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MONTHLY BOTANICAL REPORT: THE Botanical Magazine for the lust morth contains:
Crocus serotinus. An autumnal Powering species, approaching the satius, or cultivated saffron, or perhaps still nearer to nudiflorus of English botanj; with which last it seems to have been contounded by Dr. Smith. This plant was well known to the older botanists: but has not been noticed ty any modern writer before Mr. Salisbury published an account of it in the Paradisus Londinensis; in whose garden at Mill-hill, formerly belonging to Peter Collinson, it has for many years maintained its ground under a south wail, and continues howering in a mid season to Deceir.ber. Native of Portugal; and growing on rocks for far from the sea-coast, where Clusius discovered it. Found also by Pallas, in the Crimea.
To this article Mr. Gauler has added a note on the Gladiolus imuricatus of Linnæus, which from well-preserved sp.cimens in the Pallasian Herburiun, now in the possession of Mir. Lambert, he finds to be the some with G. segetum, of the Botanical Magazine. He remarks that this species, both in its globular seeds and finestrare interstices between the claws of the petals, has a nearer affinity with Ancholyza than with Gladiolus.
Apunogeton angustifolim, a species first distinguished from dis:achyon, in the Hortus Kewensis. It is a water plant, and a native of the Cape of Good Hope.
Lachenalia crebirades (X). This variety appears tü be so different from the one before figured, that most botaris's, we apprehend, would have considered them as distinct.
A Ö- *!troformis. This is one of the most beautiful of the aloe tribe. Diosma sp.cissa. This species is very nearly allied to uniflora; indeed it appears from the synonimy to have been considered by the ablest botanists as the same, a specimen of it occurring in the Banksian Hierbarium under the latter name.
As cultivated in our gardens, they appear however to be distince in their manner of growth, as well as number of flowers; er if varieties, the one named by Dr. Sims speciosa, is by far the handsomest and most worthy of coltivation.
Lomaria silzifolia. Native of New Holland. This genug is made out of Dr. Smith's Embothrium, by Mr. Brown, from whose paper on the Protcacere the name and characters are borrowed. Mr. Brown has the reputation, and we believe very deservedly, of being one of the ablese botanists of the present day. He is attached more to the system of Jussieu than of Linnæus, for which we would rather applaud enan condemn him. The greater (11ficulties which impede the study of the natural attivit es of pianes, lead to a more philosophical enquiry in!o vegetable physiolous, than the study of mere-artificiai arrangement can ever do. At the same time we would scienuously recommend to every student in botany, whether he means is devote himself to the study of the natural orders as displayed by Jussiew, or of the more artificial arrangement of Linnæus, to make hinsell :zor jughly master of the Philco sophia Botanica of the lateer auchor. He will chere learn to express himself with a mathematical precision, which he will never acquire from the writings of Jussicu; who always seems to bewilder himself in exceptions to general rules, by which means nothing is accurately defined. We are led to these reflections by considering 'Nir. Brown's specific character of Lomatia silaifoliu, in which he says "racemis a:visis smagi.cibusve," by which it appears that the racemes are either divided or simple, consequently this circunstance afiords no character that can enter into a definition, and ought theraiore to have been excluded. lite rucemes are yually divided, though not in all instances, in detaule of a more precise character " sizes dossis,” though an imperdiet, wwwid have been an admissible character; but to speak of them aj inditierently divided, or simple, is to give no character at all.
We were rather struck with an oriservation of Dr. Sims's, that in these plants, meaning we Suppose in the natural order of Proteacere, it might as well be said that the flowers have neither calyx nor coruld, but only stamens surrounding the pistil. Certainly in far the greater number of them the parts called by Linuxus curolla, by Jussieu calyx, have the appearance of variously expanded filaments, and as they bear thie' anchers in depressions of their sube stance, we do not see why she should not be considered as such. In some genera huwever, In this natural order, the anthers are supported on filaments which are inserted into the calys or corolla, whichever it is to be called, ind in one instance into the receptacle discinct fun the corolla. The remark of Dr. Sims does not therefore appear to apply to the whule natural order, but inay Diver:h less be worthy of consideration.
