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that Ur in Tybur, was changed to Ol in
This place was derived froin the Tuoli. Ur means border land, land, Gaelic word, sonuch; and we might or border; and as Ur is only a variation render it the Markel, as the word Sivulle of Er, borkr; su Ul is omiy a vamation
is usually rendered ; tur Anuch als inte of bl, in label, o: Tuule. The word plies a market: but in the scription of Tavel, or Table, may therefore imply places, although we must have recou se the Plain Lund; and Dunstable will be
to their features, we need not enquire an exact translation of Durocubrius. [ whether they are old or young, nor whesbait jusı add, that we have a levte IIill ther in ancient times they had markets at the Cape oi voud ilope; and that ihe or fairs.
Aonach is said, by Gaelic situation of Barnstaple is on a plan cor- writers, to imply Hill; but Gaelic writers, respondmg exactly with the explanation like antiquaries, sekton analyse their here given tv Tuble.
own worris: for Aonach means Hill The term Mut, in Madning Bower, or
Lund, and describes the land of Hennock. Madhirt or Murden Bower;
The Saxon translation, Auld Fields, was Mudning Money; (names given to the derived from Mugh, a plain, or field: old camp on this plain, and to the money Vin, Land, was mistaken for Fion, Old; found there, the explanations of which and the misapplica ion of the terms, as a are unknown,) is derived from Madh, a
transiation of Magintum, is evident; and hill, or pian: Ning, In, and En, imply, yet it is obvious, that Mario-vinnio was the as will be shown, land. The name Mad. name from whence Old Fields was dehin, Jadın, or allurden Bower, may be rived. deriven from Ber, or bor, border; or it
Camps, forts, towns, villages, and may be a corruption of Burg, a fort or restiny-places, took the ancient names village. Musdin Biwer will then imply of lands on which they stood; and hence the mil or plain band border or toit:
we have seldom any particular names for Aladming aloney the hili, or plain land these in very ancient appellations. The money.
But enough of Durucobrius, its word Ton, originally Land, was transcamp, and its money: we next arrive at ferred to the crections upon it. dis, our titih station),
Gaelic for a hill is also the name of a Magic-uinnio. Alugh, Gaelic for a fort. The word Hum, originally Border, plain, may be derive from the root has been termed villace, town, Sc. Highe, a buil; and may be rendered hill,
Cosan implies a :vot-way: in which Cos The leiter M is otien prefixed is foot; and in, the land or road. Grease to terms of magnitude a description; linn is an inn; and this word mcans and it will be withy of remark, that literally a griest-house, in which Lann many of the roots för hills and plains implies land, as well as house. I have are ile saine. The reason of this strange in a former letter stated, that in the cuincidence is, the many words imply word! Armin, srm implies the army, and depon as well as height; and that ine In the land or road; and this rond was tops of bills, or elevated ands, as well as contructed for the army. Hence ihen boltums, often contain level grounds. Word, für land were chosen for names of Vin, in viagio-vinsie, is written Ninin roads, and of inus: and In, or Lin, tuo Magio-ninum, and In in Mayratum:
was thus chosen, for an Inn-House imall of which are names for this slation, plies a road-house. Further, Vin, or When a syllable ends with a vowel, and Ven, being synonymes of 11, this would a vowel is w begin another, a consonant nat wally imply the same. To the ending is generally pretined in oid names, Thus in n, at was ofien adderi; ad bence the Trinoaintes are generally written Ven vould become lot. To the strong Triobantes, and Trimovantes. Tile ending in t, the letter a was often postsvi abies Vin, Nin, am In, are, from fixed, to recover the voice froun dnemg whut has been said, synonymes, and each on the syllable: Ta was also a plural impies land.- But the present name is ending. llence Venta is an inn in the saite be, the duld Fields, or the Old Spanish, as well as in the Gaelic; and in Pields, and to be at alle distance from
the Spanish, it also means a sale. Feony Siatiord. There is in Devon a English we say that we want a l'ent parish named Hennock, wrilen
for vur goods, when we want a sale, or Domsday Buok nech, and Tunoch: a place of sale, for them. From the a culebrated etymotogist, findmy Hin, in vertas in Spain being inns, or restingWell, to nitati old; and Coc, in risti, places, many became towns of acroonde to mply timi; rendered Hennock, old modation, passage, trade, de, and a Hill: but hie searched not for the new great number of towns in that kingdom
kave the name l'enta in their endinys. Devon there is a parish named fluxhum. We also had our l'entu Belgurum, Penta In this word, Ur, with the aspirate H, Ireneri. it, and Penta Silurum : names implies, the Muster; and Him is border: which have never been rightly under- but an etymologist rendered Hur, book; stood or rendered by our antiquaries, and stated that the place was formerly Of the word Iscu, as well as Venta, the Habitation of look or Crouk! I much has been wintiel. Leon, or Lion, confess that the above derivations were in Cuer Leon, the translation of Isca gotten, like this list, “by hook or crook:'' Siluun, has been rendered, in a learned for peither the liuter Stone, mor the disquisition by a Welsh etymologist of High Stone, iter the lo cut 2 Stone, nur the tiisi enuinence, “The Waters.” Eron, tie !! hite Slone in the Recolutions, is the translation of Isca Danmonorum, applicable a description of names of old inue therefore be translated the same.
