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Account of the Life and Opinions of the late Dr. Pike. [Feb. 1, Doctor was the second, and was born in and here he passed many of his leisure King.street, in September, 1745. His hours, with the books which he carried father died when he was scarcely four thithér in his pocket. years old; and when the family'affairs When his clerical career commenced, were settled, the widow found herself left I either never learned, or do not remeniin very narrow circumstances. This might ber ; but he was recommended to his have been fatal to the plan which tie bishop by a large and most respectable parents had intended to adopt for their number of clergy, to whom he was well son—but genius will force its way. Ilis known. I recollect to have seen his father was one of the first adherents 10 papers, and among the subscribed names, the methodists, (then a new sect); and were those of Dr. Sumner, the master of had he lived, it would have been his Harrow; Mr. Gibson, a relative of the higliest ambition, and dearest delight, to bishop of London; Dr. Burdett, and Dr. have seen his son a faring methodistical Mill, of Guildford; Dr. Wilson, of Dept. declaimer. But herein he would pro. ford; and an unusual number of others. bably bave been disappointed; for as soon He was well known to, and much as the boy began to think, he began to esteemed by, Dr. Secker, the archbishop; doubt about their peculiar teneis, to Dr. Terrick, then bishop of London; hold religious whimsies in dislike, and to and Dr. Thomas, bishop of Winchester; be disgusted with every thing that was with the latter, he had a considerable enthusiastic.

degree of intiinacy, and spent many As his mother's finances would not pleasant hours with his lordship in allow her to spare enough for adopting his study, at Chelsea. the plan which her late husband had Yet, notwithstanding all this, I think designed for their son, by sending him to he did not continue inany years in the one of the English universities, she was establishment. He soon began to doubt obliged to give him only a private edu- of many things, and strongly to dislike cation. His first rudiments were re- many others. He repented bis subscrip'ceived from a very judicious old woman, tion to the articles, and would not, on who taught himn to read'correctly, and so any account, repeat it. Whether he fitted him for his future school. At five ever undertook any stated clerical duty, years old, he was placed under the care while in the establishment, I know not; of a clergyman, who was a friend of his but I should think it likely that he did mother; and before he reached his sixth not. I recollect he was offered a gramyear, he began learning Latin. With this mar-school in the weald of Kent, to wbich gentleman, who was an excellent clas- two good curacies were annexed; but the sical scholar, he continued ten or twelve water of the place was bad, and he years, no doubt to his great advantage. would not accept the offer. I know be. I do not recollect what he has told me of was afterwards' offered a comfortable the intermediate time till 1760; but then rectory, which conscience would not he was classical assistaňt at a considerable allow him to accept. Seeing, or thinkboarding-school at Guildford, and after- ing he saw, great defects in the constiwards at a grammar-school, somewhere tution and daily services of the churchi, in kent. The natural turn of his mind, he became very uneasy and dissatished. led him at this time to critical theology, The more he read, the more he thought; and to medical studies, which might be the more his difficulties encreased. Oire called his bobbyhorse. He attended object after another arose in his mind, médical lectures in London, during the ill at length he was very bitterly ein. cacations. Ile rose early, and sat up barrassed. He had prejudices hanging late at bis studies. He never allowed about bii respecting schism, and was himself an idie bour. Even his walks therefore not clear, that to secede from for exercise were usually solitary, and his the church was innocent, Ile was unacpockets were always stuffed with books. quainted with dissenters, and thought Ile was fond of sitting in Catharine-hill that the great majority of them were chapel (a fine piece of ruins near Guild. merely ranting enthusiasts, or rigid calford) where he could be for hours undis- vivists, with very few, if any, rational turbed ; and afterwards, when in Kent, men among them. His views opened he had some sequestered retirement on but by little and little; and therefore the bank of the Medway, to which he he then thought, Dr. Priestley went too used to find bis way through a wood, wide. I have often heard him say, at where there was no path. There he' this time, that the state of his mind was could be entirely free from ipterruption ; severely painful. But at length, by the 1

