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MONTILY BOTANICAL REPORT:
Crocus serotinus. An autumnal powering species, approaching the satius, or cultivated saffron, or perhaps still nearer to nudiflorus of English botany; with which last it seems to have been contounded by Dr. Smith.' This plunt was well known to the vider botanists, but has not been noticed by any modern writer herore Mr. Salisbury pullished an account of it in the Paradisus Londinensis; in whuse garien at Mill-hill, formerly belonging to Peter Collinson, it has for many years maintained its ground under a south wail, and coniinues flowering in a mild season tis December. Native of Portugal; and growing on rocks riot far from the sea-côtet, where Clusius discovered it. Found also by Pallas, in the Crimea.
To this article Mr. Gawler has added a note on the Gladiolus imbricatus of Linnæus, which from well-preserved specimens in the Pallasian Herbariuin, now in the possession of Mr. Lambert, he finds to be the same with G. segetum, of the Botanical Magazine. He remarks that this species, both in its globular seeds and finestrate interstices between the claws of the petals, has a nearer atiinity with Antholyza than with Glaciolus.
Aponcgetun angustifol im, a species first distinguished from dis-achyon, in the Hortus Kewensis. It is a water plant, and a native of the Cape of Good Hope.
Lachenalia urchivities (2). "This variety appears to be so different from the one before figured, that most botanisis, we apprehend, would have considered them as distinct.
Aloe w.treformis. This is one of the most beautiful of the alve tribe.
Diosma sp.cicsa. This species is very nearly allied to uniflora ; indeed it appears from the synonimy to have been considered by the ablest butanises as the same, a specimen of it occurring in the Banksian Fierbarium under tne latter name. As cultivated in our gardens, they appear however to be distinct in their manner of growth, as well as number of fowers; or if varieties, the one named by Dr. Sims speciosa, is by far the handsomest and must worthy of cultivation.
Lomatia siltifolia. Native of New Holland. This genus is made out of Dr. Smith's Embothrium, by Mr. Brown, from whose paper on the Proteaceæ the name and characters are borroved. Mr. Brown has the reputation, and we believe very deservedly, of being one of the avlest botanists of the present day. He is a tached more to the system of Jussieu than of Linnæus, for which we would rather applaud than condemn him.' The greater dito ficulties which impede the study of the natural attoit es of plants, iead to a more philosophical enquiry into vegetable physiology, than the study of mere artificial arrangement can ever do. At the same time we would strenuously recommena to every student in botany, whether he means ta devote himseif to the study of the natural orders as displayed by Jussieu, or of the more artificial arrangement of Linnæus, to make himsell ::or jughiy master of the Philosophia Botanica of the latter author. He will chere learn to express himself with a matheo matical precision, which he will never acquire from the witings of Jussieu ; who always seems to be wiloer himself in exceptions 10 general rules, by which means nothing is accurately, defined. We are led to these reflections by considering Nir. Brown's specific character of Lomatia silaifolia, in which he says "racemis divisis si mipicituesve,” by which it al pears that the racemes are either divided or simple, consequently this circumstance afford r.u character that can enter into a definitio:1, and ouglit chera.ore to have been excluded. lit.acacemes are ysually divided, though not in all instances, in retaule of a more precise character “seys divisis," though an imperdiet, would have been an admissible character; but to speak of them a, indiferently divideú, or simple, is to give no chara ter at ail.
We were rather struck with an onservation of Dr. Sims's, that in these plants, meaning we suppose in the natural order of Proteacere, it might as well be said that the flowers have neither calyx nos corulld, but only stamens surrounding the pistil. Certainly in far the greater number of them the ports called by Linu.zus curolla, by Jussieu calyx, have the appearance of variously expanded filaments, aud as they bear the anthers in depressiunt of their substance, we do not see why they should not be considered as such. In some genera however, In this natural order, the anthers are supported on tiiaments which are inserted into the calyys or corolla, whichever it is to be called, and in one instance into the receptacle discinct fruta the corolla. The remark of De Sims does not therefore appear to apply to ile whule Datural order, but inay nevertheless be worthy of considerativa
Cynanchum disediya A North Americal species, of late incrjduction, which, as De. Sms observes, is nearly allied to coreanise and subessum, but, 's he appichenús, is disciset front borh. May it not, by the hye, be the Lyninchum barium of Linntus?
