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ogan to discern the use that

de of materials then so unHey discovered great talents m in combining them into e now find in operation. It upendous fabric; the greathenomenon, and probably dered as the greatest adthe science of government, n ages have produced. the moment to go into a the peculiar character of zistitutions. The subject erstood by so respectable is assembly, and the time

part of the exercises of ecessarily short, I should

obtain your indulgence pable of doing justice to e. Otherwise the whole an affairs does not admie ble inquiry. Every cie it his favorite study, s an indispensable part f his children. e educated like indivia ey are what they are hey become whatever nd invite, and prepare,

become. They may | correctly; they may perverselv; they may ason at all. The last potism; the second, erversely, is the case in settled and unprin. by whatever technie distinguished; for a a constitution, though

called the school of ity, is no more liable

than a monarchy ill ut a known principie ere the arm of power y tension which would cly despotic. The first, .) they reason correctly,

or ever is to exist, must nation must, it can, its it to say, it shall, be taught rectly, to act justly, to purinterest upon so large a scale terfere with the interest, or at 1 the rights, of other 'nations. moment it should interfere with

it could no longer be said to be wing its own. What then are the interests of this na

tion, which it becomes us as private citi Tor zons (without any mission but the auto

ciatieil right of individuals) to recomut when Dend to the great body of the American


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26 account of the Diumond Mines of Bundelound. [Feb. 1, niany amorous poems and sonnets, , chants from Guzeraf, Surat, Joynagur, which he had before composed, and de-' Dehly, Benares, Allahabad, Lucknow, voted himselt, for the remainder of his and Furrakabad, are those who chietly life, to the study of the Scriptures and the resort to Punnah for that express purTachers of the Church. Ilaving arge es- pose. They employ workmen to dig for tates he was very liberal to the poor; and them, at ihe rate of five rupees per three years before his death, hie sold most month, over whom guards, belonging to ef bis estates, and gave an ay the pro. the rajah, are stationed, in order to asduce to necessitous people, that he might certain the precise number found, and to free bimself from every incumbrance. appraise their value. One-fourth of their He reserved only enough for liis own bare worth is given to the rajalı, either in niocomfortable subsistence in liis retirement. ney or kind; the residue is left to the He adhered firmly in the Romih com- merchants for their own benefit. For munion, and punished himself with con- all, however, superior in price to 30,000 tinuai penances, which were then thought rupees, the rajati gives the merchant oncmeritorious, At length he died near fourth, and keeps the stones himself. Florence, in 1491.

These gems are usually found about I learn from my papers, that the son cighteen inches from the surface, at six above-inentioned, was afterwards brought feet deep, and at twenty-four feet deep, to England; and, after many changes of amidse a rough, coarse, honey.combed, tortume, and much difficulty to subsi-t, brown stone, or gravelly substance, called he engaged himself with a carpenter at khakroo, mixed with a dusky red argillaMarlborougli, in Wiltshire, and followed ccous carth, like ochre, but both so hard that trade during the rest of his life. I that the miner cannot sometimes 6x07s believe his death is to be found in the vate a foot square during a whole day. jegister of that town, about the ycar Where there is no khukroo, they are 1505. He left several sons, one of whom not to be met with; of this khukroo, followed his business.

when burnt, is made lime. From lience There is such a coinciilence of circum.. it should seem, that this concretion is the stances in this little history, and Dr. matrix of their generation. When no Pike's account of liis family, that I can. khaiiroo is discovered at twenty-four feet, pot but think these were his ancestors. the miner desists from delving lywer. And if so, his descent was what the Round their pits they leave arches, vide world calls a great one. But lie would enough for two people to traverse. From not have set any value on this, if he had the mines the earth is hoisted in baskeis, known it, for jo man ever held mere and then rinced and siled. Whico dia. aristocracy in more complete contempe monds are amongst it, their crystals than he.

cmit a lustre, by which they are presently I have endeavoured to do some little discerned, and easily distinguished. Those Justice to departed merit. Perhaps I jewels which are of a larger size, or tiner

have exceeded proper bounds: I there- bau common, the rajahi (as abore ineliLore hasten to conclude.

tioned) reserves for his own wear, or disa You's, &c.

