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310 Proposal for Highway and Marine Cottages, May 1, power and influence, has similar claims ing numerous wrecks, and saving masy on the feelings of private benevolence, valuable lives, and an aniount of property, and others of a public nature peculiar to equal perhaps in a single year to the itself.

expence of building all the cottages. I proposé to surround the shores of

2. In cases of unavoidable wreck, the the United Kingdom with marine cote instantaneous assistance afforded by the tages, at intervals of a mile, to serve inhabitants of all the adjacent cottages, as beacons on certain occasions, and could not fail to be the means of saving the especial business of whose inhabi- many of the crew, and much of the prin tants it should be to superintend the in- perty. cidents passing on the ocean, and to 3. A stop would thus be put to the afford relief, advice, and shelter, to ship- system of plundering wrecks, a practice wrecked or distressed mariners. which prevails in many parts of our coass,

Persons who have been at sea, must and which sinks us in character, as a have been sensible of the inhospitable people, below the most barbarous na. aspect of our shores; and could never tions. suspect, if they had made the English 4. These marine cottages would serve coast for the first time, that such a country as signal-houses for many public por. contained a numerous and active popula- poses, and they might especially be made tion. Our whole coast exhibits a dreary a means of preventing illicit trade. continuation of rock or cliff, without 5. They would cheaply and usefully asylum or friendly invitation, and un- provide for five or six thousand seamen provided with watch or guard for its and marines, as out-pensioners of Green own protection, or the support and secu- wich, or as a separate establishment; and rity of the strangers or mariners who at the close of the war, sɔme means of approach it. Thus on provided with any providing for this extra number will be means of hospitality, who could suspect wanted. that such was the coast of the most ina- 6. The families of the married cotta ritime people in the world; or that thou- gers would be universally a nursery of sands of lives, and millions of property, seamen; and indeed it might not be in were every year sacrificed by wrecks, practicable to register the entire male which might, in a considerable degree, part of them as future resources for the he prevented or averted by means like navy, in which they might be marked as those proposed?

objects for promotion in the inferior ranks This plan presents also the advantage of the service.

1 of providing, in a characteristic and con- Sume objections may probably be genial manner, for five or six thousand started to particular features of both these mained or superannuated seamen and plans: I entertain, however, no doubt, marines, two of whom, with or without that these might be removed, on a fuh families, might occupy each cottage, investigation; and they must be of triding keeping a constant look out, in all weac consequence, when placed in competition, ther in which assistance might he wanted. with the vast benefits that would result, Each cottage should be provided with a in a public and private view, from such lantern in its roof, in which a good light establishments. I am indeed sanguine should by night be constantly displayed, enough to think, that they would in many and witli ropes, a signal gun, and other important respects give a new feature to means of affording and producing assist the moral character of the country; and ance in case of wreck.

that at least, instead of solitary roads and Benevolence will ask for no reasons be- desolate coasts, we should have the gra yond those which cannot fail to present tification of seeing twenty thousand cota themselves on the slightest consideration, tages, and the consequent happiness for the adoption of a plan so obviously and comfort attending perhaps a hundred useful; however, as it can only be car- thousand souls, now the most miserable ried into execution through tle in. and destitute members of the comma. fluence of a patriotic minister, or by nity. parlianientary sanction, it may not be At any rate, would not the adoption of improper to subjoin some of the reasons both plans atone, in some degree, for which strongly recommend it.

the miseries occasioned by so many years 1. Such a continuity of lights indica, sp in unprofitable and destructive sing the direction of every line of coast, wars? could not fail to be the means of prevents


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ADVICE to a YOUNG REVIEWER, with a subservient; so in the art of reyiewing I SPECIMEN of the art.*

would lay down as a fundamental posiOU are now about to enter on a tion, which you must never lose sight of,

profession which has the means of and which must be the main spring of all doing inuch good to society, and scarcely your criticisms--- Write what will sell. any temptation to do barm. You may To this golden rule every minor canon encourage genius, you may chastise sue must be subordinate ; and must either be perficial arrogance, expose falsehood, immediately deducible from it, or at lease correct error, and guide the taste and be made consistent, with it. opinions of the age, in no small degree, staggered at the sound of a precept, by the books you praise and recoinmend. which upon examination will be found as All this too may be done without running honest and virtuous as it is discreet. I the risk of making any enemies; or sub- have already sketched out the great serjecting yourself to be called to account

vices which it is in your power to render for your criticism, however severe. mankind; but all your efforts will be unWhile your nane is unknown, your per- availing if men do not read what you son is invulnerable: at the same time write. Your utility therefore, it is plain, your own aim is sure, for you may take depends upon your popularity; and poit at your leisure; and your blows fall pularity cannot be attained without hubeavier than those of any writer whose mouring the taste and inclinations of game is given, or who is simply anony- men. mous. There is a mysterious authority