Dillwynia obuváta. The papilionacevis decandrous plints of New Huilaod seem to be a very numerous family: mjny of them are very beautiful, and in this respect the present species will yield to few"; itá habit is so remarkable by the leves growing in pairs alternately in an opposite direction, that we can bue wonder the nime of decussata was not applied to chis plant. We do not recollect another instance of such a liabic in this natural order.
English Butiny for March contains:
Hieracium na ulatum; formerly considered by Dr. Smith as a variety of liieracium murorum, and niore lately as one of H. sylvaticun. Brought from Westmoreland by Mr. Crove to his garden in Norwich, from whence " it has established itseit in the neighbourhout, spreading extensively by seed."
Naturalist's Monthly Report. (April 1, Hieracium denticulatum. In the Flora Britannica, Dr. Smith gave this as the H. prenantecides of Villars, which he now discovers from Dauphiny specimens, that it is not. It is bere observed that the difficulties relating to this genus are not yet all removed. We gracefully accept every illustration of it.
Carex da vsiliana. This too was considered by Dr. Smith, in his Flora Britannica, as a variety of C. divica; from which he now says it is abundantly distinguished by its tufted, not creeping, roo's, its rougli stem, longer spikes, and long reflexed strongly-ribbed seed-covers, ronghish only, not serrated, at the angles.
Carex clandestina. A very small species, which has not yet been observed any where bot about St. Vincent's rock Bristol bot-wells, growing in very suddy spots.
NATURALIST'S MONTHLY REPORT.
As loosened from the cold embrace of death.
rain, and some fine weather. The 1st, 2d, and 3d, were extremely heavy and uncomfortable days, the wind blowing from the south west, and bringing along with it a continued drizzling rain. On the 5th, the wind changed to the north-east; and about noon of the following day the weather cleared up for a few hours. The whole of the 13th was squally, with occasional gleams of sunshine: the wind, which was south-west, was piercingly cold. The 14th was a fine day; but in the night the wind became easterly: and on the 15th we had a heavy fall of snow, which melted almost as soon as it was upon the ground. The weather was very cold, but there was no frost until the ensuing night. The snow continued for three or four days; and particularly on the 17th, it was deeper than it is usually known to be in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea.coast. From the 18th almost to the end of the month, both the wind and weather were variable. The former on the 18th was westerly, on the 19th south-east, on the 20th and 21st easterly, on the 22d west, and on the 230 south-west. The frost continued till about the 24th.
February oth. The common or green woodpecker (picus viridis) makes its harsh cry; and the woodlarks and blackbirds sing.
Coitsfoot (Tussilago farfara), Ivy-leaved veronica (Veronica bederdfolia) and barren strawberry (Fragaria sterilis) are in flower.
February 8th. A great number of the seven-spotted-lady-bugs (Caccinella sepłempunctata) were this day remarked to be crawling about the shrubs in warm and sheltered gardens. These insects, which constitute the famous German remedy for the tooth-ach, collect together during the winter in numbers from ten or twelve to sometimes fifty or sixty; and thus, in nearly a torpid state, endure, without injury, the utmost severity of the cold. Their larvæ or grubs are extremely useful in destroying various kinds of aphides or plant lice, which, in the spring of the year, infest our vegetables; and they are themselves great favorites ia every country where they are known. The different names by which they are called, are singular and unaccountable. Amongst the common people in several parts of Hampshire they have the denomination of God Almighty's cows; and in other parts of England of lady. bugs, lady.cows, and cow-ladies. In France they are called bête-à-dieu, vache-à-dieu, and bête de la-vierge.
On February 13th, the peacock butterfly, and brimstone butterfly, (papilio Jo, and papilio Rhamını) were both observed in Aight.
The salmon which passed up the rivers in the autumn, in order to deposit their spawa, are now returning to the sea.