Cynanchun disc dur. A North Americal species, ut ait intriduc:jun, wachs, as Dr. Sims observes, is nearly allied to carcinoise and subeoosum, but, is he apprehends, is disciacı tioni both. May it not, by the hye, be the Cynanchum huium oi Linnzus?
Dillwynia obuziata. The papillunaceurs decandrous plints of New Holland seem to be a Yery numerous family: many of them are very beautiful, and in this respect the present Species will yield to femra
, its nabit is so remarkable by the leives growing in pairs alternately in an opposite direction, that we can but wonder the name of dicussata was not applied to this plant. We do not recollect another iosiance of such a habit in this natural order.
English Buruniy for Alarch contains:
Hicracium maiulatum; formerly considered by Dr. Smith as a variety of Flieracium murorumi, and more lately as one of H. sylvatican. Brought from Westmoreland by Mr. Crove to his garden is Norwich, from whence " it has established itself in die neighbourbout, spreading extensively by ssed."
Hieracium denticulatum. In the Flora Britannica, Dr. Smith gave this as the H. prenantecides of Villars, which he now discovers from Dauphiny specimens, that it is not. It is bere observed that the difficulties relating to this genus are not yet all removed. We gracefully accept every illustration of it.
Carex da vsiliana. This too was considered by Dr. Smith, in his Flora Britannica, as a variety of C. divica; from which he now says it is abundantly distinguished by its tufted, not creeping, roo's, its rougli stem, longer spikes, and long reflexed strongly-ribbed seed-covers, ronghish only, not serrated, at the angles.
Carex clandestina. A very small species, which has not yet been observed any where bot about St. Vincent's rock Bristol bot-wells, growing in very suddy spots.
NATURALIST'S MONTHLY REPORT.
As loosened from the cold embrace of death.
rain, and some fine weather. The 1st, 2d, and 3d, were extremely heavy and uncomfortable days, the wind blowing from the south west, and bringing along with it a continued drizzling rain. On the 5th, the wind changed to the north-east; and about noon of the following day the weather cleared up for a few hours. The whole of the 13th was squally, with occasional gleams of sunshine: the wind, which was south-west, was piercingly cold. The 14th was a fine day; but in the night the wind became easterly: and on the 15th we had a heavy fall of snow, which melted almost as soon as it was upon the ground. The weather was very cold, but there was no frost until the ensuing night. The snow continued for three or four days; and particularly on the 17th, it was deeper than it is usually known to be in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea.coast. From the 18th almost to the end of the month, both the wind and weather were variable. The former on the 18th was westerly, on the 19th south-east, on the 20th and 21st easterly, on the 22d west, and on the 230 south-west. The frost continued till about the 24th.
February oth. The common or green woodpecker (picus viridis) makes its harsh cry; and the woodlarks and blackbirds sing.
Coitsfoot (Tussilago farfara), Ivy-leaved veronica (Veronica bederdfolia) and barren strawberry (Fragaria sterilis) are in flower.
February 8th. A great number of the seven-spotted-lady-bugs (Caccinella sepłempunctata) were this day remarked to be crawling about the shrubs in warm and sheltered gardens. These insects, which constitute the famous German remedy for the tooth-ach, collect together during the winter in numbers from ten or twelve to sometimes fifty or sixty; and thus, in nearly a torpid state, endure, without injury, the utmost severity of the cold. Their larvæ or grubs are extremely useful in destroying various kinds of aphides or plant lice, which, in the spring of the year, infest our vegetables; and they are themselves great favorites ia every country where they are known. The different names by which they are called, are singular and unaccountable. Amongst the common people in several parts of Hampshire they have the denomination of God Almighty's cows; and in other parts of England of lady. bugs, lady.cows, and cow-ladies. In France they are called bête-à-dieu, vache-à-dieu, and bête de la-vierge.
On February 13th, the peacock butterfly, and brimstone butterfly, (papilio Jo, and papilio Rhamını) were both observed in Aight.