Be assured that by a similar train of in the plural we, which no single naine, sound and judicious reasoning, the conwhatever may be its reputation, can ac.

sciences of thousands in public life are quire; and, under the sanction of this daily quieted. It is better for the state imposing style, your strictures, your that their party should govern than any praises, and your doginas, will coinniand other: the good which they can etiect by universal attention, and be received as the exercise of power, is infinitely greater the fruit of united talents, acting on one than any which could arise from a rigid common principle--as the judgments of adherence to certain subordinate moral a tribunal who decide only on mature de- precepts; which therefore, should be vioLiberation, and who protect the intere lated without scruple, whenever they ests of literature with unceasing vigi- stand in the way of their leading purpose. lance.

He who scicks at these can never act a Such being the high importance of great part in the world, and is not fit to that office, and such its opportunities, I act it if he could. Such maxims may be eangot bestow a few hours of leisure beta very useful in ordinary affairs, and for ter than in furnishing you with some hints the guidance of ordinary men; hut when for the more easy and effectual discharge we mount into the sphere of public uti. of it: bints which are, I confess, loosely lity, we must adopt more enlarged printhrown together, but which are the res ciples; and not suffer ourselves to bę sult of long experience, and of frequent cramped and fettered by petty notions of reflection and comparison. And if any right, and moral duty. thing should strike you at first sight as

When you have reconciled yourself to rather equivocal in point of morality, or

this liberal way of thinking, you will deficient in liberality and feeling; I bey find many inferior advantages resulting you will suppress all such scruples, and from it, which at first did not enter into consider them as the offspring of a con- your consideration. In particular, it will wacted education and narrow way of greatly lighten your labours to follow the thinking, which a little intercourse with public taste, instead of taking upon you the world and sober reasoning will spee- to direct it. The task of pleasing is at dily overcome.

all times easier than that of instructing : Now as in the conduct of life vothing at least it does not stand in need of pain. is inore to he desired than some governing ful research and preparation; and may principle of action, tó, which all other be effected in general by a little vivacity principles and inotives must be made of manner, and a dexterous morigera

tion (as lord Bacon calls it) to the hue This excellent essay having been printed

mours and frailties of men. Your refor separate circulation, its merits led us to sponsibility too is thereby much lessenerd. ask.permission of the author to insert it in Justice and candour can only be required our pages, in the confidence that it would of you so far as they coincide with this bighly gratify our readers.

main principle; and a little experience

Advice to a Young Reviewer.

[May 1, will convince you, that these are not the interlarding your own language with oc. happiest means of accomplishing your casional phrases of the poem, marked purpose.

with inverted cominas. These, and a It has been idly said, that a reviewer thousand other little expedients, by acts in a judicial capacity, and that his which the arts of quizzing and banter conduct should be regulated by the same Aourish, practice will soon teach you, rules by which the judge of a civil court If it should be necessary to transcribe a is governed: that he should rid himself doll passage, not very fertile in topics of of every bias; be patient, cautious, se- humoor and raillery, you may introduce date, and rigidly impartial; that he should it as “a favourable specimen of the av. not seek to shew off himself, and should thor's manner." check every disposition to enter into the Few people are aware of the powerful case as a partizan.