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reasonings of a very intimate friend, the on which he supported his large family, curate of a neighbouring parish, he was with economy, for several years. The freed from his apprelension of guilt in late Dr. Buchan, with whom he was separation; and from that time he de- very intimate, spoke to me with great termined on seceding. Eınolument was as respect of his medical abilities, of his nothing to him, when conscience forbad. abhorrence of medical cant and conse"Go, (said his libcral-minded friend,) quential ignorance, of his disinterested if your conscience cannot be satisfied honesty ; but, said he," he loves to be with us, let not your talents lie idle; too much in the shade, he is too fond of go hear Kippis, Price, Farmer, Pickard. a hack-ground.” About this time, he Join that body of Christians; for other had a tempting offer if he would returu disseniers will not suit you. Among to the establishment, but his views were chem you may be useful.” He went and not altered, and the offer was made ią was delighted. Ile souglit acquaintance vain. with these gentlemen, and an intimacy Al length, a most infamous and bitter commenced with them, which lasted persecution was commenced against liima, many years; more especially with Dr. by a set of the vilest miscreants on earth, Kippis. That gentleman's great urbanity acting in a large confederacy. This and friendship, afforded him one of his compelled him, with a broken spirit, at greatest pleasures. He now decidedly the age of sixty, to quit a confortable renounced the establishment; and the situation, and all his connections. Now, · first time he preached among the dis body knew to what part he retired. senters, was for Dr. Kippis, in March, Sonie said to Holland, others to Ireland, 1777. He, after this, became intimately others to Yorkshire. But I think they acquainted with all those London minism were all mistaken, and that he went ters who were called presbyterian, and westward; for in the spring of 1805, I saw all their pulpits were occasionally open bin from my window, at Bridport; and a to him.

short time after, I saw him again at At this time, he kept a boarding.school Exeter, purchasing a horse. As I judged in London ; but about the year 1779, he that I might hurt his feelings, if he removed it to Stoke Newington, and wished for concealment, I did not speak soon after to Edmonton. When there, to himn; and from that time I knew no he warried a Miss Gregory, the daughter more of him, till I read his death in the of a Russia merchant, deceased, by daily papers ; I suppose between two and whom he has since had a very large three years ago. family. In a few years he gave up bis I greatly pitied his undeserved sufferschool to her brother, himself accepting ings, for I know him to have been a very an invitation to a congregation some valuable and worthy man; unassuming in where in the west, through the medium his disposition, bland in his manners, of Dr. Savaye. But whether ise found and strict in moral principle. As a son, things disagreeable there I cannot say, a husband, a father, and a minister, he for his stay in that part was not long. 'commanded esteem.

His heart was He returned to the metropolis. Here is truly friendly, and he was sympathy itself again a break in the inforınation I can towards all kinds of distress; ever ready give, as I then left England for near five to render any kindness, or make any years. At my return, in 1791, he was sacrifice, to assist or sooth the sorrowful. practising medicine in London, (and a I could tell such instances of this kind, most intuitive and able physician he as are very rarely to be met with, but was.) I suppose his diploma was from they would lengthen this narrative tờo Scotland, or America. How long he much. Perhaps I may give them in continued the practice of that profession some future leiter. I know not; but as his own health was He was an able, classical scholar; a always tender, he could not then bear good biblical critic, a very pleasing poet, residence in town, and therefore lived at and deep read from his youth in medical a liule distance. I suppose he was never lore, which was his peculiar delight. extensively known as a physician. lle But nove but his immediate and very could not push bimself into notice. lle intimate friends could know all this; for haled all little arts. And as he spent he made no display of his knowledye or but a few hours daily in town, that cir- talents; and rather seemed to aim at con. cumstance was against himn. Never- cealment. I have some sweet pieces of theless, when he declinest practice, he his poetry by me, which I inay some time bad acquired some confortable property, transcribe and send you. As a preucher,

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Account of the Life and Opinions of the laté Dr. Pike. [Feb. 1, he was clear in his instruction, and pow. suited by the prudence of Moses, as a wise leérfully impressive. There is a sermon gislator, to the Jewish people at that time, against drunkenness, in a volume which 7. That the story of Balaam's ass was only he published many years ago, which is an impressive dream of the prophet, but pere the most masterly ihing of the kind that haps under divine direction. I have ever seen.