The salmon which passed up the rivers in the autumn, in order to deposit their spawa, are now returning to the sea.
February 14th. The catkins of the bazel are putting forth their stamina. The gew-tree, and procumbent speedwell, (veronica ag reseis) are in Aower.
February 19th." Rooks, and several species of small birds, begin to pair. The chaffiocb sings.
February 24th. The leaves of the common elder, garden-rose, and lilac, begin to appear; and those of the cuckoo-pint (arum maculatum) and cleavers, of goose-grass (galium aparere) are now out of the ground.
During the warm weather towards the end of the month, several of the early spring insects were seen crawling and Aying about.
A gentleman informed me, that he and one of his servants had been surprised at the appearance of a martin, which they observed in Aight. This is carlier, by nearly two moaths, than the usual time of arrival of any of the species of hirundines.
February 27th. The partridges are beginning to pair. The king-doves coo; and domestic pigeons have young ones.
The gooseberry-irees are in flower; and the flower-buds of the Michaelmas peaches are nearly ready to burst open.
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE cold easterly winds and sharp frosty nights that have prevailed during the greatest
part of the month, have continued favourable in checking the over luxuriant state of the carly sown young wheat crops, and kept back vegetation in general in a considerable degree.
The weather continuing mostly fair, the operations of this busy month have been carried on with great alertness; and a vast extent of team, as well as other labour, has been pero formed, which will probably make good the deficiencies of the last month, in these respects.
The winter fodder of difterent kinds has held out better than was expected some time back, in consequence of the season being so remarkably open, both in the beginning and since.
The grain stock, probably from the large importations from the continent, continues to hold uut better than was supposed abuut the close of the harvest, and at more reasonable prices. In the corn market, the fluctuations in the prices have not, since our last, been much.- Wheat fetches from 68s. to 80s. per quarter; superfine 1045. to 1086. Rye, 40s. to j2s.; Barley, 30s. to 48s.; Oats, 22s. to 30s.
The fattening stock, both in the stalis and other modes, have been puslied on with to. lerabie success, but still continue high in price. Sheep in many instances have not golle on so well as the meat cattle stock, mutton keeps of course high in price. lo Smithfield market the prices were on the last market day.--Beef fetches from 4s. 8d. to Os. per stone of 8lb.; Mutton, 45. 8d. to 6s. ; Veal, 5s. to 7s. ; Pork, 58. to 78.
The ewe stock has in general lambed down pretty favourably from the season being mostly pretty mild and suitable for them; though late dropped lambs have in many places suffered Considerably.
Hay keeps pretty well up to its price in the different markets, and fetches from 41. 105. to 61. 10$. ; Straw, 21. to 31. 38.; Clover, 61. 10s. to 71. 10s.
Greatest variation in 24 hours.
In the middle of the day, March 9,
The thermometer, early in the morning of the 12th inst. stood at 50°, and on the next day at the same hour is was no higher than 38°
Toz quantity of rain fallen since our last Report, is equal to nearly two inches in depth. This all fell toward the beginning of the mouth: some slight showers occurred about the middle of it, but during the last twelve days it has been perfectly fair weather ; and from the 17th to the 24ch inclusive, the days were remarkably brilliant, scarcely a cloud intervening from morning to evening. The heaviest snow that we have experienced during the winter, fell on the 6th of March : the thermometer during the whole fall being several degrees above the freezing point, it could not lay long, and on the following day the rain was as abundant as the snow had been heavy. The wind has been variable, but during the last fortnight it has blown from the easterly points, and from those points we niay expect it for some weeks to come. Vegetation fortunately, is not so forward as to be injured by the bleak breezes, nor by the frosts which have occurred, and which may still be expected. The average temperature for the month is 42.952 : and the mean licight of the barometer is 29.3.
