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Dertation of Names in Antoninus. [April 1, that Ur in Tybur, was changed to Ol in
This place was derived froin the Tivoli. Urineans border land, land, Gaelic word, Aonach; and we might or border; and as Ur is only a varrition render it the Markei, as the word Siuile Er, borular; su Ol is only a variation
is usuaily rendered ; tur Annach also ime of bl, in Tabel, or Tuule. The word plics a market: but in description of Tavel, or Table, may therefore imply places, although we inust have recourse the Plain Lund; and Dunstable will be
to their teatures, we need not enquire an exact translation of Durocubrius. 1 whether they are old or young, nor wheskaid jusi add, that we have a tuvie Hill ther in ancient times irey had markets at th. Capeut voud Hope; and that the
Aonach is said, by Gaelic situation of Barnstaple is on a plam cor- writers, to imply ffill; but Gaelic writers, responding exactly with ihe explanation like antiquaries, sclion analyse their here given to Tubie.
own worris: for Aonach means Hill The term Mat, in Madning Bower, or Lund, and describes che land of Hennoli. Madhin or Mladen Bouer;
The Saxon translation, Aulil Fields, was Macdning Joney; (names given to the derived from Mugh, a plain, or field: old camp on this plain, and to the money Vin, Lanı), was mistaken tor l'ion, Oid; found there, the explanations of which and the misappiica ion of the terms, as a are unknown,) is derived from Madh, a
translation of Nagintum, is evident; and bill, or plam: Ning, In, and En, imply, yet it is obvious, that Mario-vinnio was the as will be shown, land. The name Made name from whence Old Fields was de. hin, Madin, or illuuden Bower, may be rived. deriven from Ber, or Bor, border; or it
Camps, forts, towns, villages, and may be a corruption of Burg, a tort or resting places, took the ancient names village. Muruin Bower will then imply of lands on which they stoud; and hence the till or plan band borrier or toit:
we have seldom any particular names for Mladning Aloney the hit., or plaun land these in very ancient appeilations. The money. But enough of Durvcobrius, its
word Ton, originally Land, was transcamp, and its money: we next arrive at ferred to the erections upon it. dis, our titih station,
Gaelic for a hill is also the name of a Mugio-dinniv. Mlagh, Gaelic for a
fort. The word Hum, originally Border, plain, may be derived from the root has been termed village, tuin, &c. Highé, a wil; and may be rendered lilly Cosan implies a fuot-way: in which Cos or pain. The iciter M is often prefixed is foot; and An, the land or road. Grease to terms of magnitude in description; linn is an inn; and this word means and it will be worthy of remark, that literally a guest house, in which Lann many of the roots för hills and plains implies land, as well as house. I have are ile saine. The reason of this strange in a former letter stated, that in the coincidence is, that many words imply word! Armin, drm implies the army, and depth as well as height; and that the In the land or road; and this rond was tops of bills, or elevated lands, as well as con-tructed for the army. Hence then boltums, otten contain level grounds. words for land were chosen for names of Vin, in Niagio-vin.110, is written Nin a roaris, and of inus: and In, or Iun, too Magio-monium, and In in blagintum: was thus chosen, for an Inn-Hlouse imall of which are names for this station, plies a road-house.-- Further, Vin, or When a syllable ends with a vowel, and Ven, heing synonymes of In, this would a vonel is to begin another, a consonant nat oally imply the same. To the ending is generally pretised in vid names, Thus in n, a t was ofion adderi; azd bence the Trino-untes are generally written Ven vould become l'ort. To the strong Tringbalites, and Trimovanies. Tlie ending in l, the letter u was often posta sylables Vin, Nin, and I1, are, from fiscd, to recover the voice from dwelling what has been said, synonymes, and each on the syllable: Ta was also á plural impres land.- But the present name is ending. ilence Venta is an inn in the sade be, the Auld Fields, or the Old Spanish, as well as in the Gaelic; and in Fields, and to be at a line distance trom
the Spanish, it also means a sale. In Fenny Stratiord. There is in Devon a English we say that we want a l'ent parish nained Hennock, writiei in for vur goods, when we want a sale, or Došday Book Jinech, and Hunch:
a place of sale, for them. From the a culebrated etymstigist, finding Hin, in ventas in Spain being inns, or restingWetsis, to mean old; in Cnoc, in Irishi, places, many became towns of accome to imply Hill; rendered Hennoch, old modation, passage, trade, de, and a Ilill: but he searched not for the new great sumber of towns in urat kingdom
have the name l'enta in their endings. Devon there is a parish named fluxhun. We also had our l'entu Belgarum, Venta In this word, Ur, with the asvirate H, Irenurum, and linia Silurum : names implies, the Huttr"; and Ham is border: which have never been rightly under- but an etymologist rendered Hur, huok; stood or rendered by our antiquaries. and stated that the place was formerly Of the word Isca, as well as lenta, the Habitation of Hook or Crook! I much has been wirtien. Leon, or Lim, contess that the above derivations were in Cuer Leon, the translation of Isca gotten, like this liant, “ by hook or crook:" Silurum, has been rendered, in a learned for neither the later Stone, nor the disquisition by a Welshi etymologist of High Sone, iter the to cut Slone, nor the first eminence, “The Warers.” Eron, the Irhite Slone in the Revolutions, is the translation of Isca Danmoniorum, applicable in description of names of old must therefore be translated the same.