February 14th. The catkins of the bazel are putting forth their stamina. The gew-tree, and procumbent speedwell, (veronica ag reseis) are in Aower.
February 19th." Rooks, and several species of small birds, begin to pair. The chaffiocb sings.
February 24th. The leaves of the common elder, garden-rose, and lilac, begin to appear; and those of the cuckoo-pint (arum maculatum) and cleavers, of goose-grass (galium aparere) are now out of the ground.
During the warm weather towards the end of the month, several of the early spring insects were seen crawling and Aying about.
A gentleman informed me, that he and one of his servants had been surprised at the appearance of a martin, which they observed in Aight. This is carlier, by nearly two moaths, than the usual time of arrival of any of the species of hirundines.
February 27th. The partridges are beginning to pair. The king-doves coo; and domestic pigeons have young ones.
The gooseberry-irees are in flower; and the flower-buds of the Michaelmas peaches are nearly ready to burst open.
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE cold easterly winds and sharp frosty nights that have prevailed during the greatest
part of the month, have continued favourable in checking the over luxuriant state of the early sown young wheat crops, and kept back vegetation in general in a considerable degree.
The weather continuing mostly fair, the operations of this busy month have been carried on with great alertness; and a vast excent of team, as well as other labour, has been per formed, which wild probably make good the deficiencies of the last month, in these respects.
The winter fodder of different kinds has held out better than was expected some time back, in consequence of the season being so remarkably open, both in the beginning and since.
The grain stock, probably from the large importations from the continent, continues to hold out better than was supposed about the close of the barvest, and at more reasonable prices. In the corn market, the fluctuations in the prices have not, since our last, been much.- Wheat fetches from 68s. to 80s. per quarter; superfine 1045. to 108s. Rye, 40s. to 52s. ; Barley, 30s. to 48s.; Oats, 22s. to 30s.
The fattening stock, both in the stalls and other modes, have been pushed on with 10. lerable success, but still continue high in price. Sheep in many instances have not gone on so well as the meat cattle stock, mutton keeps of course high in price. In -Smithfield market the prices were on the last market day.--Beef fetches from 4s. 8d. to ts. per stone of Blb. ; Mutton, 4s. 8d. to 6s. ; Veal, 5s. to 7s. ; Pork, 5s. to 78.
The ewe stock has in general lambed down pretty favourably from the season being mostly pretty mild and suitable for them ; though late dropped lambs have in many places suffered considerably.
Hay keeps pretty well up to its price in the different markets, and fotches from 41. 108. to 61. 10s. ; Straw, 21. to 31. 3s. ; Clover, 6l. 10s. to 71. 10s.
Lowest, 28.. 18. N. E.
The thermometer, In the middle of Greatest
early in the morning of
Greatest the day, March 9,
the 12th inst. stood at variation in 5-tenths
variation in che mercury was at
50°, and on the next 24 hours. 28.9 & at the same 24 hours.
day at the same hour it hour on the 10th it
was no higlier than 38° had risen to 29.4. THE quantity of rain fallen since our last Report, is equal to nearly two inches in depth. This all fell toward the beginning of the mouth: some slight showers occurred about the middle of it, but during the last twelve days it has been perfectly fair weather ; and from the 17th to the 24th inclusive, the days were remarkably brilliant, scarcely a cloud intervening from morning to evening. The heaviest snow that we have experienced during the winter, fell on the oth of March : the thermometer during the whole fall being several degrees above the freezing point, it could not lay long, and on the following day the rain was as abundant as the snow had been heavy. The wind has been variable, but during the last fortnight it has blown from the easterly points, and from those points we niay expect it for some weeks to come. Vegetation fortunately, is not so forward as to be injured by the bleak breezes, nor by the frosts which bave occurred, and which may still be expected. The average temperature for the month is 42.952 : and the mean lacight of the barometer is 29.3.
ERRATA IN LAST MONTH's NUMBER.- Page 108, col. 2, 15, for decided, read divided, -P. 115, col. 1. 1. 24, for statement, scad document.-P. 134, col. 2, d. 34, for Edinburgb, read cdition of.