to Luciorodo, Lue implies But the translation luters describes a lake, or stream. To in Lucto, is the not the situation of ihese places. I am same as To, or Tou, in Brito, or Brilou, aware that ad, An, and On, are plural an old name of Bristol.
Bri implies endings in common words; but they are bll; and To or Tou, being a synonyme net orten so when applied in description of Tid, whose root is (!, implies border of places. Exon was higher from the land, or border, by this leitet. Siore, piser forme:ly, than it is at present. The and Stol, (words whose origin is une letier is Gaelic for a bill; Isca knowl,) being also synonymes f Toil, mylit therefore imply, the luler Hill.* and Tol, in Brilou, Britol, Bristou, The Saxons seein iu bave supposen A to and Bristol, all names of this cuy, must be a contracts of an or On, which was also imply the ame. Moreirei, Rod a term for land; and hence Exon meant implies a passage, or road; and Dar, the water land. The same must be said from Durus, a passage or door, will of Liunt, or Lion, in Caerleon. The imply nearly the same: and hence Luce toistake of our etymologists arises from torodo sili imply the Lake or Stream their ont distinguishing augments and Border, Passuge, or Rowd. In Luctorado, durinutives, and some words for land, in the Saxons seem to have considered To old naines of places, from the plural 'as Tov, Toa, or Toffi, a stream, in their endings of their common wards. From translation Toti ceuster: Lac, from auynients and dininutives we have de Lach, they may have reckoned fort, or rived these plural endings. As augments camy; but Diro, in this case, must have and diminutives in description, they iin- been omitted in their transiation, ply great or little: as plural endings in the contrary, if Der was considered by Cominon words, they mcan many or few. them the inciosed border, or camp; then This may appear strange, but is not more they sunk Lac, in rendering ihe name. strange than true; and it is a curious In either then, or in any case, their fact, that from etymologists' not knowing translation seems to be a very partial, if the difference, their translations in these not an erroneous, one.
The next stitpoints have never been applicable in tion is, description.
Dennaventa. As B and P were in I have now removed many difficulties; some languaves the same letter, what and proceed to Luctorodo, or Lucioduro. I have alreadiy said of Pinna, and lin, This name has been derived by our an- Ven, and Ventre, will be suicient. i tiyuaries from Lach, a stone, and Dour,
shall however mention, that stations Water: but by monsieur Bullet, in his and canıps were nist generally, in ancient Celtic Dictionary, from Luch, a stone, times, places of passage; but the public and Torri, to cut. Somewhat like this roads rather lay in siubit, or passed by, was Bremenium explained by a learned than through them. Some stations writer from Bre and Maen, which he there were unich lay on the road, and rendered the high stone.
