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SWEDEN.

GERMANY.

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Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. [April 1, to the count, in which he describes, travelling baroineter, which was highly among others, five manuscripts of Nes: approved. Dr. SCHULTES has recently intor, the most ancient historian of Russia. vented a new instrument of this descrip

tion, which may be placed horizontally, The king has not only repealed the or vertically, without suffering the air to prohibition to import French and Danish penetrate into the interior cavity. books, but also restored the liberty of the M. LAMPADIUS, of Freiberg, has dis. press, on condition that the publisher covered a method of condensing vapours shall give up the name and address of any in distillation, more rapidly than has yet obnoxious work; in which case the for. been done. This is accomplished by mer is released from all responsibility. means of a disk, attached to the tube of

the still, which has the figure of a lens The catalogue of books which ap- flattened as much as possible, and is peared at the last Easter fair at Leipsic, made of copper. It produces a much includes in the whole two thousand arti: better effect than the worms hitherto cles, among which are one hundred and employed for that purpose. twenty eight novels, fifty theatrical M. Geitner has, by the aid of rarious pieces, and between three and four substances, extracted from the green hundred translations.

shells of horse-chesnuts very beautiful A German author, in a work lately yellow and brown colours, and the latter published, states the following curious in the greatest diversity of hues. They fact:-A person having an artificial may- are found to stand both on woollens and net suspended from the wall of his study, silks, though the stuffs bave been wetted with a piece of iron adhering to it, re- and wrung out, and some of them even marked, for several years, that the flies washed in caustic liquids. in the room, though they frequently CRISTOPHER HEEREN, organ-buildalighted on other iron articles, never er, at Gottesbühren), in Westphalia, has settled on the artificial magnet; and even invented a loom, which performs all the that, if any of those insects approached operations of itself. Without the interit, they again in a moment removed to vention of the weaver, it sets the some distance. " It is worth the trou. treadles in motion, throws the shuttle, ble,” says professor Voigt, who repeats and stops it at the opposite side ; loosens this circunstance in his journal," 10 the web, when a certain portion is make further observations on this pheno- finished, and winds the cloth upon the menon; and were it confirmed, magne. axle. Every thing is kept in proper tised iron might be employed to preserve order; and the piece of stuff, when it from being soiled by flies, and perhaps finished, is sinoothed. An index, also for other purposes.”

attached to the machine, shows at any The Austrian government has lately time the number of ells that are woven. proposed the following prize-questions, This machine has as yet only been exhirelative to substitutes for various foreign bited on a small scale to connoisseurs, articles in the materia medica. 1. and has obtained the highest approWhat indigenous or European produc- bation. tions, distinguished by specific effects, Many ladies of Münich have learned may be substituted for those now brought to knit without needles. The inventor from India ? 2. A substitute for cam- of this art is M. NELLISEX, a native of phor, 3. A substitute for Peruvian bark. the county of Limbury, who teaches it 4. What species of plants may replace himself in the Bavarian capital. It is, senna, jalap, and ipecacuanlia? 5. A however, yet very imperfect; as, by this substitute for opium. The prize for method, they can only knit breadthwise, each question is five hundred ducats. and not circularly.

For the inquisitive traveller, a baro- Bi. Rockstrog, of Berlin, has inmeter is an instruinent of the highest venied a machine for cutting paper necessity, as it is not only serviceable for straight, with any kind of scissars, winch inetcorological observations, but also for is likely to be of use to men of business. measuring heights in the countries We have already noticed the experithrough which lie passes. The common ments of M. Degex, of Vienna, to raise barometers are unfit for this purpose, as hiinself into the air. As his weight the weighit of the quicksilver would break exceeded the power of the machinery the glass tubes in the carriage. For with which he effected this, by thirty-four his reason, M. de Luc, of Göttingen, pounds, he conceived the idea of coma considerable time since, contrived a bining with it an air-balloon, imagining

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that, by means of the latter, he could be probably possesses fewer materials of the supporied in the air, and at the same former circle of Franconia: but it is postime bave it sufficiently under his com- sible that the grand duke of Würtzburg mand. The experiments which he made maybave furnished information, to with it, towards the conclusion of last extend the topographical knowledge of year, in the Prater, before a numerous those countries. Of Swabia and Upper company, were completely successful. Austria, the geographical bureau at Paris He flew at pleasure in all directions; bas a beautiful manuscript inap. Bavaraised and lowered bimself; and the bal- ria has been surveyed for some time; and loon followed him spontaneously which the map of the Tyrol is already cngraved ever way he turned. The diameter of and sold at Paris. In respect to Austria the latter was nineteen feet five inches. alone, the materials are perhaps rather After deducting the weight of Degen and scanty, as the French have remained his flying-machine, the balloon possessed there too short a time to undertake exa power equal to thirty-two pounds. tensive measurements. It is concluded,