effects of what is philosophically termed Such is the language of superficial association. Without any positive riothinkers; but in reality there is no ana- lation of truth, the whole dignity of a logy between the two cases. A judge is passage may be undermined by contriving promoted to that office by the authority to raise sonie vulgar and ridiculous notions of the state; a reviewer by his own. The in the mind of the reader: and language former is independent of controul, and teems with examples of words by which may therefore freely follow the dictates the same idea is expressed, with the difof his own conscience : the latter. de- ference only that one excites a feeling of pends for his very bread upon the breath respect, the other of contempt. Thus of public opinion; the great law of self. you may call a fit of melancholy "the preservation therefore points out to him sulks,” resentment "a pet," a steed“ à different line of action. Besides, as nag," a feast“ a junketing," sorrow and I have already observed, if he ceases to affliction “ whining and blubbering." please, he is no longer read, and conse- By transferring the terms peculiar to one quently is no longer useful. In a court state of society, to analogous situations of justice, too, the part of amusing the and characters in another, the same obe bystanders rests with the counsel : in the ject is attained; a drill-serjeant, or a cat case of criticism, if the reviewer himself and nine tails, in the Trojan warna Lesdoes not undertake it, who will? Instead bos smack, put in to the Piræus the of vainly aspiring therefore to the gravity penny-post of Jerusalem, and other comof a magistrate, I would advise him, binations of the like nature, which, when he sits down to write, to place him when you have a little indulged that vein self in the imaginary situation of a cross. of thought, will readily suggest themselves, examining pleader. He may comment, never fail to raise a smile, if not inmein a vein of agreeable irony, upon the diately at the expence of the author, yet profession, the manner of life, the look, entirely destructive of that frame of mind dress, or even the name, of the witness which his poem requires in order to be he is exaniining: when he has raised a relished. contemptuous opinion of him in the I have dwelt the longer on this branch minds of the court, he may proceed to of literature, because you are chiefly ta draw answers from hiin capable of a ludi, look here for materials of fun and irony. crous turn, and he may carve and garble Voyages and travels indeed are no barren these to his own liking. This mode of ground, and you must seldom let a nom. proceeding you will find most practicable ber of your review go abroad without an in poetry, where the boldness of the article of this description. The charm image, or the delicacy of thought, for of this species of writing, so universally which the reader's mind was prepared in felt, arises chiefly from its uniting narrathe original, will easily be made to ap- tive with information. The interest we. pear extravagant or affected, if judiciously take in the story can only be kept alive singled out, and detached from the by minute incident and occasional detail, group to which it belongs. Again, since which puts us in possession of the travel much depends upon the rhythm and the ler's feelings, his hopes, his fears, ha terseness of expression, both of which disappointnients, and his pleasures. At are sometimes destroyed by dropping a the same time the thirst for knowledge single word, or transposing a phrase, I and love of novelty is gratified, by con. have known much advantage arise from tinual information respecting the people pot quoting in the form of a literal extract, and countries he visits. If you wish but giving a brief summary in prose of therefore to run down the book, you have the contents of a poetical passage; and only to play off these swo parte against


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sent age.

each other: when the writer's object is answer is, that it is impossible to pay to satisfy the first inclination, you are to attention to all; and that your duly is thank him for communicating to the rather to prevent the propagation of error, world such valuable facts as whether he than to lavish praises upon that which, lost his way in the night, or sprained his if really excellent, will work its way in ancle, or had no appetite to his dinner. the world without your help. Indeed, If he is busied about describing the mi- if the plan of your review admits of seneralogy, natural history, agriculture, lection, you had better not meddle with trade, &c. of a country, you may men- works of deep research and original tion a hundred books from whence the speculation; such as have already attract. same information may be obtained; and ed much notice, and cannot be treated deprecate the practice of emptying old superficially without fear of being found musty folios into new quartos, tó gratify out. The time required for making yourthat sickly taste for a smattering about self thoroughly master of the subject is so every thing, which distinguishes ihe pre- great, that you may depend upon it they

will never pay for the reviewing. They I works of science and recondite learn- are generally the fruit of long study, and ing, the task you have undertaken will of talents concentrated in the steady not be so difficult as you may imagine. pursuit of one object; it is not likely Tables of contents and ipdexes are blessed therefore that you can throw much new helps in the bands of a reviewer; but, light on a question of this nature, or even more than all, the preface is the field plausibly combat the author's positions in from which his richest harvest is to be the course of a few hours, which is all gathered. In the preface the author you can well afford to devote to them. usually gives a summary of what has been And, without accomplishing one or other written on the same subject before; he of these points, your review will gain no acknowledges the assistance he has re- celebrity, and of course no good will be ceived from different sources, and the done. reasons of his dissent from former writers; Enough has been said to give you some he confesses that certain parts have been insight into the facilities with which your less attentively considered than others, new employment abounds: I will only and that information has come to his mention one more, because of its extenhands too late to be made use of; he sive and almost universal application to points outmany things in the composition all branches of literawire; the topic, I of his work which he thinks may provoke mean, which by the old rhetoricians was animadversion, and endeavours to defend called if ivartior: that is, when a work or to palliate his own practice. llere excels in one quality, you may blame it then is a fund of wealth for the reviewer, for not baving the opposite. For in. lying upon