lo Laclorodo, L46 inplies But the translation luiers describes a lake, or stream. To in Lucio, is the not the situation of inese places. I am same as To, or Tou, in Brito, or Brilor, aware that sd, on, and On, are plural an old name of Bristol.
Bri implies endings in common words; but they are !!!l; and To or Tou, being a synonyme not orien su when applied in description of Tol, whose root is (l, implies border of places. Exon was higher from the land, or border, by this letter. $.00, river tormerly, than it is at present. The and Slol, (words whose origin is imletters is Gaelic for a bill; Isca knowl1,) being also synonymes of Tori, might therefore imply, the Water Hill.* and Tól, in Britou, Britol, Bristou, The Saxons seem to have supposed A to
and Bristol, all names of this city, must be a contraction of in or On, which was also imply the same. Moreover, hod a term for land; and hence Exon meant implies a passage, or road; and Dir, the water land. The same must be said from Dorus, a passage or door, will of Leon, or Lion, in Caerleon. The imply nearly the same: and hence Luca mistake of our etymologists arises from torodo will imply the Lake or Stream their not distinguishing augments and Border, Pussage, or Roail. In Luctoreto, diminutizes, and some words for land, in the Saxous seem to have considered To old names of places, from the plural 'as Too, Tou, or Toffi, a stream, in their cndings of their common verds. From translation Tuiticeuster: Luc, from augments and diminutives we have de- Lach, they may have reckoned fort, or rived these plural endings. As augments camp; but Duro, in this case, must have and diminutives in descuiption, they im. been omitted in their translation. 02 ply great or little: as plural endings in the contrary, if Dor was considered by common words, they mean many or few, them the inclosed border, or camp; then This may appear strange, but is not more they sunk Lac, in rendering the name. strange than true; and it is a curious In either then, or in any case, their fact, that from etymologists' not knowing translation seems to be a very partial, if she difference, their translations in these not an erroneous, one.
The next stapoints have never been applicable in tion is, description.
Bcrnaventa, As B and P were in I ve now removed many difficulties; some languages the same letter, what and proceed to Laclorodo, or Luciodoro. I have already said of Pinnu, and lin, This name has been derived by our an
Ven, and Venta, will be sufficient. I tiquaries from Lach, a stone, and Dour, shall however mention, that stations water: but ly monsieur Bullet, in his and camps were not generally, in ancient Celtic Dictionary, from Luch, á stone, times, places of passage; but the public and Torri, to cut.
