxNero. It has been remarked indeed that ims of virtue, and discovers his abhor. this author is not merely obscure when he rence of rice.

For this he seems to lashes and exposes the Roman emperor. have willingly sacrificed all the graces It was very well, say the critics, io em and fastidious delicacy upon which the ploy hints and half sentences while he reputation of poets is too often founded, censured the vices of a cruel and luxu. His poetry is a strong and rapid torrent rious despot; but there could be no oc. which pours in its infracted course over casion to envelope himself in obscurity, rocks and precipices; and which occa.

sionally, like the waters of the Rhune, Stoicam denique prolessionem nunquam disappears from our view, and losos obliviscitur, adeò exactè et doctè aliq. itself under ground.t swürisur, ut ne Zeno quidem ipse aut Chry. Persius is Therefore no farourite with sippus porticum illam melius fuerit fulsorus. the critics of the sixteenth and seven-Cas Prolog. in Pers.

teenth centuries.' Scaliger is vehement + Sed Peisius jam tum in illâ suâ adoles.

in his condemnation, attributing his obcentiâ gravis, totusque ad severitatem factus, Xenocratis quàm Menippo familior, Gratiis scurity to the silly affectation of choosing rard litavit. lbid.

to convey by hints what he did not think | Multum et veræ gloriæ quamvis uno libro Persius meroit. Quinct -Sæpills in libro Scias verò cùm Persium legas, sent memoratur Persius uno. Mart.

illus que dixit ; et quod Græci aiunt, mavu § Sed Poetæ, says Casaubon, facilè ignosco, εκ διαθεσεως γραφειν, και απο των δογμαλων ουκ cum cogito crudelissimi ει φονιλωτατου ty: ano Ter Xew.- Prulog. in Pers. ranni,- Prolog. in Pers.

+ Pretace to Drummond's Pers. MontyLÝ MAO. No. 198

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proper to unfold at large. Bayle ascribes and this was noi a transitory salute in it to a defective taste; and that singular the street; but the poor and dependants turn of mind whith delighted in enig, were accustomed to resort to the houses matical figures, even when it was ner of the great men to wish them a good cessary only to propound a moral maxim. day, and make a tender of their persons Vossius contends that he knew nothing and services. These were called amici of the common rules of satire; and Va communes, and crowded the balls and out. vassor censures bis Latinity, which he ward chambers. But Juvenal, in his says is unworthy the age in which he third satire, speaks of the highest magisflourished. The elder Casaubon, on the trates hurrying along to a much baser at. other hand, is as warm in his praise,* tendance: and boldly' places him in the same line Quod porrò officium (ne nobis blandiar) au with florace and Juvenal: Cum autem

quod trium Romana satira poetarum, Ho. Pauperis hic meritum ; si curet nocte rogatus ratii, Persii, et Juvenalis, idem sit propo. Currere, cùm prætor lictorem impellat, et ire situm, idem scopus, quem antè diximus; Præcipitem jubeat dudum vigilantibus orbis, magna tamen inter ipsos differentia; Ne prior Albinam, aut Modiam collega saa omnes esse e.rimios, omnes lectu dignissimos, lutet? et qui diversis virtutibus tandem propè in vain we poor to levies early run : purem sint consecuti.t

The grandee has long since been up and gone. Juvenal and Persius are generally The prætor bids his lictors mend their pace, printed together. The first edition is, But his colleague outstrips him in the race i Juvenal and Persius, fol. Romæ per Uldalri. The childless matrons are long since awake, cum Gallum, no year.

And for affronts the tardy visits take. fol. Brixiæ, 1473, very rare.

These legacy-hunters could stoop to fol. Romæ. 1474.

make their bows at the houses of widows, Venet. apud Ald. 1501.

and of such as had no heirs; and these Paris. Steph. 1514.

salutations, being usually paid at or before Delp. Paris. 4to. 1684.

the dawn of day, were termed officia antePersius alone. H. Casaubon, 12 mo. Par. 1607.

lucun. The servile crowd, will their Lond. 12mo. 1647. Edit. Opt.

idol appeared, amused themselves in the For the Monthly Magazine.

court or adjoining chambers, which froin

thence were called cubicula salulatorid. Of ATTENDANCE ON GREAT SEN among But in the houses of the eininent persons the ROMANS.

there was a distinction of chambers ac. PLATTERY and servility came into

the world at the same time will cording to rank; the visitants of quality power; and though a generous spirit who probably wanted relief and assist

going into the anti-chamber, whilst those may refuse compliance with them, yet

ance reinained below. they have obtained among all ranks in ali nations, and with greater success than the house, the apartment rang with salte

At the appearance of the master of any thing else that can be named. It is difficult to express to what a degree considered sufficient, but afterward that

or ave: at first the title of dominus was they were carried by the poor, the can

of didates for offices, ihe clients, and the in turns, and with the most respectful

rex was more generally used. Then, dependants, among the Romans; that people so celebrated for magnanimity, and services; their compliments generally

gestures, they offered hin their persons The modern ceremonies of courts, the

meeting with favourable answers froia respect of vassals for their lords, are familiarity and neglect, compared with ed to bestow a kiss upon those of a

their patron, who sometimes condescend. their assiduity and debasement.

higher order; and, after taking a turn in Attendance among the Romans was

the court, withdrew. When any one expressed by the word assestatio: and had fallen under the patron's displeasure, included three parts, called salutatio, he rvas denied admittance, or made o deductio, and assiduitas; all three indispensable duties to be paid to those from wait, or answered only with a nod, or whom any thing was expected. The first first visit, some bastened away to pay a

was altogether unnoticed. From this of these ceremonies was the sulutatio; similar homage to other men in power,

See the animated note, where, addressing from whom also they had or fancied they himself to Scaliger, he exclaims, Pax! vir had expectations; others staid to attend incomparabilis, &c.

their patron when he went ahread.
The second way of paying court was

the

† ibid,

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