EXRATA IN LAST MONTH's NUMBER.- Page 108, col. 2, L. 5, for decided, read divided. -P. 115, col. 1. l. 24, for statement, read document.--P. 134, col. 2, d. 3t, for Edinburgb, tead edition of
TO CORRESPONDENTS. A communication having some time ago appeared in the Monthly Magazine of December 1, 1806, reflecting on the members of King's college, of Aberdeen, in regard to the Dianagement of their BURSARIES, the Editor feels it his duty to scate, that he finds, on satisfactory infor. mation, that it contained an unfounded calumny on that learned and respectable body. He thinks it therefore an act of juxice to make this explanation.
PRICES OF STOCKS, from the 23d of FEBRUARY' to the 2111 ore Mancu, beti, inclusive
N. B. In the 3 per Cent, Consols the highest and lowest prices are given; in the other stochs, the highest only.
W# TUNGLAND, Stoch and Exchange Broker No. 9, St. Michael's Alley, Cornbill.
MAY 1, 1810.
[5 of VOL. 29.
As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving their opinions a 'Maximum of
Jafecace and Celebrity, the moft extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greater Effea the Curiofity of those who read either for Amusement or inftru&ion.-JOHNSON.
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. should be expected to cultivate in the SIR,
most productive way. CAVING for many years contem. 4. The numerous families of children
plated the practicability of two thus healthily and independently reared, plans, fraught with public benefit and indi- would add greatly to the effective popu. vidual happiness, I can no longer refrain lation of the country; and would afford from submitting them to the readers of the means of recruiting our armies, far supe Monthly Magazine, who include the ma- rior to our cripple-making manufactories. jority of the public-spirited and intelli. 5. They would add to the cheerfulness gent sobjects of this realm. I am san- and security of a road; they might be guine enough to believe, that my plans made to indicate distances, and to will meet with general approbation; supply directions to travellers; and they and though they may not be imme- might be so constructed as to afford sheldiately adopted, a future age may refer ter in case of accident, sudden illness, to your valuable miscellany, as the in- or inclement weather. strument which propagated a knowledge The expence of each of such cottages in of what may prove to posterity eminent building and fitting-up, would be from 25. blessings.
to 50l. according to the value of the mateMy FIRST PLAN is to build cheerful cot- rials which the neighbourhood afforded; tages, at requisite distances, by the sides and this, if desired, might be reimbursed of our public roads, as residences for the to the cominissioners, trustees, or labourer, whose employment it should be farmers, of the roads, by paying the lato repair the road, for a space equidistant bourer 6d. or 1s. per week below the in both directions from his cottage, standard or ordinary price of labour. For
Every benevolent person will view such deduction, the cottager would receive these smiling cottages in his mind's eye ample compensation in the advantages with rapture, and will wish he possessed of his cottage and plot of ground; but in a magical wand, by which le might, in acts of parliament for new roads, the an instant, bring ten thousand of them building of such cottages might form a into existence; but as Commissioners of special provision. Roads, and Parliamentary Committees, As the labourers would be elected are moved only by calculations of inter to the cottages, candidates bearing a est, I shall briefly enumerate a few ad- known good character would of course vantages which cannot fail to attend be preferred. Married men would be them.
- likely to be chosen rather than single ones; 1. The roads would be kept in better and the regular appearance of these, repair, and at much less expence than at with their families, at church on a present; because the labourer would live Sunday, would be one pledge of their close to his work, instead of spending moral conduct. Habitual drunkenness, half his time, and wasting half his strength, neglect of their cottages and plots of as is now the case, in walking several ground, or any gross depravities, should miles to his labour.
subject the cottager to ibe forfeiture of 2. The cottages would afford an inde- lis cottage; while on the other hand, a pendent asyluın to a class of the labouring regular conduct should entitle hiin, once poor, who, with their families, are gene- in seven years, to the benefit of a collecrally a barthen to the parish.
tion at the church, to buy him a cow, 3. They would increase the general to put his children apprentices, and afford means of subsistence, if a rood of the him other comforts and benefits. *aste ground on the road-side were an.. The SECOND PLAN to which I wish to nexed to each cottage, which the cottager call the attention of persons possessing MONTHLY MAG, No. 198,