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esplored a crooked way amongst the islands on which we stood, were finely rocks. Our guides led us over precio contrasted with the precipitous shorts pices, on which, at first, I thought a already mentioned, on the one side, and goat could not have kept its feet; and if the mountains of sir Hector Mikenzie's the stones had not been of a rougli crusty forest on the other, which pierced the nature, we could not have effected our clouds with their pointed tips, and escape, especially on such a day. I felt appeared as white as the fairest inarble. much distress on account of the lady; the Next morning, Mr. John Mackenzie, wind, which liad grown extremely rough, and myse!f, again entered the boat, and exerted such power on her clothes, having a fair wind, skipped along the that I was really apprehensive it would surface of the lake with great velocity, carry her away; and looked back several and soon reached Ellon Mari, or St. times with terror, for fear I should have Mary's Isle; where I had the superstition seen her flying headlong toward the lake' to go and tahe a hearty draught of the like a suan.

It was however a scene holy well, so renowned in that country worthy of these regions: a young lady, of among the sugar and credulous, for a most delicate forn, and elegantly the cure if insanity in all its stages; and dressed, in such a situation, climbing so weil authenticated by tacts, the most over the dizzy precipices in a retrograde stubborn of ali proofs, that even penple direction; and after fixing one foot, of a more police and modern way of hoding with both hands will she could thinking, are obliged to allow of its effifind a small hold for the other. What cacy in some instances. But as mine would most of the ladies about that great was only a kind of poetical mania, which, town of yours have done in such a si-. however depreciated by some, I delight tuation, sir? I believe, it the wind had in, I omitted the other part of the cerenel changed, they would have been staying mony, which in all probability is the with little dlackintire still. Her raiment most necessary and eficacious branch was much torn and abused; and the of it; namely, that of being plunged wind carried off her kerchief altnge- three times overhead in the lake. ther. For upwards of a mile, we were But though I write thus lightly to you obliged to scramble in this direction, on the subject, I acknowlerige that I felt making use of all-fours; and in one place a kind of awe on my mind, while wander. I was su giddy, that I durst not turn mying over the buryius-ground and ruins eyes to the loch, so far below my feet. of the Virgin's chapel, held in such tigh

We arrived at Ardlair at one o'clock, veneration by the devout, though illihaving been five hours on our passage, terate, fathers of the present generation. which would not have measured above This I mentioned to Mr. Mókicuzic, three miles; and were welcomed by the who assured me, that bad I visited it Messrs. M.Kenzies, with great polite. before the woed was cut down, suchi was ness and attention. The weather grow- the eliect produced by the groves of ing moderate toward the evening, we ancient and massy vaks, firs, &c. that it made a most agreeable excursion round was impossible even for the most comseveral of the principal islands of Loch- mon observer not to be struck deeply Mari, in a handsome boat, with a sail. with a religious awe. Oh, private emos Thiese islands have a much more bare Jument, what hast thou done, what appearance than they exhibited some mighty things bast thou accomplished, years since; the ancient woods with from the day when Jacob peeled the which they were covered, being either wands, and stuck them into ihe gutters, entirely cut down and removed, or most unto this day, September 4, 1803! Day miserably thinned. We landed on several unto day uttereth speech of thee; and of them, and carried off numbers of eggs night unto night teacherh thee know. from the nests of the sea-gulls, thousands ledge: there is no speech nor language of which were hovering and screaming where thy voice is not heard. Thou around us.

I was truly delighted with hast pulled down one, and set up anothe view from these islands, although it ther. Thou hast explored the utmost consisted much more of the sublime limits of the habitable globe, and digued than the beautiful. The old high house the ore from its bowels. Thou art the of Ardiair faced us, from a romantic great promoter of trade and commerce, little elevated plain, bounded on the and the most liberal encourager of the north hy a long ridge of perpendicular arts and sciences. rocks, of a brown colour: and the low Thou hast alsn, on various pretences, MONTHLY Mag. No. 197.