8. That the books which compose the se.. He was always candid and kind to

cred volume, having been written at very difpeople of every creed ; not believing, sions, may sometimes be difficult to be unders

fernt times, and upon very different occathat any human opinions can make the stoods but that no part of scripture lias a dousmallest difference in our allotments ble or hidden meaning. bereavier; unless it be such as are pre- 9. That the psalms were written by seve. judicial tú morais here. lle would sinile ral persons, and on particular occasions. at bonest enthusiasm, and what he Thai che sublimest devotion, and all the termed religious whimsy; but he was de beauties of fine writing, are to be found in cidedly busule to, and zealous against, them. But he denied them any inspiration, all those systems of divinity which bé except it be what is cailed poetical inspirathonglit represent the Creator in an tion. That no one of them can be found unamiable light, or which lead to moral wholly applicable to the Messiah; and that, depravity.

therefore, (not withstanding what Jews or Whery young, he had some peculiarities no one of them is proplietical, or has any re

Christians may have chought to the contrary,) of opinion; ii is probable, that as he was ference to Jesus Christ. The passage in a thinking man, le might either drop Luke xxiv. 44, « and in the Psalms,” he some of them, or adopt more as he grew thought he could prove to be an interpolaolder. From former conversations with tion. him, and from what I have since heard, 10. That what are called types in the old I have reason to think, that, though he Testament, were never intended as such ; but did not lightly adopt any peculiarity of are only fanciful applications by the Jews and sentiment, be held the following opinions: Christians. 1.' That the inspiration of scripture was

11. That the Canticles were merely love. partial only; for that divine inspiration was poems ; admirable indeed for their tender not necessary to dicate the narration of beauties. That chey were not written by Sofacts, or those historical books which appear lomon, but by some one of his courtiers ; and go he extracts from the Jewish registers. that they were placed in the sacred canon, by

2. That the Mosaic' account of the fall of Ezra, to please the Jews, and in compliment man is probably allegorical; bur it not, that to their favourite Solomon. in that, and the History of Creation, the

12. That the book of Jonah is probably a facts were collected by Moses from tradition ; Jewish legend, like that of Tobit.' That our and embellished in a way something like the Lord's notice of it, did not establish the machinery of poetry, by the fancy of the facts in it; but only spake to the general writer. It could not be supposed, (he would belief, and current opinion, of the Jews. 'say) that God actually walked in the garden, The impossibility of a man being so long

and chose the cool of the day, as if he could in the stomach of an animal, where he be affected by heat. Many other similar could not creathe, and must have been ground matters he considered as embellishment. to chyle, he thought an insurmountable ob.

3. 1 hat Adam was asleep when Eve was jection. That it was miraculous, was not to placed by him ; and that he had dreamed she be supposed; because miracles was taken out of his side.

wrought, but for sonie weighty reasons, and 4. That there is no provf that Abel killed to answer some great ends ; but no such rea. his cattle for sacrifice; but that it is more sons or ends are apparent. If, therefore, the probable, he only brought them on a day ap

narrative be true, he supposed there mast pointed for solend worship by his father, and

have been some hill near the shore, compresented them beiore the Lord, as a grateful monly called the Great Fishi, perhaps from acx nowledgment; and, perhaps, poured out a

some resemblance in its form, (as the long libation of the milk or cream, which Dr. P. hill between Guildford and Farnham is called thought is mistranslated, fat.

the Hog's Back), and that under or in einis 5. That human sacritices were not uncom- hill was a cavern, where Jonah might be mon prior to the days of Abraham ; and that confined for the whole time mentioned. But having them familiar to his mind, by report, he judged the former supposition the most he dreamed he was commanded to sacrifice probable. his son, which supposed command, judging

13. That history affords the best comment the dream to be divinely impressed on his on the writings of the propiets; tor that mind, he hastened to obey.

though there are many clear predictions re6. That the ceremonial part of the Jewish specting the Messian, given, n doubt, by the . law, *c, waa not given by God, buí only highest inspiration; yet, that many other

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passages, supposed by some to be such also, tice of multitudes of Christians, it is idolatry have nothing to do with that subject, but only to worship as God any being except the Great relate to other persons and things.