Somewhat like this roads rather lay in siubit, or passed by, was Bremenium explained by a learned than through them. Some stations writer from Bre and Maen, which he there were woich lay on the road, am! rendered the high stone. The name of were so placed for its protection : to Whitstone, in Cornwall, was derived by such the term l'entu was applicably Mr. Hals, who wrote its parochial his given. Bennaventa is said to have beeii tury, from the White Stone mentioned situated at a place called Burnt l'e!'s. in the Revelations! In the county of We have the name Burnt, or Brane
Wood. Ber is soinetimes written Bre; In like manner, Venia, originally im. and hence Ber-en, liead or || Lane, plied, ite Hill Lunds.
has been contracted to Bern and Burn, † 1. 17.
and changed to Bren: 10 tie ending in
N, a 232
Derivation of Names in Antoninus. [April 1, N, a T is often added; and hence the river named hy the Romans Danou, Dames Burnt, and Brent. Halls, in which we usually write Danube ; and Saxon, is an inclosure or ruins.
the ditierence between our Beris, and Isannuvuria, the interpretation of Buttons, is, that the first are small hills, which is at present unknowl, as well as or bills with small tops; and the second the foregoing, is derived from Is, water, are larger ones, or bills with large tops. sin, a dioinutive, and Vuriu, from Bur; These, of oid, were fortitied, or walled, or Var, a head or will. Much has been were places of sufery; were accounted said by autbors on the word Varia; but castles and camps, from camps of old nothing which I have seen to the purpose, baving been formed upon them; and, in Daventry may be a translation of Isan- process of time, all fortified, or wailed Bavaria, from Dar, a stican, en a dinni- towns, from being places of sufély, nutive; and Triath or Traithe, derived were named Boroughs. Lasily, bon from dithe, a hill, and now pronounced roughs being places of sufely, the name Tri: Tri, or Try, may dowever mean was transferred from the plures to the inbabitation or town. This land seems to habitants, who became säte-guards of have taken its name partly from the cac.: other; and bodies of len families, spring on Burrow Hill. Bennaventa, who became such safeguards, were at and this station, have been accounted the length called borouglis. I have now same place: but of this hereafter. The explained these terms. original site of Isannavaria is on Burrow Tripontiwn comes next in this route. Hill, which I shall now explain. Bur. It has been accounted a Roman name row is a name which we have every for three bridges. “ But it is not to be day in our mouthis; we have indecii imagined,” says Dr. Stukeley, “that the swallowed, but we have never dige-ted it. Romans would make a bridge over this The words Berry, Bury, Boron, Bua rill, or one so eminently large as to rough, and Burrow, have been unknown denominate the town." Tri then may in their original and various significations be derived from Triubh, and this froin to all our writers. 1, or Y is Gaelic Aithe, or mi, a bill, as mentioned be. for little; and the diminutives of Bear, fore: Pont is an old Celtic name for Ber, Bur, and Bur, border, head, &c. point. Rugby is accounted this station in general use, are Berry, and Bury. by Horseley: it was formerly written Berry, when referred to the tops of bills, Rocheberrie; but the distance of this may be derived from Beurradh. Bir, or place from Benonis is too great by the Ber, water; and Bar, or Ber, a head, joint concurrence of Antominus and &c.; may also, in composition of names, Richard. Its namestooare neitherofthem he found with diminutive endings. a translation of Tripontium. Lilborn is Berry, 'taken for granted as implying also said, by various authors, to be the top, and being found in names situated place;' and here castles, trenches, pavein bottoms, has been supposed by Ken- ments, &c. are still to be seen: the nett and Spelman, to imply tops and bot- distance bere, indeed, is not so wide toms: but neither of these is implica in as at Rugby, but the present name this word, further than as it means little agrees not with Tripontium. Shuusha lop, little border, little stream, little uell, Showel, or Shovel, is likewise sted bottom, &c.