H. B. poses of bimself to the more considerable Chapter Coffie-house, Sept. 1809. merchants.

Diamonds are said to have been dis. For the Monthly Magaaine. covered within ibis district not more than ACCOUNT of the drAVOND MINES in the sixty years ago, (and like most other ex

PROVINCE OF BUNDELCUND;.from nr. traordinary discoveries) by accident. CLANWIN'S UNISCELLASY, published at Children were casually seen playing with

some rough stones, by a lapidary, who IAMONDS are found within the chanced to come to Punnah from Be

earth, round the city of Pannah, nares. lle honestly disclosed to the ra(The capital of the province of Bundel- jalı the nature and value of them, who Bund, dist:int about 130 miles to the caused the earth to be explored accord. south-westward of Allahabad,) and to ingly, and they were found near the fola the extent of twenty-four miles in the di- lowing villages, Rangpore, Mujyawa!), rections of east, north, and west, from Cho:sperral, Berrejepore, Etuowali, the precincts of that city; it is a lsinduo Jowhurpore, Manikpore, and Cowalıko. territory, governed by a rajah.

None are found in the vicinity of ChatAny person, foreigner or native, may terpore, a town about thirty miles northsearch for diamonds within his doini- westerly of Punnah, as has been erroAivils without let or julestation. Mere, nequsiy supposed.




It is observed above, that the diamond (doleful singing); carmen flebile, (a dolecountry extends from Punnah, on three ful song); clumor flebilis, (a doletul noise ;) sides, to the distance of eventy-four elegia flebilis, (a doleful elegy); gemitus miles. Now, as no part of this space is flebiles, (dulele groans); moci flebiles, permitted to be cultivated, it may be (doletul tunes); murmur flebile, (a dolequestioned, whether the possessor really ful murmuring); questus flebilcs, (doleful derives so much advantage from the dia- complainings): voces flebiles, (doleful monds, as he would reap from the suc- voices); &c. cessive culture of the same compass of R. B. appears to me to have made ground, either in pasture or tillage. the same mistake in quoting Stephanus's

explanation of flebilis. Plenum lachrymis, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. vel dignum quod featur, by speaking of SIR,

it as containing one meaning only, when ST HOULD you have any thing better he says, that this author" has given many.

on the stbject, I freely consent that examples of its use in that sense, but the following be commited to the flames: in no other;" for surely this deonition i not, perhaps you will allow a place in by Stephanus, contains two distinct mean. your useful iniscellany to these remarks, ings, the 1st. polenum lachrymis, (tearful upon the criticisin of your learned corre- ordoletul); the 2nd dignuri quod featur, épondent, R. B. upon the use of the (that which may be lamented). Now word"jlebilis.” (Vide last volume, p. 47'.) it is to the first sense only, that all the

My confined reading does not enable examples cited by Stephanus, except the me to decide, whether this word ever oc. one quoted above from Tlorace, will apcurs in any classical writer, in the pre- ply. I submit it therefore to your learnell cise meaning in which it is used by Lord readers, whether Jorace himself bas not, Huiles; but, from the number of examples by using Nebilis to signity lamented, de. cited by Stephanus in his Thesaurus, viated as far from its constant acceptamone of which will apply, I am willing to tion in every other crassical writei, as allow that it dues not. Nevertheless I Lord Hailes has done, by using it to sig. think it may be maintained, that, in the nify lumenting or weeping, which would sense he has used it, he has not deviated come under Stephanus's definition of farther from the ordinary application of plenum lachrymis. the word by other classical writers, than

Your's, &c. Horace bimself has done.

SUBDOCTUS. To me it appears, that R. B. bas very P.S.-Persuaded, in my own mind, that properly stated, that“ it is the quality of R. B. would not have written his criticisni exciting griet, or the quality which ren- without having taken ordinary pains, at least, ders the thing or persi) the subject of to discover if any authority existed for the grief, which is expressed by this verbal use of flebilis in the sense in which Lord adjective;" but surely this definition in Hailes has applied it, I toy hastily concluded cludes two distinct meanings, which your But, since writing the above, upon turning to

that no such authority could be easily found. correspondent seems to consider as one

the Index Verborum iri Horace, two cases in and the same. When Roman writers peak of a carmen flebile

, or monii jietiles, point immediately occurred, viz. Carm. lib. 4.