the very surface; if he knows stance : if the biographical sketch of a any thing of his business, he will turn literary character is minute and full of all these materials against the author; anecdote, you may enlarge on the ad. carefully suppressing the source of his vantages of philosophical reflection, and information, and as if drawing from the the superior mind required to give a ju. stores of his own mind, long ago laid up dicious analysis of the opinions and works for this very purpose. If the author's of deceased authors; on the contrary, if references are correct, a great point is the latter method is pursued by the biogained; for by consulting a few passages grapber, you can with equal ease extol of the original works, it will be easy to ihe lively colouring, and truth, and interdiscuss the subject with the air of having est, of exact delineation and detail. T'his a previous knowledge of the whole. Your topic, you will perceive, enters into style chief vantage-ground is, that you may as well as matter: where many virtues fasten upon any position in the book you might be nained which are incompatible; are reviewing, and treat it as principal and whichever the author has preferred, and essential, when perhaps it is of little it will be the signal for you to launch forth sveight in the main argument; but, by on the praises of its opposite, and con. allouting a large share of your criticism to tinually to hold up that to your reader as it, the reader will naturally be led to the inodel of excellence in this species of give it a proportionate importance, and to writing. consider the merit of the treatise at issue You will. perhaps wonder why all my upon that single question. If any body instructions are pointed towards the cena complains that the greater and more va suie, and not the praise, of books; but Juable parts remaiņ unpdliced, your many reasons might be given wby it should


Advice to a l'oung Reviewer.

[May 1, be so. The chief are, that this part is position is complete. The stock in trade both easier, and will sell berter. Let us of these adventurers is in general scanty hear the words of Mr. Burke on a sube enough, and their art therefore consists ject not very dissimilar. “In such cases," in disposing it to the best advantage. says he, "ibe writer has a certain fire But it such be the aim of the writer, it and alacrity inspired into bim, by a con- is the critic's business to detect and desciousness, that, let it fare how it will feat the imposture; to warn the public with the subject, his ingenuity will le against the purchase of shop-worn goods, sure of applause; and this alacrity be. and tinsel wares; to protect the fair comes much greater, if he acts upon the trader, by exposing the tricks of needy offensive, by the impetuosity that always guacks and mountebauks; and to chasaccompanjes an attack, and the unför- tise ihat forward and noisy importunity, tunate propensity which mankind have to with which they present themselves to the the finding and exaggerating faults." puhiie notice. Pref. Vindic. Nat. Soc. p. 6. You will Huer far Mr. Milton is amenable to perceive that I have on no occasion sanc- this discipline, will best appear from a tioned the baser motives of private pique, briet analysis of the poem before us.

In envy, revenge, and love of detraction; the very opening he assuines a tone of at least I have not recommended harsh authority, which might better suit some treatment upon any of these grounds: I veteran bard than a raw candidate for have argued simply on the abstract moral the Delphie bays; fur, before he proceeds principle which a reviewer should ever to the regular process of invocation, he bave present to his mind. But if any of clears the way by driving from his prethese motives insinuate themselves as se- sence, with sundry hard names and bitter condary springs of action, I would not reproaches on her father, mother, and all condemn them: they may come in aid of the fainily, a venerable personage, whose the grand leading principle, and power- age at least, and staid matron-like apfully second its operation.

pearance, might have entitled her to But it is time to close these tedious more civil language, precepts; and to furnish you with what

Hence, Inathed Melancholy; speaks plainer than any precept, a speci. Of Cerberus and blackest Midnight born, men of the art itself, in which several of

In Stygian cave forlorn, &c. them are embodied. It is hastily done; but it exemplifie: well enough what I these inatters, without a knowledge of

There is no giving rules, however, in have said of the poetical department, the case. Perhaps the old lady had been and exbibits most of those qualities frequently warned off before, and prowhich disappointed authors are fond of voked this violence by continuing still to sailing at, under the paines of flips lurk about the poet's dwelling. And, to pancy, arrogance, conceit, misrepresen- say the truth, the reader will have but cation, and malevolence: reproaches too good reason to remark, before he which you will only regard as so many gets through the poeni, that it is one acknowledgments of success in your un- thing to tell the spirit of Dulness to depart, dertaking, and infallible tests of an es. tablished" fanie and rapidly increasing like Glendower's spirits, any one may

and another to get rid of her in reality, circulation.

order thein away, “ But will they go when you do order thein?”

But let us suppose for a moment, that L'Allegro, « Poem, by John Milton. the Parnassiao decree is obeyed; and

No Prinler's name. It has become a practice of late with according to the letter of thie order,

which is as precise and wordy as if Jus. a certain description of people who have

tice Shallow linself lad drawn it, that no visible means of subsistence, to string the obnoxious female is sent back to the together a few trite inages of rural scepery, interspersed with vulgarisnis in dia- place of her birth, leci, and traits of vulgar manners; to

«« 'Mongst horrid shapes, shrieks, sights,” &c. dress up these materials in a sing-song at which we beg our fair readers not te jingle, and to offer them for sale as a be alarmed, for we can assure them they poem. According to the most approved are only words of course in all poetical recipes, something about the beatken instruments of this nature; and mean no gods and goddesses, and the school-boy more than the “ force and arms," and topics of Styx,and Cerberus, and Elysium, instigation of the devil,”-in a common is occasionally thrown in, and the com. indictivent. This nuisauce then being



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