to have been this station, and this name The words Berry, Bury, Borow, Bo- might perhaps agree with Tripuntium : rough, and Burrow, are said to have but the distance bere seems too little. originaily meant hill; but hox to account At Cnthorpe there are said to be for this, as etymologists have been unac- remains ; and this place, and Lilborn, quainted with the roots of words, is might originally have been one territory: unknown. Ber, Bor, and Bür, are then be this however as it may, we must now derived, in their roots, from A, a hill, attend to Cathorpe oniv. In composior rising ground; pronounced Ail, and tion, roots of words for Land take many changed to ar, er, and ur. These roots consonants as prefixes. As On, Land, are from the Gaelic, and imply burder, therefore takes Dio Don; so Or, borrising ground, or bill; and with B pre- der or point, takes D in Appledore, and fixed, the same as before mentioned of other names of places on borders. B and P: to these if we add the diminu. Moreover, Hum, border, has a P posttive I, or Y, we have the word Berry, or fixed in Hump-shire; in like manner, Bury. Bor, or Bur, in Borow, Burrow, Dor, used as border or point, has Р or Borough, is derived as before; but posthxed in Dusseldorp: but Dorp, and Qu, or Ow, is an augnuent, as in the Thurp, are the same; and each meant
vriginally border, point, &c. I have clude, that his beauties only require now explained another unknown term. pointing out, to be duly appreciated; Cathorpe is on the Watling Street, and this is my motive for these observations. lies at the proper distance from Benonis. Add to this, I feel myself bound by gra. Cau, or Cat, may imply a hill; and titude to an author who has given me either may be synonymous with Tri, in so much pleasure, to attempt the rescue Tripontium. Thorp has been proved of his works from the neglect they have so 19 be a synonyme of Pont, the remaioder unaccountably and undeservedly expeof this term : Cauthorp, Catthorp, or rienced. Cathorp, may therefore be a translation Every one conversant with English of this station.
poetry, knows the tameness and stupid. Lastly. Benonis implies The great ity (so well ridiculed by Goldsmith in Head, or The Head Land; and if Is be one of his Essays) which mark the comnot a dative ending, this part of the positions called Pastoral Elegies. Fene word may come from dis, a hill, and ton's Florelio is an admirable exception ; imply fori, or camp. This land Í supo in beauty of imagery, richives of copose to be in the parish of Copston, louring, and elegance of expens it is which is a translation of Benon ; for it far superior to any poem of the kind I also implies the Top or Head Land. ever read. His Epistles to Lambard Cloychester refers to the exact place of and Southerne, possess that easy Hn of the station, as lying on the cliff or side chaste huniour that should always disa of the hill.
tinguish productions of that description. At the place where the fosse crosses I shall pass over Fenton's Tai-s, (only the Watling Street, there is erected a remarking that his “Widow's Will," and handsome obelisk, with a Latin inscrip- “ Fair Nun," are equal to the "Ilans Lion, purporting among other things, Carvel," and " Paulo Puryanti," of that the Venones bere kept their quar. Prior, and his Tale in the nammer of ters. We are, Mr. Editor, amused by Chaucer, superior to that by P.pe,) and the inscriptions of Sulloniacis and Be- proceed to notice his udes, which, though nones, from the mistakes of ancient few, are excellent; particu arly that to terms; but in history and description, the Sun on New-year's Dav, the opening we have misconceptions without number, stanza of which is equal or grandeur to arising from the same cause: we need the commencement of any puem in the not erect pillars to perpetuate these. world. Benon, or Venon, being a naine for Head Begin, celestial source of light, Land, and this being one of the princi. To gild the new. evolving sphere, pal, if not the chiet, in the middle of And, from the pregnant womb of Night, the kingdom, the name was given from Urge on to birth the infant year. its features. I have now, sir, cleared Rich with auspicious lustre rise, the way, in part, for shorter explanations ; Thou fairest regent of the skies, and at some future time will resume my Conspicuous with thy silver bow; labor.
A. B. To thee, a god, 'twas given by Jove
To rule che radiant orbs above ;
And what can be more sublime than THE Augustan age (as it is called the passage (nfier celebrating the battle
of English literature, produced so. of Blenbeiin)? many writers of eminence, that those of a second rank were thrown into the Britannia, wipe thy dusty brow, sbade, and are now prized less than they
And put the Bourbon laurels on. deserve. I was led to this reflection by Beautiful too as Gray's Ode to Spring perusing the poems of Fenton, who was undoubtedly is, it has not a stanza equal bigbly esteemed by Pope, who wrote lois' to the first of Fenton's to Lord Gower, epitaph, in which be calls hin “an ho- written in the same season. nest man;" of course, according to the After having said all this, I may be same poet,
" the noblest work of God.” told that my remarks are unnecessary; The poet of whom I am writing, for that Fenton's works ar: in every wella stands higher in any estimation than selected library. So, perhaps, are those many who are becter known, and oftener of Welsteu, Ward, and the other heroes read; and as I have no reason to suppose of the Dunciad; but I would have the that I differ much in taste from other author I am writing of quoted as others admirers of poetry, I may justly con. are, who are not bis superiors in genius. MONTHLY Mac. No. 197.