Spirit, the Father of all. That our Lord never 14. That the book of Job is a poetical al. ordered divine worship to be paid to himself, legory, founded chiefly on some ancient facts, and that he is not the right object thereof, but tmbellished by the machinery of poetry; and only the Great Universal Parent. that it was written by Moses.

26. That in the present state of the Chris15. That the bodies of Adam and Eve tian church, ignorant, uneducated ministers were created mortal by nature; and that the are its disgrace, and never truly useful. That septence of death passed on them related to a distinct order, carefully educated and sepathe death of the soul.

rated from secular employmenis, is absolutely '16. That the inspiration of the New Tes necessary for promoting the true understandtament is partial also. That there was no ing of the gospel. Nevertheless such an ordoubt a superintendancy, according to the pro- der is not divinely appointed, and any one mise of our Lord, to bring all necessary facts, who understands Christianity may teach it : proper to be recorded, to the remembrance of any Christian may baptize another; and any the writers, but that there is no proof of any number of Christians may celebrate the Lord's thing more.

Supper, either with or without a clergy man. 17. That it is an injury to the Christian 27. That baptism of infants is absurd, bea cause, to assert more authority than can be cause they cannot repent or believe : and that proved. That its internal evidence is abun.. in the baptism of adults, it is immaterial in dantly sufficient to prove its divine origin. what way the water is applied, whether by

That the discourses and parables of our Lord immersion, pouring, or sprinkling. are so infinitely superior to any thing else in I believe Dr. Pike held most, if not the world, that they prove divine wisdom to all, of these sentiments. He was, pera have been given to him in abundance, be- haps, a Christian sui generis ; yet be cause he spake as never man before him spake. 18. That the orthodox doctrines of the certainly never embraced a novel notion

without deep thought, and what appearTrinity, the divinity of Jesus, original sin, the imputation of Christ's righteousness, his vi- ed to him to be substantial reasons. carial satisfaction, unconditional personal elec

Before I conclude, I must mention tion and reprobation, irresistible grace, ne. further, that I am in possession of some cessary final perseverance, and the eternity of letters, and other old papers, by which hell torments, were not his Bible.

it seems to me, that I know more of liis 19. That to suppose the Great Father of family and descent than he ever appeared all, furious and severe, till Jesus made him to know himself, as he never mentioned propitious, is contrary to the plain declara- his ancestors beyond his great-grandfations of the apostles, as well as to reason.

ther. 20. That there cannot be guilt in mistaken opinions ; and that to suppose God will put of Mirandula, a lordship in Italy, who

John Picus, the celebrated Ear nish his creatures for these, is furming most unworthy notions of the Great and Gracious was a very remarkable man in the life Father of all.

teenth century, and whose life was partly 21. That Christianity is entirely a moral translated from the Italian by a Thomas system, sanctioned by future rewards and More, (I suppose Sir Thomas,) could trace punishments.

his descent on the paternal side, froin a ne, 22. That the wicked and impenitent will phew of the Emperor Constantine. Be hereafter be punished, according, and in pro- that as it may, he was born anno 1463, portion, to their guilt, and then will be put and during his youth was most remarkaout of being.

ble for his intense application to his stu. 23. That the second death, and the destruc

dies, and rapid acquisition of all learntion, so frequently men:ioned in the scripture, is the extinction of a wicked soul ; and ing: He was not entirely prudent in the eternal life the great prize and gift of God to government of bis inclinations, for, (as

my papers say) before he was twenty the righteous.