The pame of were so placed for its protection : to Whilstone, in Cornwall, was derived by such the term l'entu was applicatily Dir
. Hals, who wrote its parochial his. given. Bennaventa is said to have been tury, from the White Stone mentioned situated at a place called Burnt Ile!'s. in the Revelations!t in the county of We have the name Burnt, or Brant
Wood. Ber is sometimes written Bre; In like manner, Venia, originally im. and hence Beren, liead or Hill Lane, plied, the Hil Lånds.
has been contracted to Bern and Burn, † il 17,
and changed to Bron: to the ending ina
N, a T is often added; and hence the river named hy the Romans Dunou, pames Burnt, and Brent. Hulls, in wluch we usually write Danube ; and Saxon, is an inclosure or ruins,
the difierence between our Berian and Isannuvaria, the interpretation of Bufrons, is, that the first are small tits, wbich is at present unknown, as well as or bills with small tops; and the second the foregoing, is derived from Is, water, are larger ones, or hills with large tops. in, a dirummutive, and Vuriu, trum Bar, These, of old, were fortified, or walled, or Var, a head or hill. Much has been were places of safety; were accounted said by authors on the word Varia; but castles and camps, from camps of old nothing which I have seen to the purpose. having been formed upon them; and, in Daventry may be a translation of Isan- process of time, all fortified, or walled navaria, From Dar, a stieam, en a dimi- towns, from being places of sufety, Butive; and Triath or Traithe, derived were named Boroughs. Lasily, bofrom dine, a hill, and now pronounced roughis being places of sufery, the naine Tri: Tre, or Try, may dowever mean was transferred from the places to the inte habitation or town. This land seem to habitants, who became sale guards of have taken its name parily from the eac.: other; and budica of ten famules, spring on Burrow Hill. Beunaventa,
who became such safeguards, were at and this station, have been accounted the length called borouglis. I have now same place: but of this hereafter. The explained these terms. original site of Isannavaria is on Burroro Tripontiwn comes next in this roule, Hill, which I shall now explain. Bur. It has been accounted a Roman name row is a name which we have every for three bridges. “But it is not to be day in our mouths; we have indecit imagined,” says Dr. Stukeley, “ that the swallowed, but we have never digested it. Romans would make a bridge over this The words Berry, Buru, Borore, Bu- rill, or one so eminently large as to rough, and Burrow, have been unhnown denominate the town." Tri then may in their original and various significations be derived from Triall, and this troin to all our writers. 1, or Y is Gaelic Aithe, or ri, a hill, as mentioned bo. for little; and ine diminutives of Bear, fore : Pont is an oid Celtic name for Ber, Bur, and Bur, border, head, &c. point. Rugby is accounted this station in general use, are Berry, and Bury. by Horseley: it was formerly written Berry, when referred to the tops of hills, Rocheberrie'; but the distance of this may be derived from Beurradh. Bir, or place from Benonis is too great by the Ber, water; and Bar, or Ber, a head, joint concurrence of Antoninus and &c.; may also, in composition of names, Richard. Its namestoo are neither of them be found with diminutive endings. a translation of Tripontium. Liiborn is Berry, 'taken for granted as implying also said, by various authors, to be the top, and being found in nones situated place;' and here castles, trenches, pavein bottoms, has been supposed by Ken- ments, &c. are still to be seen: the nett and Spelman, to imply tops and bot- distance bere, indeed, is not so wide tvins: but neither of these is implied in as at Rugby, but the present name this word, further than as it means little agrees not with Tripontium. Shuuhe top, little border, little stream, little well, Shoucl, or Shovel, is likewise stared bottom, &c.