. &c. the word expresses the quality of exciting grief. But when lorace says

Flebili sponsæjuvenemve raptum. HORAT, "multis ille bonis flebilis occidit,the word And again, De Arie Poetic. v. 193. Hibilis, in the language of R. B. ex- Flcbilis Ino. presses the quality of rendering the per- These instances I suppose, will be amply suf: Som the subject of grief in others, and ficie:it to satisfy R. B.that the word is used cor. ray be accurately translated into English rectly by Lord Hailes; and at the same time by the word lomenled.

they render the above letter, as far as respects Now, upon examining the examples of his criticism, perfectly nugatory. It may neverthe word jlevilis, cited by Stephanus, of theless serve to show that the Lexicographers shich there are filteen, the one just quo-fications, and may therefore be not altogether

have not wellexplained flebilis in its chree signi. ted from Horace is the only one, in

uninteresting to some of your which the word is affixed to the subject


I suspect that the quotation from Horace, vi grief, or in which it could be rendered

"s multis illc beris flibilis," &c. afforits the only lumented in English. In all the rest it eximple to be found in any classical writer, in expreoses the quality of exciting grief; which flebilis has the signification there given and I believe answers exactly in the it of loimented. It may be curious too, 10 10English word doleful; as cunius Plebilis, mark, how exactly, in every other instance,


Oration delivered at IVashington, July 4, 1809, [Feb. 1,

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the old English word doleful corresponds with descended in peace to a later tomb. Our the Latin word fletilis; for though not fre- gratitude attends the precious few who quently used to denote an afflicted



remain to us of that list of worthies; the is so .pplied by Sydney :

iliustrious relics ot so many helds of danHow oft my dolcful sire cried to me, Tarry,son, ger, and so many years of labour; who When first he spied my love.

led us in all our darin's, when resist

ance to tyrants, as well in the forum For the Monthly Magazine. as in the field, was deemed rebel. ORATION DELIVERED at WASIUNCTOX, lion, and threatened with deats. Their

JULY 4, 1809, at the REQUEST of the whitened locks that still wave among us CITIZENS of the DISTRICT OJ COLUMBIA, are titles to our veneration; they coinby JOEL BARLOW.

mand and they will obtain it, while the Friends and Fellow Cilizens:-

virties they have taught us to practice MIE day we now commemorate will shall continue to warm our hearts. pever cease to excite in us the most

But our respect for the memory and exhilarating reflections and mutual yra the persons of all our leaders will be hest tulations. Minds of sensibity, accus- evinced by the pious culture we bestow tomed to range over the field of contem

on the rich heritage they have secured, plation, that the birth of our empire and are handing over to our possession. spreads before them, must expand, on The present race is likewise passing away; this occasion,to great ideas, and invigorate but the nation remains and rises with its their patriotic sentiments.


While we, the present race, are The thirty-three years of national exis- able to call ourselves the nation, we tence, which have brought us to our pre- should be sensible of the greatness of the sent condition, are crowded indeed with charge that has devolved upon us. We instructive facts, and comprise an inter- have duties to posterity as well as to ouresting portion of history. But they have selves. We must gather up our strength only prepared this gigantic intant of a na- and encounter those duties. Yes, my tion to begin its own development. friends, we are now the nation. As such They are only the prelude to the greater we have arrived at that epoch, when, events that seem to untold themselves instead of looking back with wonder upon before us, and call for the big best wisdom

our infancy, we may look forward with to give them their proper direction. solicitude to a state of adolescence, wiih

It appears to have been the practice confidenceto a state of mianhood. Though of the public speakers, called to give ut- as a nation we are yet in the morning of terance to the feelings of their fellow ci- life, we have already attained an elevatizens on the anniversary of this day, to tion which enables us to discern our dwell chiefly upon those memorable trans- course to its meridian splendor; to conactions which necessitated, and those template the beight we have to climb, which afterwards supported, the Act of and the cominanding station we must gain, Independence, that gives name to the pre- in order to fulfil the destinies to which we sent festival. Such were the oppressions are called, and perforin the duties that of Britain, and our effectual resistance to the cause of human happiness requires at those oppressions. Transactions

our hands. eventful, are, doubtless,worthy to be heid

To prepare the United States to act in perpetual remembrance. And as they the distinguished part that Providence ought never to be forgotten, they should has assigned them, it is necessary to confrequently be recailed to the notice of our vince them that the means are within younger brethren, who can know them their power. A familiar knowledge of only from their elders. But those cun- the means will teach us how to employ flicting scenes are now become every them in the attainment of the end. where inatiers of record. They are de- Knowledge will lead to wisdom; and tailed so copiously in our annals, and su wisdom, in no small degree, is requisite in otten by our orators, as to render the rc. the conduct of aitaiis so momentous and petition of their story, at this moment, so new. For our situation is, in many far less important than to turn our atten

respects, not only new to us, but new also tion to other subjects, growing out of the to the world. Interests of our blessed country.

