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dated brother Edward with fine and country rams, on the occasion probably short-woolled sheep, the latter royal of improving in the quality of the food in shepherd might have obliged the former their district. So they have at length with a specimen of the produce of his returned to Mark hain's large boney country—the long and coarse-woolled. breed, with a deep-stapled, or long. It was a very lair and obvious compli- wnolied, fleece. As the learned Francis ment. In the coinage, I think, of the Moore said, omnium rerum vicissitudo ; late lord Sandwich, there was recipro- which will be farther exemplified as suon city in the thing. I should not indeed as the abovesaid shepherds shall come wonder, if the staple adverted to by to the right or left about again, by the Stowe, at Bruges, was of the course adoption of the old new-fashioned woolled kind; and that the Spaniards were Spanish cross. emulous of excelling in wat fabric like I have taken the pains to write, or wise, since they have ever had long rather repeat, thus much, in order to and coarse as well as fine and short- check a report which seemed growing woolled sheep, the former most probably undeservedly into public favour, carrying the indigenous sheep of their country'; a bit of prejudice with it. For, under and that it might, at that period, be de- favour be it spoken, we have perhaps sirable to improve their breed by an enough already of those happy national English cross. And this notion of mine, prejudices, which have so generally pro(23 such merely I give it,) is in some sort cured us the admiration and the love of confirmed by my old friend Gervase all other nations; and it may not be Markharn, who flourished in the reign of politic lu surseit them with good things. Elizabeth; and who represents the Cot. And yet atter all, and notwithstanding teswolde-hill sheep, in contradistinction my 'immense and bumble respect for to those of Ilerefordshire, bearing the those sages of the ancient, and more Lempster ore, or five teece, as of better especially of the modern school, who bone, shape, and burden, than the others, profess to find so inuch benefit to the but wiik wool of a staple coarser and moral world from the sly retention and deeper.

clerislunent of prejudices, I am 100 As to Mr. Rankin's enquiry respecting blind, or my brains are of too coarsethe Corleswold breed, nothing is more

woolled a texture, to perceive this mighty easy than to satisfy it: but he must pre- benefit, or any benefit whatever. Econviously be apprised, that we farmers and trurio, I opme, and must continue to stock-breeders change our breeds of care opine, until the happy moment of contle, sheef', and pics, from great to small, viction cometh, that false prejudices in froin small to great, from fine to coarse the moral, as well as weeds in the agriwoolled, from shwrt to long-horned, from cultural world, ought to suffer a total and long and lop-eared to prick-eared and sweeping, if necessarily a gradual, erapug, and so on, in circles; not quite so dication. And as a certain honest old often indced, but much upon the sanie whig said of yore, le would not leave a principle on which the cut of a coat, or tory dog, or a tory cat, to pur and mew the cock of a hat, is changed in Bond- about the king; neither would I, who am street. Thus old Gervase above quoted, neither whig nor tory, leave a single and I think his cutemporary, Barnabé erroneous prejudice, to humbug and Goge (who, by the bye, also wrote very mislead besotted man. My creed, reharinonious English verses, and perfectly ligious and moral, will admit of but one correct as to measure), both found the prejudice~in favour of truth, and no matCotteswold-bill sheep a large and coarse ter how strong that be. As to what and woolled breed. Thenceforth, but my where truth is--seek and ye shall tind. reading does not extend to the precise

In conclusion, with a suitable gravity, date, the Cotieswold farmers made a I say to those who venture into the prochop, generally adopting fine-woolled found and erudite subjects above agitated, sleep: and such they have been within "Drink deep, or taste not, the bucolic spring." my memory, a breed siinilar to the Rye $0907's Town, JOHN LAWRENCE. lands of Herefordshire; always, and at

Murch 18, present, the finest native breed of Eny P.S. I wish to add a few words on the land, and best adapted to the Spanish Fiorin Grass. Mr. Farey says correctly, that Sosne thirty or forty years since, and iung gruss of Wiltshire, to be the same

the late Mr. Davis supposed the Orcheston the Gloucester breeders male another species as the fourin; the correctness ar waich chnp, tupping their fine-woolled ewes opinion appears to me a subject of doubt. ! wild large and long. woulled midland have not for mully ycurs seen either of these


grasses, and that which I have to say upon of cultivation; and I understood him to speak them is from the report of others I se srcely from experiment. The face of Guinea and think the the Orcheston grass would grow other sta ses, formerly recommended with so on any diy or area upin] $1.uation, which much zesi. is well known. In truth, there are we are assored on the fiorin. Upwards of hardy ana buiky grasses enough to be found, eight tons of nay from an English acre of land, wer they, ou compurison with those we have is doubtless a vast produce, in respect of hulk of real use, worthy of cultivation. We have and weight; but if the quality be hard, pipy, even had the culture of thistles recool. and innutritious, the eight tons in quan'ity mended of late years, hy a learned doctor. may, in consumption, dwindle to less than a I desire only to guard the public, by no means single ton in quality. Certainly however, to check the experimental culture of the watered land would have the favourable effect fiorin grass; one good and nutritious crop of of softening a too harsh grass. I profess to which will, as it ought, ovirturn these my have no experience in this article ; but a speculations : and in cases like this, I shall friend of mine lately assured me, that from ever feel happy to find myself in an error, its coarseness, the fiorin grass is unworthy