to have been this station, and this name The words Berry, Bury, Borow, Bo- might perhaps agree withi Triponiium: tough, and Burrow, are said to have but the distance bere seems too little. originaily meant hill; but hoz to account At Cathorpe there are said to be for this, as etymologists have been unac- remains; and this place, and Lilborn, quainted with the roots of words, is mighe originally have been one territory: unknown. Ber, Bor, and Bur, are then be this however as it may, we must now derived, in their roots, from A, a hill, attend tu Cathorpe only. In composior rising ground; pronounced Ail, and tinn, roots of words for Land take many changed to ar, er, and ur, These roots
consonants as prefixes. As On, Land, are from the Gaelic, and imply border, therefore takes D in Don; so Or, borrising yround, or bill; and with B pre- der or point, tales D in dpplclore, and fixed, the same as before mentioned of other names of places on borders. B and P: to these if we asld the diminu. Moreover, Ham, border, has a P posttive I, or Y, we have the word Berry, or fixed in Hump-shire; in like manner, Burv. Bor, or Bur, in Borow, Burrow, Dor, used as border or point, has a P. or Borough, is derived as before; but postfixed in Dusseldorp: but Dorp, and Qu, or Ow, is an augment, as in the Thorp, are the same; and each meant
vriginally border, point, &c. I have clude, that his beauties only require now explained another unknown term. pointing out, to be duly appreciated; Cathorpe is on the Watling Street, and this is my motive for these observations. lies at the proper distance from Benonis. Add to this, I feel myself bound by gra. Cau, or Cat, may imply a hill; and titude to an author who has given me either may be synonymous with Tri, in so much pleasure, to attempt the rescue Tripontium. Thorp has been proved of his works from the neglect they have so 19 be a synonyme of Pont, the remaioder unaccountably and undeservedly expeof this term : Cauthorp, Catthorp, or rienced. Cathorp, may therefore be a translation Every one conversant with English of this station.
poetry, knows the tameness and stupid. Lastly. Benonis implies The great ity (so well ridiculed by Goldsmith in Head, or The Head Land; and if Is be one of his Essays) which mark the comnot a dative ending, this part of the positions called Pastoral Elegies. Fene word may come from dis, a hill, and ton's Florelio is an admirable exception ; imply fori, or camp. This land Í supo in beauty of imagery, richives of copose to be in the parish of Copston, louring, and elegance of expens it is which is a translation of Benon ; for it far superior to any poem of the kind I also implies the Top or Head Land. ever read. His Epistles to Lambard Cloychester refers to the exact place of and Southerne, possess that easy Hn of the station, as lying on the cliff or side chaste huniour that should always disa of the hill.
tinguish productions of that description. At the place where the fosse crosses I shall pass over Fenton's Tai-s, (only the Watling Street, there is erected a remarking that his “Widow's Will," and handsome obelisk, with a Latin inscrip- “ Fair Nun," are equal to the "Ilans Lion, purporting among other things, Carvel," and " Paulo Puryanti," of that the Venones bere kept their quar. Prior, and his Tale in the nammer of ters. We are, Mr. Editor, amused by Chaucer, superior to that by P.pe,) and the inscriptions of Sulloniacis and Be- proceed to notice his udes, which, though nones, from the mistakes of ancient few, are excellent; particu arly that to terms; but in history and description, the Sun on New-year's Dav, the opening we have misconceptions without number, stanza of which is equal or grandeur to arising from the same cause: we need the commencement of any puem in the not erect pillars to perpetuate these. world. Benon, or Venon, being a naine for Head Begin, celestial source of light, Land, and this being one of the princi. To gild the new. evolving sphere, pal, if not the chiet, in the middle of And, from the pregnant womb of Night, the kingdom, the name was given from Urge on to birth the infant year. its features. I have now, sir, cleared Rich with auspicious lustre rise, the way, in part, for shorter explanations ; Thou fairest regent of the skies, and at some future time will resume my Conspicuous with thy silver bow; labor.
A. B. To thee, a god, 'twas given by Jove
To rule che radiant orbs above ;
And what can be more sublime than THE Augustan age (as it is called the passage (nfier celebrating the battle
of English literature, produced so. of Blenbeiin)? many writers of eminence, that those of a second rank were thrown into the Britannia, wipe thy dusty brow, sbade, and are now prized less than they
And put the Bourbon laurels on. deserve. I was led to this reflection by Beautiful too as Gray's Ode to Spring perusing the poems of Fenton, who was undoubtedly is, it has not a stanza equal bigbly esteemed by Pope, who wrote lois' to the first of Fenton's to Lord Gower, epitaph, in which be calls hin “an ho- written in the same season. nest man;" of course, according to the After having said all this, I may be same poet,
" the noblest work of God.” told that my remarks are unnecessary; The poet of whom I am writing, for that Fenton's works ar: in every wella stands higher in any estimation than selected library. So, perhaps, are those many who are becter known, and oftener of Welsteu, Ward, and the other heroes read; and as I have no reason to suppose of the Dunciad; but I would have the that I differ much in taste from other author I am writing of quoted as others admirers of poetry, I may justly con. are, who are not bis superiors in genius. MONTHLY Mac. No. 197.