The form of government we have choOur departed heroes and statesmen sen, the geographical position we occupy, lave not gone without their fame. Our as relative to the most turbulent powers (ears lrave mingled with the ashes of those of Europe, whose political masims are fallen in our bat:les, and those who have widely diilerent from ours; the vast exa



tent of continent that is, or must be, com- our sages began to discern the use that prised within our limits, containing not might be made of materials then so unless than sixteen hundred millions of promising, they discovered great talents acres, and susceptible of a population of and patriotism in combining them into two hundred millions of human beings; the system we now find in operation. It our habits of industry and peace instead is indeed a stupendous fabric; the greatof violence and war--all these are cire est political phenomenon, and probably cumstances wbich render our situation as will be considered as the greatest adnovel as it is important. It requires new vancement in the science of government, theories; it has forced upon us new and that all modern ages have produced. bold, and in some cases doubtful, expe

This is not the moment to go into a riments; it calls for deep retlection on dissertation on the peculiar character op the propensities of human nature; an ac- our political constitutions. The subject curate acquaintance with the history of being well understood by so respectable human actions: and what is perhaps the a portion of this assembly, and the time most difficult to attain, a wise discrimi. allotted to this part of the exercises of nation among the maxims of wisdom, or the day being necessarily short, I should what are such in other times and nations, hardly expect to obtain your indulgence to determine which of them are applica- if I were even capable of doing justice to ble, and which would be detrimental, to so great a theme. Otherwise the whole the end se bave in view. I would by no . compass of human atiairs does not admie means insinuate that we should rejec: the of a more profitable inquiry. Every cicouncils of antiquity in mass ; or turn a

tizen should make it bis favorite study, deaf ear to the voice of modern experi- and consider it as an indispensable part ence, because it is not our own. So far of the education of his children. as the policy of other nations is founder But nations are educated like indivia on the real relations of social inan, on dual infants. They are what they are his moral nature unuisguised, it may taught to be. They become whatever doubtless be worthy of imitation; but so their tutors desire,and invite, and prepare, far as it is drawn froin bis moral nature, and force them to become. They may disguised by habits materially different. be taught to reason correctly; they may from ours, such policy is to be suspected, be taught to reason perversely; they may it is to be scrutinized, and brought to be taught not to reason at all. The last the test, not perhaps of our experience, is the case of despotism; the second, for that may in certain cases be wanting, where they reason perversely, is the case but the test of the general principles of of a nation with an insettled and unprine our institutions, and the habits and max- cipled government, by whatever technie ims that arise out of them.

cal name it may be distinguished; for a There has been no nation, either ancient democracy without a constitution, though or modern, that could have presented generally and justly called the school of human nature in the same character as disorder and perversity, is no more liable ours does and will present it; because to these calamities than a monarchy ill there has existed no nation whose go- defined, and without a known principle vernment has resembled ours. A repre- of action, and where the arm of power sentative democracy on a large scale, has not that steady tension wbich would with a fixed constitution, had never be- render it completely despotic. The first, fore been attempted, and has no wbere the case in which they reason correctly, else succeeded. A federal gorernment if it ever existed, or ever is to exist, must on democratical principles is equally une be ours. Our nation must, it can, its precedenced, and exhibits a still greater legislators ought to say, it shall, be taught innovation on all received ideas of states- to reason correctly, to act justly, to pur-, men and lawgivers. Nor has any theo- sue its own interest upon so large a scale rist in political science, any among those as not to interfere with the interest, or at powerless potentates of reason, the phi- least with the rights, of other nations. losophers, who have taught us so many for the moment it should interfere with valuable things, ever framed a systein or theirs, it could no longer be said to be conceived a combination of principles pursuing its own. producing such a result.

What then are the interests of this na. Circumstances beyond our controul tion, which it becomes us as private citihad thrown in our way the materials for zens (without any mission but the autothis wonderful institution. Our first me- cratical right of individuals) to recomrit lay in not rejecting them. But when wend to the great body of the American


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