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MEMOIRS of the Life and WRITINGS of inclination for that particular branch of the late M. BITAUBE.

study to which he afterward attached

himself. AUL Jeremiah Bitaubé was born An assiduous perusal of the bible,

at Konigsberg, on the 24th of No- which in all protestant countries forms veinber 1732, of one of those families of one of the principal foundations of pulFrench refugees whom the revocation pit-eloquence, gave M. Biraubé an of the edict of Nantes had dispersed over early familiarity with the simple and different parts of Europe, and who had sublime images of that priinitive state of particularly enriched the protestant mankind, of which the sacred writings countries of Germany. Prussia was one offer so many and such inimitable moof the earliest in receiving, and afford. dels. In recurring to this source for the ing a settlement to some of these wane elements of religious knowledge, he had dering colonies, who every where repaid been struck with admiration at the their reception by introducing with them accents of that poetry which, by sounds a spirit of industry, the cultivation of the more noble and affecting than those of arts and sciences, morality, and good any profane lyre, announce a divine examples. Accordingly she was origin; and bespeak a master “ whose long in reaping the harvest of her bene- brows,” to use the expressions of Tasso, volent biosiality: for though, previously " instead of the perishable laurels of to that pemad, less acivaniced than most Hercon, are crowners with unfading other states in the progress of civilin stars anidst the celestial choirs.” sation, she too afterwards enjoyed an After having enjoyed the advantage of enlightened age; and under Frederic the forming a taste in inis elevated school of Great, who

gave his name to this age, poetry, the mind is naturally disposed to the north of Europe was illumined by feel the powerful charms of the works of one of those bright sunshines of genius Homer, and the other early productions which only break forth upon nations at of Greece. The inanners of the patridistant intervals : nor can it be denied archal, instruct us in those of the heroic that the excitement and emulation prudu. ages. These great pictures, in which ced by the new-settlers hastened its dawn, man is shewn in a state of bold and maand increased its meridian splendour. jestic simplicity, undisfigured by the

As the refugees did not enjoy the artificial gloss of a late stage of civilisarights of citizenship in Prussia, M. Bi- tion, shew most forcibly in how high a taubé, when he had finished his course of degree the times celebrated by the austudies, and was of an age to choose a thor of the Iliad and the Odyssey were profession, had only an option between favourable to poetical imitation. irade (which his father pursued), medi All that is known concerning the cire, and the church. As he had early early years of M. Bitaubé, is drawn from imbined a taste for literature, he made some of his works composed at a more choice of the last; and perhaps it was advanced age, among which be occasi. ibis decision that also determined his onally indulges in recollections of liis


youthful days. He appears from these productions in eloquence and poetry, to have been led in this manner from the was also that of the most profound and stody of the bible to that of Hoiner, most luminous erudition. It was by the and the other classical authors of Greece; side of the greatest orators and poets, whose language he had learnt, and whose that those able critics were formed, ivhose treasures have never been despised by names and writings will command the the writers of any sect of christians. respect of the reinotest posterity. But he was soon so captivated by the These orators and poets, who themselves charms of Grecian learning, that he spoke a rich and harmonious language, resolved to attach himself entirely to it; were also well versed in Greek, and famiand by degrees, from a divine," he be liar with the master-pieces which have came merely a man of letters. Though reached us in that tongue. Racing and a Prussian by birth, he was a French- Boileau, Bossuet and Fenelon, as well man not only by descent, but also by as most other men of real learning, read, affection, and the habitual use of a lan- Homer and Demosthenes in the original, guage which Frederic, and all men of as commonly as Cicero and Virgil are education in his kingdom, preferred to now read in Latin; so that it may be their own. It cost him therefore no said, that if the French nation had ihen trouble, on devoting himself to litera. but few good translators by profession, ture, to write constantly in the language. this was because there was but little want of his ancestors.

of translations. But since a less strict In entering on this new career, his system of education has been introduced. views were directed toward the country with regard to the ancient languages, of his origin: to become wholly a French- there has ariser of course a necessity for man, was his highest ambition; and to versions from those languages, to render be able to settle ac Paris, was the ob- their treasures generally accessible. ject of all bis efforts and his wishes. Before this period however, and so But he felt that the best means of be- early as the seventeenth century, a coming naturalised in a country where French woman celebrated for her eruhe had ceased to have any relations, and dition, and hier enthusiasın for Grecian had not yet acquired any friends, would literature, had attempted to display the be, to get adopted into the great family prince of poets to admiration in her lanof men of letters, by producing some guage, and to avenge him of the insults work that should deserve such adoption. of some modern wils who were incapa-.