I will conclude with assuring any one, Society of Agriculture , at Rouen in who may be induced by these remarks Normandy, it is stated, that in the fifto read more accurately the mementos teenth century, our Edward IV. obtained of departed genius that occasioned them, a considerable fock of fine.woolled sheep that if he has a true taste for poetry, he from Spain, of tbe king of Castile, which will find much, very much, in Fenton, was the original foundation of the excelto gratify it.
R. C.F. lence of our clothing-wool: that pro.
perly qualified persons were appointed For the Monthly Magazine. to superintend the distribution and maOn an ERRONEOUS NOTION respecting the nagement of the Spanish sheep: that
ORIGIN Of SPANISH MARINO VECP; two ewes and a ram were sent to every and on the FIORIN CRASS.
parish in which ihe pasture was judied ON
Na reference to my General Trea- suitable to such stock; the care of them
tise on Catile, pages 292, 423, and being entrusted to the most respectable 429, I apprehend Mr. Rankin will be yeomen, on whom particular privileges convinced of the total want of grounds were, in consequence, conferred: wrilfor that report which has of late been ten instructions for the management of circulated in the public priüts, namely, these sheep, were also delivered to the that the Spanish fine-woolled sheep, now shepherds; who were taught to select the in such deservedly high request among us, finest native ewes for the Spanish cross, originated in this country, and were im- in order to the general insprovement of ported by the Spaniards from our Cot our wool. Henry VIII. and queen teswold or Gloucestershire bills.
Elizabeth are said also, on the same Mr. Rankin quotes, from Jolin Stowe's authority, to have paid great attention to Chronicle, the information that in 3464, this important object, in common with king Edward permitted the export of another-that of improving the breed of certain Cotteswolde slicep to Spain; horses. Thus we see, after all this briswhich the chronicler assigns as the tle of presumed novelty in the Spanish reason for the Spanish staple of wool at cross, we have been long since fureBruges, in Flanders, greatly exceeding stalled, nihil sub sole novum ; and George Dr. Campbell
, in his Political ill. has been patriotically treating in Survey, I have no doubt, grounded his the footsteps of his predecessor, Edward opinion, lately revived, on the paragraph IV.; whilst so many of our old shepherds in Stowe which Mr. Rankin has quoted; have been afraid to venture upon a but I have really forgotten whether the measure successfully and generally put doctor has given his authority.
in practice by their great, great, I know Few historical facts stand better au not how many times great, grandsires! thenticated, than the existence of co- What, my good notable, cautious, ecorered, erythræan, or fine-woolled sheep; nomical old friend! dare you not pace and the use of fine wool, in Spain and in that beaten track whence have pro. Italy, during the time of the ancient Ro- cceder your South Downs, your old Cotmans; on which the curious reader will teswolds, ane Rylands; and all that now find ample satisfaction in the pages of native English fine wool, and fine mutColumella. The keeping of travelling ton, to which you are so attached? flocks of Merino, or Marino sheep, also It is not at all a singular or strange bears much earlier date than the reign coincidence, that Fdward should at the of our Edward, in the fifteenth century, same time import Spanish sheep, and as will appear by consulting the Spanish accommodate his good friends of that economical writers. That the Marina country with a few English. Mark sheep (Murino, as originally reaching Stowe's Chronicle speaks only of a licence Spain by sea), are of Grecian, or rather to export “certein Cotteswolde sheep,' Asiatic origin, will be easily credited on implying probably a small number, the authority of the ancient writers; and whereas the import from Spain appears that this country first imporied them to have been considerable, might have from Spain some centuries since, is both been practised before the fileenth cen. credible in itself, and attested by foreign tury, and in all probability really was if not our native historians. The sheep long afterwards. in question are, like the southern horse, I have been thus far speaking of facts: obviously the production of warmer now for a conjecture; an uncertain how. clines, and indically unlike the species ever, and speculative commodity, in of northern Europe.
which I do not generally affect to deai. In the menwirs of the ci-devant Royal The king of Castile having accommo