While the Prussian states were occu- that this large and complete map will be pied by French troops, the Academy of given to the public, from the circumSciences at Berlin lost inany of the stance that Suabia has already been treasures of art which it possessed, and engraved at Paris. which it was obliged to cede to the mu- M. von Hanner, a skilful orientalist, seuins of Paris. As some coinpensation, and formerly agent of the Austrian gothe French government intends to send it vernment, in Moldavia, has lately been casts of all the antiques at Paris, taken sent to Paris to claim the restitution of a off wich care.

great part of the llebrew, Arabic, and The successes of the French armies, Persian manuscripts, taken en masse from and their long residence in Germany, the imperial library of Vienna, last sum. have procured them an advantage which mer; M. Denon having given assurances, they formerly dispensed with in their that only such should be kept as were victories, but of which they will not fail not to be found in the imperial library at to avail themselves in their future inilitary Paris. enterprizes. They have put them in A remarkably large parabolic lens was possession of a map of Germany, sur. recently purchased at Vienna, for the passing all its predecessors in perfection French government. It was made at and accuracy. Hanover was surveyed Gratz, in Styria, by Rospinè, a cele by Epaillu, chef de bataillon, immediately brated mechanist, for soine alchemists. after its occupation by the corps of It was not cast, but softened by heat, and Mortier. In Brandenburg and Silesia, bent over a parabolic mould. Several the French had two year's time to collect pieces were broken before he succeeded; the requisite topographicai information; so that it cost originally froin 800 to 1200 and it is not improbable, that the beauti- guineas. It is three feet three inches in ful maps of several provinces, drawn up diameter, and of eight feet four inches by order of the Prussian government, focus; composed of two pieces of glass have fallen into their hands; as their united together by an iron loop, so as to entrance into Berlin was so sudden, that form a hollow vessel, capable of holding a great quantity of important papers and eighly or ninety quarts of spirit of wine. valuable effects could not be secreted. M. JACQUIN, of Vienna, and several Saxony caused a portion of its states to men of science, who witnessed the expebe surveyed every year: at the requestriments, declare, that is burned a dia. of the French government, the work has mond in a few seconds, and tused platina been for some years accelerated; and the in a few minutes. A button of placourt of Dresden has inade such commu- tina, weighing twenty-nine grains, was nications as were required. It is be- melted by it, and made in part to boil. lieveil, that the same has been done by The diameter of the focus does not Denmark, in regard to the duchy of appear to exceed four lines. It weighis Holstein, and perhaps of the whole Cime 550lbs. avoirdupoise. brian peninsula.

The French govern. Inent has caused not only the worthern. In the vestibule of publie library of most provinces of Germany to the North Grenoble, have been placed the busts of Sea and Baltic, but likewise the counties the nine dauphins who reigned in Dauof Stolberg, and the duchies of Weimar, phiné. Coburg, Meinungen, Hildburghausen, Dr. Louis VALENTIN, member of the ec, to be surveyed by engineers. It Academy and Medical Society of Mar.

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FRANCE.

262 Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. (April 1, seilles, has publicly called upon the ments, they presented him with princely French nation to bestow on Dr. Edward domains, built for him the magnificent Jenner a reward worthy of the services palace of Blenheim, and erected on a which he has rendered to mankind. “It hill in his park, a splendid monument, is ten years," says be," since Dr. Jenner whose basc, covered with inscriptions, ascertained that vaccine inoculation it attests bis martial exploits, and wbose a preservative against the small-pox. It sumainit is crowned with a statue of that is upwards of thirty since he commenced general, there is nothing astonishing in his researches into the nature of the all this. But what excites much greater cow-pox. It is nine since he made public surprise is, that the same nation has, that invaluable discovery; and it is since 1802, done nothing more for Jen. seven siuce bis practice was introduced ner, except that in 1805, the lord mayor, into France. It is now spread over and common council of London, be. almost every part