There is more than one honourable ble of reading him in his own. In order rank in the empire of Learning : an aspi- to appreciate the merits of Homer ring to the highest, is sometimes less a justly, it is not sutficient merely to unmark of genius than of presumption; derstand the tongue in which he wrote: and a writer may often serve both his it is necessary to be familiar with the own interests, and those of literature, state of manners wbicia that great poet, more effectually in some of the lower so faithfully delineates; and this delinea. stations, which afford sufficient scope for tion is perhaps the most difficult part of a noble exercise of the faculties of the his poems to transfuse into our modern mind in labours of utility. Among languages with the dignity which acthese labours, M. Bitaubé chose that companies it in the original. of translation; which had the greater The detractors of Homer, thinking recommendations at that time (about the that the progress of letters and the arts middle of the eighteenth century), as ought to keep pace in all respects with French literature was then in possession that of civilisation, and judging the age of few translations worthy of being of Homer to be less polished than their

Very soon afterward indeed, own, inferred that his poems should productions of this description became yield to those of a more refined period, so numerous, that whoever should onder- They erroneously drew conclusions from Lake Lo sketch the literary portrait of the state of the sciences which dependthat century, would not fail to mark this upon observation, to that of the imitative peculiarit of its distinguishing arts; and persuaded themselves, that as characteristics, and to add to the epic those sciences had made great advances ibets which it has already obtained, of ainong the moderns, poetry and the arts Aye of Philosophy, of Illumination, and of genius must have improved in the of Prose, that of Age of Translations. same proportion.

The preceding century, which had To these attacks from the enemies of been the age of genius, and of great Homer, and particularly from those who .


called so.




mg her.

could know nothing of him but through composition all the lustre which it ought the medium of the Latin version, and to display. These objects the success therefore were the most violent against of his work lelt hiin no doubt of having, baim, madame Dacier opposed her Frencii at least in a great measure, attained. translation of that great poet.

But it Long before the appearance of his may be doubted whether this forined a translation of the Iliad in the state shield as impenetrable as that of Achil. in which we now have it, M. Bitaubé les: and whether this learned lady has had published in Prussia French fully succeeded in uniting nobleness with abrivement of that poem, which was simplicity, elegance with artlessness, and very favourably received. By means of strength and conciseness with sublic that publication, and the kindness of mity; whether she has given even a d'Alembert, whose friendship he had faint idea of the pomp and magnificence acquired in a journey to France, and of Homer's poetry; and has conquered who recommended him strongly to Freall the difficulties of every kind which deric, he obtained admission as a memthe text presented, and which it was her . ber of the academy of Berlin; and soon duty not to avoid. In granting that she afterward had leave to make a second beis surmounted inany of these, and thus tour to Frauce, and remain there long facilitated the task of future translators, enough to complete and perfect his it may still be asserted that she had not translation in the centre of enlightened precluded them from all hope of surpass

After residing at Paris some

years, which he spent in aşsiduous It was in doing ample justice to the labour, he published in 1780 his whole Jabours of this illustrious woman, that Iliad; and then undertook the translation M. Bitaubé undertook to bcar away the of the Odyssey, which experienced a sucpalm from her. He thought the quali- cess equally flattering on its publication njes necessary in a French translatin of in. 1785. Hower, though in some degree incompa.

These two works, which he accompa. tible with each otiser, might still be nied with notes and reflections equally snore happily blended togeclier; and judicious and learned, gare such honourkoped that, without acting as a servile able testimony of his rank in literature, copyist, or making use of paraphrases that on the death of the reigning landor unfaithful substitutions, he should be grave of lesse Cassel in 1786, he was able to reconcile his adopted language chosen to succeed that prince as to the details which seemned often une foreigny associate of the academy of suitable to it; and mould the stately belles-lettres. This new title, which march and bold forms of the language gave him the privilege of assisting at and poetry of Greece, on the reserve ihe meetings of the academy, having and circumspection of the French still further increased his attachinent to tongue.

France, be resolved to settle perma. The principles and objects which the rently in that country of his ancestors, szew translator of Homer iinposed on and which he had himself enriched by bumself, were these: that the thoughts bis labours. and images of the poet should preserve

About the time of the appearance of their truth, ind some tint of their colour, M. Bitaubé's Homer, a dispute had in the translation, without doing violence arisen among men of letters in France, to the proprieties of their modern dress; concerning the manner in which the Ebat the beroic personages should not poets ought to be translated. One party Jose the character of their con times, maintained that this could not be done but yet be presented in such a manner properly except in verse.