Origin of Spanish Marino Sheep. (April 1, I will conclude with assuring any one, Society of Agriculture , at Rouen in who may be induced by these remarks Normandy, it is stated, that in the fifto read more accurately the mementos teenth century, our Edward IV. obtained of departed genius that occasioned them, a considerable fock of fine.woolled sheep that if he has a true taste for poetry, he from Spain, of tbe king of Castile, which will find much, very much, in Fenton, was the original foundation of the excelto gratify it.
R. C.F. lence of our clothing-wool: that pro.
perly qualified persons were appointed For the Monthly Magazine. to superintend the distribution and maOn an ERRONEOUS NOTION respecting the nagement of the Spanish sheep: that
ORIGIN Of SPANISH MARINO VECP; two ewes and a ram were sent to every and on the FIORIN CRASS.
parish in which ihe pasture was judied ON
Na reference to my General Trea- suitable to such stock; the care of them
tise on Catile, pages 292, 423, and being entrusted to the most respectable 429, I apprehend Mr. Rankin will be yeomen, on whom particular privileges convinced of the total want of grounds were, in consequence, conferred: wrilfor that report which has of late been ten instructions for the management of circulated in the public priüts, namely, these sheep, were also delivered to the that the Spanish fine-woolled sheep, now shepherds; who were taught to select the in such deservedly high request among us, finest native ewes for the Spanish cross, originated in this country, and were im- in order to the general insprovement of ported by the Spaniards from our Cot- our wool. Henry VIII. and queen teswold or Gloucestershire bills.
Elizabeth are said also, on the same Mr. Rankin quotes, from Jolin Stowe's authority, to have paid great attention to Chronicle, the information that in 3464, this important object, in common with king Edward permitted the export of another-that of improving the breed of certain Cotteswolde slicep to Spain; horses. Thus we see, after all this briswhich the chronicler assigns as the tle of presumed novelty in the Spanish reason for the Spanish staple of wool at cross, we have been long since fureBruges, in Flanders, greatly exceeding stalled, nihil sub sole novum ; and George Dr. Campbell
, in his Political ill. has been patriotically treating in Survey, I have no doubt, grounded his the footsteps of his predecessor, Edward opinion, lately revived, on the paragraph IV.; whilst so many of our old shepherds in Stowe which Mr. Rankin has quoted; have been afraid to venture upon a but I have really forgotten whether the measure successfully and generally put doctor has given his authority,
in practice by their great, great, I know Few historical facts stand better au- not how many times great, grandsires! thenticated, than the existence of co- What, my good notable, cautious, ecorered, erythræan, or fine-woolled sheep; nomical old friend! dare you not pace and the use of fine wool, in Spain and in that beaten track whence have pro. Italy, during the time of the ancient Ro- cceder your South Downs, your old Cotmans; on which the curious reader will teswolds, ane Rylands; and all that now find ample satisfaction in the pages of native English fine wool, and fine mutColumella. The keeping of travelling ton, to which you are so attached? flocks of Merino, or Marino sheep, also It is not at all a singular or strange bears much earlier date than the reign coincidence, that Fdward should at the of our Edward, in the fifteenth century, same time import Spanish sheep, and as will appear by consulting the Spanish accommodate his good friends of that economical writers. That the Marina country with a few English. Mark sheep (Murino, as originally reaching Stowe's Chronicle speaks only of a licence Spain by sea), are of Grecian, or rather to export “certein Cotteswolde sheep,' Asiatic origin, will be easily credited on implying probably a small number, the authority of the ancient writers; and whereas the import from Spain appears that this country first imporied them to have been considerable, might have from Spain some centuries since, is both been practised before the fileenth cen. credible in itself, and attested by foreign tury, and in all probability really was if not our native historians. The sheep long afterwards. in question are, like the southern horse, I have been thus far speaking of facts: obviously the production of warmer now for a conjecture; an uncertain how. clines, and indically unlike the species ever, and speculative commodity, in of northern Europe.
which I do not generally affect to deai. In the menwirs of the ci-devant Royal The king of Castile having accommo