of the globe. Several stowed on him a testimony of the publie millions have experienced its beneficial gratitude, by presenting him with the effects, and every day is marked with freedom of the city, in a gold box, Rew and uniform success. What a debt enriched with diamonds and emblems of gratitude do we owe to the author of allusive to science, for the salutary dis. this new method! All nations pour forth covery of the vaccine inoculation, owing their benedictions upon him. Every to bis indefatigable researches.' Jenner country, every city, would fain offer bim has become the man of all nations. a civic crown, and each individual express Like Hippocrates, be belongs to every bis gratitude. What mortal was ever country. His name will live to the most more useful to society? No kind of remote posterity. It is the present genereward, no dignity, can be an adequate ration which owes him a great remuneracompensation for such a service. The tion. May it be worthy of one of the noble and generous manner in which fairest epochs of the world! May the Jenner communicated his knowledge, his French nation, which is capable of appresolicitude to ascertain the results of his ciating great things, noi delay it 600 experiments, are beyond all praise. long! Induced by these considerations, Engaged in accomplishing a great revolu. I would suggest to all the societies in tion in this inportant part of medicine, the French empire for promoting the and in promoting the welfare of his advancement of the healing art, the fellow.creatures, by a practice as sinple following propositions:--1. To open, with as it was extraordinary, he thought no- the consent and under the patronage thing, so that he cauld but ultimately of government, a subscription for Dr. succeed, either of time, trouble, or the Jenner. 2. The committee of the cenexpense incurred by a very extensive tral vaccine society, and the medical correspondence. Tlie French physicians societies of the metropolis, should be were not the last to proclaim him the exclusively empowered io determine the benefactor of mankind; and in this they nature of the recompence to be decreed are joined by the public opinion. The to that great man, 3. These societies central coinmittee of vaccination, esta- might depute some of their members, to blished at Paris, under the auspices of present a plan to that effect; and to government, observes in the report obtain permission of the ininister of the published by it in 1803: “The commiisec interior, to invite the medical societies will not conclude this sketch of its pro- of the departments to contribute to the ceedings, without paying a just tribute present, by voluntary subscriptious. . of gratitude to Dr. Jeuner, thie illustrious Every learned society, and every indiviauthor of this discovery, who will hence- dual who cultivates the healing art, forth be numbered among those men should likewise be at liberty to contriwho have done the most honor to science, bute. 5. At the period fixed for closing and the greatest service to bumanity.' the subscription, the committee formed i ne reward conferred on Jenner, by the by the societies of Paris, should appoint English parliament, in 1802, though deputies to go to England, when circunaccompanied with the post gratifying stances, and the government, shall permit, expressions, is very inadequate to the to present our homage and our gratitude incalculable advantages wirich will result to Dr. Jenner. 6. The saine commitfrom bis discovery. If the English tee should likewise determine the time nation, during the reign of queen Anne, and place for erecting a statue in honor Juaded the duke of Marlborough with or him. 7. It is to be presumed, that honors; if, to reward his auilitary achieve the medical societies will aut fail 14 1

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AMERICA.

place the bust of Jenner beside that of which she has sustained. The bust is Hippocrates."

placed on a cippus, or the shaft of a ITALY.

column, supported by a simple pedestal, A very simple contrivance has been and adorned with a garland. Friendship, invented by M. Fabroni, for transform- personified under the form of a young ing any good common balance into an and beautiful female, is in a pensive and hydrostatic balance. It is a moveable sorrowful attitude, She is raising to column, which, being placed in a vessel her eyes a corner of her garment to dry proper for the purpose, beneath any ba- her tears. The drapery is well conlance whatever, provided it be exact, trived; notwithstanding its fullness, and renders it capable of giving specific gra- the quantity of folds, it shows the convities, without the necessity of recurring tours of the figure. The portrait of to the extraordinary and expensive me. Volpato is a striking resemblance; and thods with which the inachines now called the whole composition combines grace hydrostatic balances are attended. with simplicity. It is to be placed in the

M. GONZATTI has discovered a liquid vestibule of the church of the Apostles. which instantaneously extinguishes fire. By an imperial decree, the museum of The following experiments were publicly sculpture, of Turin, is to be restored. made with it at Venice. Some resin and M. Spalla has been appointed director, oil were set fire to, and scarcely had a and sculptor to the emperor, with a penfew drops of this liquid been poured on sion of 6000 francs. the fame, when it jinmediately dis. appeared, leaving behind not the least The following circumstance, related trace of fire. Billets of wood, besmeared on the authority of an officer of his ma. with pitch and resin, and afterwards jesty's ship Dedalus, occurred while dipped in this liquid, resisted the action that vessel was lying at Samana, St. of the hottest fire, to which they were Domingo.---Early in the forenoon of exposed for several hours. The inventor 20th November, 1808, several sharks affirms, that a few applications of this were seen swimming about the ship in composition to wood-work would pre- expectation of prey. A hook and bait serve it from all danger of fire. He bas were put overboard, which one of them not thought fit to publish the manner in immediately seized with the greatest which this composition is prepared ; but voracity. A rope being passed over its it is probable that a solution of alum, fios, it was hoisted on board by twenty pot-ash, and vitriol, is one of the ingre- men. In its maw was found a calf that dients.

had been thrown overboard a few hours By a decree of the governinent of before. The length, from the snout to Lucca, a school of sculpture is to be the extremity of the tail, was ten feet, established at Carrara, to which will and the circumference of the body probe granted revenues for founding prizes, portionate. Three others of equal size and for assisting young sculptors.