The new as not to offend the delicacy of ours; translator of Ilomer was too much in. that the picturesque details which one a terested in this discussion, to remain part of their chiarn to that of the rhythin, silent on it: be declared his sentimients, should still possess this feature by means as :night be expected, in tavnur of prose oran harmonious and skiltully variert prose;" translations. Being thus of opioion and that the first and fundamental law that the inarvellous and the tictions of the epopce, ihe union of the marvels which characterise epic composition, lous with historic action, should not lose may be supported without the illusion of its power of illusion and its poetic that poetic style which exerts its least prepature, un fosing the aid of that magic rogative in removing them from the trilanguage which alone can blend then in bunal of cool reason, M. Bitaubé natu. perfection, and give to this bigla class of rally becainc an advocate for original



poems in prose;' and it cannot be denied revolution of the L'oited Provinces in that the epopee, even when thus de- 1787; but it was under the auspices of prived of a part of its charms, inay still the French revolution that the poem war preserve sufficient means to interest and matured, received its last form, and applease. His : Poem of Joseph" would peared in 1796. The sanguinary catasalone prove this.

trophes of which France had beconie the The sutject of that work as particu- scene, could not deter him from code larly suited to a man who, like N. ecrating this monument to the divinity Bitaubé, had been cap:ivated in bis to which he had himsel heen in danger youth by the simplicity of the patriarchal of falling a sacrifice; for the celebrater manners; who scemed io have modelled of Liberty was not safe from the fury of his own life on them; and who therefore, those whom she had enancipaied, in delineating them, had no need to They had made him expiate lus confirecur to foreign surces.

There is no denče in that respect, as well as the history more affecting than that of Joe offence of not baring applauded and seph; and the fine and pathetic manner joined in their excesses, within the walls in which it is related in the sacred wri- of a prison. Some alleviation indeed tings, surpasses every other style of nar was given to his sufferings: for though rative: this is not the result of art; but the cruel caprice of his persecutors at it is far above all art, It was a buld first separated him from the faithful attempt, to enter on gronnd already so partner of his affections, the wife who occupied: this sublime picture of sim- had partaken bis fortunes froin his youth, plicity might be distigured by enforts to who here constituted all his family, and embellish it, or lose a part of its effect who had been arrested along with bim; by being loaded with acce-sory circum- yet a subsequent caprice allowed this stances. The story itself 100, compri- interesting couple to 'inhabit the same sing only a small number of events, and prison, and thus assist each other to susbeing confined to the narrow circle of a tain their affliction. This unexpected single family, seeined ra:her adapted to indulgence filled them both with such furnish materials merely for a dramatic joy, as, in the first transports, alinost piece, than for a poem in nine cantos. inade them forget their captivity, The reception however which the work When the government of terror, under of M. Bitaubé has met witii, lot only which France had groaned, found a among his own countrymen but also termination in the fury of those who had foreigners, and the numerous editions established it, M. Bitauhé left the done through which it has passed, prove that geons of tyranny, together with all the the author has overcome or avoided ali victims whom the tyrants had not bad these oiystacles.

time to sacrifice. His lony confinement The success of this poem inspired him however bnd thrown his domestic with a desire of making a bulder trial, by affairs into embarrassment. The inode. composing a genuine epic, on a sulijeci rate ease which he enjoyed in Iris cire almost wholly of his own invention, cumstances at Paris, depended almost which would admit of his employing

wholly on the age;-tance that he received aliegory, the marvellous, and fictions of from Prussia: butliis pension had no every kind that he should think proper been suppressed; and though he had for giving action and life in his poen. some property at Berlin, all cuminunica. With this view, he undertook to cele. tion with foreign countries was stopperi, brate Liberty, in the persons of Willian He had long uwed liis support enticiy of Nassau, and the heroes who, in the to the kindness of his friends; and lius sixteenth century, cifccted the independe gratiturie now sighed for an opportunity of ance of Holland.

dischargingilis debe. Brighter days soon M. Bitaubé, as lie informs us himself, shone npon France, aurt soomed in prohad begun this latter work long before he mise her a calmer furturicy: peace s as published it in France. Some detached coveluled with Prussia; M. Birgubé's passages of it bad been translated into pension was restored, and its arcinuDurch, and printed at the time of the lated arreils were peril; and in a single

day be not only reintrased his friends, If any reader should be at a loss

bui had the additional happiness of rene to reconcile these terms, lie inay be sering to some of them rlie same service teminded of Telemachus, and the Death of as he had received at their hands. Abel, both of which are examples of poems

About this tine a'sn, the literary in prose.

societies which the resolution had aboia

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