24. That the whole body which is laid into years old, he had a son by a young lady, the earth is not to arise, but only the original to whom, it was believed, he was privatestamina, which had been expanded by adven- ly married, notwithstanding he was intitious nourishment. That the matter of this tended for priesthood. She died, and Rourishment will be left beliind, and that the the marriage was never owned. Soon real original body will be expanded, and after, there appeared a wonderful change made, perhaps, as subtle as light itself, and in bis disposition and conduct. He forfilled with a glorious splendour, if the final sook all splendour and voluptuousness, allotment be happiness.

and became a rigid religionist, according 25. That, notwithstanding the corrupt prace to the notivis of those days. Ile burned MONTHLY Mag. No. 194.

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he was clcar in his instruction, and powe, suited by the prudence o erfully impressive. There is a sermon gislator, to the Jewish against drunkenness, in a volume which 7. That the story of he published many years ago, which is an impressive dream of the most masterly ihing of tlie kind that haps under divine direct I have ever seen.

8. That the books v

cred volume, having be lle was always candid and kind to

fernt times, and upor people of every creed: not believing, sions, may sometimes ė that any human opinions can make the stoods but that no part smallest difference in our allotments ble or hidden meaning bereavier; unless it be such as are pre- 9. Tbat the psalms judicial to mora's here. lle would smile ral persons, and on at honest cnthusiasm, and what he Thai che sublimesto termed religious whimsy; but he was de beauties of fine writing cided!y hostile to, and zealous against, them. But he denied all those systems of divinity which he except it be what is s thought represent the Creator in an tion. That no one o unaniable light, yr which lead to moral wholly applicable to t! depravity.

therefore, (not withst

Christians may have ch Wher young, he had some peculiarities

no one of them is pro; of opinion; it is probable, that as he was

ference to Jesus Ch a thinking man, he might either drop Luke xxiv. 44, "anı some of them, or adopt more as he grew thought he could pro, older. From former conversations with tion. him, and from what I have since heard, 10. That what are I have reason to think, that, though he Testament, were neve did not lightly adopt any peculiarity of are only fanciful appli sentiment, bie lield the following opinions: Christians. 1. That the inspiration of scripture was

11. That the Canti partial only; for that divine inspiration was poems; admirable i not necessary tu dicate the narration of beauties. That they facts, or those historical books which appear lomon, but by some to be extracts from the Jewish registers.

that they were placed 2. That the Mosaic' account of the fall of Ezra, to please the Ja man is probably allegorical; but if not, that

to their favourite S in that, and the History of Creation, the

12. That the book Jacts were collected by Moses from tradition; Jewish legend, like t' and embellished in a way something like the

Lord's notice of it, machinery of poetry, by the fancy of the facts in it; but only writer. It could not be supposed, (he would belief, and current say) that God actually walked in the garden, The impossibility and chose the cool of the day, as if he could in the stomach of 'be affected by heat. Many other similar could not breathe, an matters he considered as embellishment. to chyle, he thoug!

3. 7 hat Adam was asleep when Eve was jection. That it wa placed by him ; and that he had dreamed she be supposed ; beca: 'was taken out of his side.

wrought, but for 50 4. That there is no provf that Abel killed to answer some gre his cattle for sacrifice; but that it is more

sons or ends are api probable, he only brought them on a day ap- narrative be true, pointed for soleind worship by his father, and have been some yresented them veiore the Lord, as a grateful monly called the ack nowledgment; and, perhaps, poured out a some resemblance libation of the milk or cream, which Dr. P. hill between Guii thought is mistran: dated, fat.

the Hug's Back) 5. That huran sacrifices were not uncom- hill was a caves mon prior to the days of Abraham ; and that coulined for the having them familiar to his mind, by report, he judged the he dreamed he was commanded to sacrifice prohaule his son, which supposed comniand, judging 13. Tlack the dieam to be divin

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