were successively caught; in the last The celebrated sculptov Caxova has were found sixty-tivo living young ones, erected a funeral monument to the a turkey, and a live hawk's-bill turtle, memory of his friend and fellow-citizen, tivo feci six inches in length, and one Giovanni Volpato, an eminent engraver. foot nine inches broad; which, immediIt consists of a beautiful inarble tablet, ately after its release, swam about in a sculptured in demi-relievo, and repre- tub of water, apparently not in the least senting the portrait of the artist; before injured by its confinement. him, Friendship, seated, mourns the loss

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PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE.

theory of this establishment was, that of Substance of a Lecture reud letore the concentrating in a focus the knowledge,

Board of Agriculture, by their Secres talents, and abilities, which were scattary, on the Adrrentages which hure tered, in men of a certain rank, through resulted from the Estublishment of thut ibe kligdoin, Mr. Young proceeds to Institution.

detail its more immediale practical pur.

poses, and its actual benetiisi tary part of his lecture, that the As a buard of reference, to receive

requisitions

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Proceedings of Learned Societies. [April 1, requisitions for information from the the gratitude of every succeeding age: minister, or either house of parliament, though the effort unfortunately was unthe board has acted on various occa- successful; and it is lamentable to resions in perfect conformity with the fiect, that the obstacles which arose to theory of its institution; and I need not

the incasure,

were aggravated in no observe how extremely necessary it is to slight degree by efforts of private inbe prepared, with this view, by having terest, such well-arranged collections of facts, The next effort to which I beg leave as may at once be applicable to the in. to call your attention, was a successful quiries which may probably come from attempt to bring all the weights and higher assemblies to this board.

measures of the kingdom under the sumAnother branch of our quiescent du- mary jurisdiction of the magistrate. The ties, and perhaps not the least important, board received ample information that is that of considering the institution as the poor were defrauded in a multitude an office of intelligence, for the use of of cases, more especially in villages, by individuals who desire information on defective weights and measures, without any subject of rural economy. It is cer- there existing sufficient powers for the tainly the duty of the secretary to give speedy application of a remedy: it reat all times, and to all persons, every quested one of its members to bring a species of information in his power; to bill into parliament to reinedy the evil; make whatever inquiries may be neces. this was done, and it passed into a law sary, with that view; and to introduce which has ever since been a blessing to such persons to each other, as can best thousands. supply their mutual wants: and it is no An acl of parliament which had its exaggeration to assert, that this has been origin in the board, was that which took done to the amount of some thousands off a preposterous duty on the import of of cases.

oil-cakes from America: and another The institution was hardly established, legislative measure adopted on the rebefore a severe scarcity atflicted the king- commendation of the board was, the dous; and the board, with the utmost exemption from excise granted to drain. assiduity, gave an immediate attention ing tiles; an object of no slight importto a subject which naturally drew upon ance, as, without this atiention, the tax it every eye. To answer the imıncdiate would have operated as a prohibition in pressure, any experiments were oro this branch of the first of all improvedered and executed on the manufacturing of bread from every species of An object which at a very early grain which could, by various mixtures, period attracted the attention of the be made to enter into its composition. board, was the inquiry into the proFourscore sorts of brcad were at once priety of annexing land to cottages. Some exhibited to the eyes of the public; and persons entertaining doubts as to the those who recollect the examination, general application of this system, the must remember the pleasure very gene- board adopted a

measure that sally expressed at the sight of a resource founded in prudence, in order to ascer. which till then bad been quite unknown. tain how far this system extended, and These experiments were registered and what were its effects in situations reprinted, and remain for future use. moved from the immediate superinten.

But an object of much greater impor. dance of a few huinane landlords. The tance, also occupied the attention of the board, under the auspices of a noble board; this was the cultivation of the lord, himself the beneficent patronizer immense wastes of the kingdom, by a of the system on his own extensive general enclosure act.

In order to estates, dispatched a person (Mr. Gour. ascertain tlie amount of these deserts, so lay) every way qualified for the employdisgraceful to the richest country iv the ment, to ascertain all the circuinstances world, inquiries were set on foot in every on the spot : be was directed to proceed district, and the result produced the to Burleigh, and to follow the system enormous amount of more than twenty- wherever be found it. This be did two millions of acres! The energy and through an extent of between seventy vigour with which the president execu- and eighty miles; he saw it under almost ted the wishes of the board, in making every variation of circumstance, with no these inquiries, and in framing a bill that other exception than that of soils too should remedy so great an evil, merited barren to support a cow. The report the highest commendation, and deserves lię made was equally curious and im

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