TO CORRESPONDENTS. A communication having some time ago appeared in the Monthly Magazine of December 1, 1806, reflecting on the members of King's college, of Aberdeen, in regard to the management of their BURSARIE 5, the Editor fecis it his duty to scate, that he finds, on satisfactory infor. mation, that it contained an unfounded calumny od that learned and respectable body. He thinks it therefore an act of jukics to make this explanation.
PRICES OF STOCKS, from the 25d of FEBRUARY' to the 2016 MARCH, hall inclusive
088 035 g
67 g 12.
1810. Feb. 23
[ 308 ]
07 g 68
N. B. buche 3 per cent. Consuls the highest and lowest l'uces are given; in the other stocha, the highest only:
Ww. TURQUAND, Stoch and Exchange Brokei No.9, St. Michael's Allev, Cornhill.
MAY 1, 1810.
[5 of VOL. 29.
As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving their opinions a 'Maximum of
Jafecace and Celebrity, the moft extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greater Effea the Curiofity of those who read either for Amusement or inftru&ion.-JOHNSON.
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. should be expected to cultivate in the SIR,
most productive way. CAVING for many years contem. 4. The numerous families of children
plated the practicability of two thus healthily and independently reared, plans, fraught with public benefit and indi- would add greatly to the effective popu. vidual happiness, I can no longer refrain lation of the country; and would afford from submitting them to the readers of the means of recruiting our armies, far supe Monthly Magazine, who include the ma- rior to our cripple-making manufactories. jority of the public-spirited and intelli. 5. They would add to the cheerfulness gent sobjects of this realm. I am san- and security of a road; they might be guine enough to believe, that my plans made to indicate distances, and to will meet with general approbation; supply directions to travellers; and they and though they may not be imme- might be so constructed as to afford sheldiately adopted, a future age may refer ter in case of accident, sudden illness, to your valuable miscellany, as the in- or inclement weather. strument which propagated a knowledge The expence of each of such cottages in of what may prove to posterity eminent building and fitting-up, would be from 25. blessings.
to 50l. according to the value of the mateMy FIRST PLAN is to build cheerful cot- rials which the neighbourhood afforded; tages, at requisite distances, by the sides and this, if desired, might be reimbursed of our public roads, as residences for the to the cominissioners, trustees, or labourer, whose employment it should be farmers, of the roads, by paying the lato repair the road, for a space equidistant bourer 6d. or 1s. per week below the in both directions from his cottage, standard or ordinary price of labour. For
Every benevolent person will view such deduction, the cottager would receive these smiling cottages in his mind's eye ample compensation in the advantages with rapture, and will wish he possessed of his cottage and plot of ground; but in a magical wand, by which le might, in acts of parliament for new roads, the an instant, bring ten thousand of them building of such cottages might form a into existence; but as Commissioners of special provision. Roads, and Parliamentary Committees, As the labourers would be elected are moved only by calculations of inter to the cottages, candidates bearing a est, I shall briefly enumerate a few ad- known good character would of course vantages which cannot fail to attend be preferred. Married men would be them.
- likely to be chosen rather than single ones; 1. The roads would be kept in better and the regular appearance of these, repair, and at much less expence than at with their families, at church on a present; because the labourer would live Sunday, would be one pledge of their close to his work, instead of spending moral conduct. Habitual drunkenness, half his time, and wasting half his strength, neglect of their cottages and plots of as is now the case, in walking several ground, or any gross depravities, should miles to his labour.
subject the cottager to ibe forfeiture of 2. The cottages would afford an inde- lis cottage; while on the other hand, a pendent asyluın to a class of the labouring regular conduct should entitle hiin, once poor, who, with their families, are gene- in seven years, to the benefit of a collecrally a barthen to the parish.
tion at the church, to buy him a cow, 3. They would increase the general to put his children apprentices, and afford means of subsistence, if a rood of the him other comforts and benefits. *aste ground on the road-side were an.. The SECOND PLAN to which I wish to nexed to each cottage, which the cottager call the attention of persons possessing MONTHLY MAG, No. 198,