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cut down and destroyed thousands, nay eminence, as a substitute for candles or millions, of the human race; and in one lampa; of its success there can be little of thy trivial freaks, thou hast cut dow! douli, considering the small quantity of and destroyed the lufiy and solemn light required in a mile. The French groves of St. Mary's Isle, where the an have employed a wheel, armed with cient and warlike Caledonians assembled finis, ahich rerolies against pieces of in crowds for their devotion; where they steel, and the light from the sparks has wept over the dunt of their reparied been found sutlicjent: bui Canton' phosfriends, and viewed, with glistening eyes, phorus is certainly preferable, from iis. and a inelancholy pleasure, the sacred portability, and much greater cheaponks under which themselves were ore day to repose in the dust, fer from the London, Neo. 4, 1809. cares and hardships of that bairen 1egion. Well, well, thou great mover of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. all our actions; inou great source of confusion, villainy, and destruction, go on and HOUGII, in his strictures on Mr. prosper. Ilearen grant that thou art Hall's plan for banding down to not at this very time secretly inciting a posterity the way in which the movieri humble tourist to multiply words withi languages are pronounced, your correo out wisdom.

spondent I, in your numbers for July Leaving the holy isle, we agaio steered 1808, and last month, seems to pos:eas the our course for Lettcrewe, where we power of combining; yet he evidently shortly arrived.

You will think, if wants that quality, no less necessary, the I go backward and forward in this power of discriminating ideas, and manner, I shall be as long in getting throwing out nothing but what tears on through the Ilighlands, as the children the point in hand. It is easy to haddle of Israel were in the wilderness, But together a number of ludicrous ideas here your fancy must repose for a few against any plan or proposal whatever, days, until my next arrive, which shall however useful and importani. conduct it through a scene the most Jones, who seems to possess the power awful that we have yet visited.

of discriminating, as well as combining, Etirick.

I. II. ideas, las, 11 my opinion, taken up the

more rational growt; and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. shewn, in your number for August lasts SIR,

trat, though they dier in many reNI

R. JONES, in a communication spects from those of moell, yet, our the

to your magazine for last month, whole, the cries of ile interior animals on the damp in coal-mines, appears to seem adequate lo represent all the have contounded the choak with the sounds, necessarily arising from the vafire-damp, both very common in those rious combination of the letters of the mines. The first arises froin carbonic alphabet. When ihe dog barks, when acid, and lias the effect of extinguishing he snarls, when he rejoices at the return the lights, and rendering respiration dif- of his ma-tcr, when he cries on being ficuit: in this case, slaking lime in the confined; when the cock crows, when he mine would be undoubtedly serviceable calls bis wives; when the hen clucks, by absorbing, not“ producing," carbonic when she calls her youny, when she acid. The other is produced by hy- warns them of danger; when the cat rhogen gas, which is by no means une news; when the borse neigtis; when the frejieni, especially if the miver chance bull roars; when the duck quacks; when to break into an old working; and ubich the pigeon coos; and the thrush sings : may possibly be generated by the decom- thicse, and a thousand other sounds, proposition of the water, by the pyrite's duced by the infcrior anima's, evidently hlaich are almost invariably found with shew, that there are sounds to be found the coat. The hydrogen is innoxious, (ut in every country, at all times the same, least in the state of mixture with atino- which, on being applied to words and spheric air, in which it occurs in mines,) syllables, seem calculated to fix the manunless it come in contact with any thame; ner in which these words or syllabies when an immediate explosion is the in- vare pronounced. eritable consequence.

Canton's phos liad the Romans, who in a great mea. phorus, enclosed betiveen plates of glass, sue adopied the laws, customs, plirabas been proposed by a chemist of seulo y, and even many of the words

3

and

matter 01

and terms, used by the Greeks, found Frederic Accum as the professor of cheSomme ich method as that proposed by mistry and mineralovy, shall we be acMr. Bail, they would not have made so cused of any undne preference, if we enany bylundi's respecting the terms, represent him as attording great delight, the accent, the speli g, and pronuncia as well as instruction, to the numerous tión, of the words they adopied. Had auditors who attend: his lectores. they, for instance, known how the There are also very bighly qualified proGreeks pronounced the word cyw5, 4

fessors of natural and moral philosophy, here, they never wouid have translated &c. The reading-rooms were opened for and pronounced it lepus. Had they the proprietors on the 1st of Mav, 1808. knusn the force of the spiritus asper, Lectures on chemistry, mineraloyv, naas it is termed among the Greeks, they tural philosophy, and other subjects, would not have put s before épow, to were commenced by Mr. Accum, and creep and made serpo ofit.

Mr. Jackson, in November following. Eu, in the early part of iheir history, Now the truth is, that some months be. the Greeks teinserves seem to have fore the opening of the estabii-hment, been in a similar situation with the and before the theatre was fit to receive Romans.

From the term Jupiler din. an audience, Mr. Jackson gave three taon, and a variety of others in their lectures on different subjects, betore the mythology, the Greeks appear to have managers and a number of the proborrowed

many thing's from the Jews: prietors, as specimens of his abilities as they seem, however, to bave been as iga a public lecturer; and so much were norant of the pronunciation and mean these lectures to their satisfaction, that ing of many of the terms of arts, law, he was immediately engaged to give a religion, &c. which they borrowed, as course of thirty on natural philosophy, We are at this day, respecting the tunes, and thirty on chemistry. This course lie cadences, inusical instrumeuts, instruc- cominenced in the theatre of the curry tions, &c. mentioned in the titles of Institution, some time in October 1808; many of the Psalms of David. In a and completed, in due time, with great word, were it not that some of the credit to himself, and with apparent sám Greek and Latin poets have made cer

tisfaction to the managers.

And it is tain of their lines and verses clink but justice to state, that all the lectures and correspond with each other, we on natural and experimental philosophy, should have been at a loss to know, not astronomy, and chemistry, given that only how their words, but even how season at the institution, seie by Mr. many of the letters of their alpliabet, are Jackson. Twenty of this course suunded. The rhyme, and corresponding, delivered before it was known that Mr. sounds, introduced into the poetical Accu was to licture at the sanje in, compositions of modern times, ai!l be of stitution; and Mr. Accu's course, some use in informing posterity how the whicin was on mineralovy, and delivered languages of the present diy are sounds gratis, did not cominence iili the followerl; bui, as some words, considerably ing voar.

I wish this true statement diferent in sound, are made to clink to be made public, that it may counwith one another, it may happen that teract any effects of the other, which posterity will be at a loss as to the tre blight be in junious to the reputation of a pronunciation of many. The adoption respectable and industrious lecturer, of sume such plan as Ir. Uall proe Nov. 6, 1809. A LOVER OF TRUTII. poses, miglit, undoubtedly, partly help them in this particular. I am, with a To the Editor of the Ilonthly iJugazine. high sense of the value of inany of:

f your numbers, an old friend, though Cluparn. A NEW CORRESPONDENT.

None of

your

late numbers, I pro

mised explanations of such sanies of To the Editor of the Monthly lugazine. stations in Antoninus, as have never been SIR,

rationally expiained. In the following Nthe last number of the Microcosm examples, as in inv former litersI

of London, there is some account of shali endeavour to explaini vur vid Celtic the Surry Institution, part of which is terms. A great number of these, dr. apparently de-igned to hold up one pub- Editor, hiwe hivierto been totally line lic character to notice, at the expense of known in their insports, others buce buon ano her. In pages 158 and 159, it is imperfectly rendered, and many so sicia stated : “Nor, when we inention Mii culously derived, that it is scarcely cre

dible

were

SIR,

Covies next.

dible th:t our antiquaries who have ex or Bel, heie; each means Border: and bibited their interpretations, could se these terms, contrary to all the interpre. riously have believed m iheir being ap tations of our antiquanes, imply no plicable. The present letter will abun more when applied to Cassiberianus, dantly prove these assestions.

than the Stream Borderer. Loudon to Benonis.

Veroinnium is the next station, which Londinium has been derived from va- is explained in my last. rious sources; but a rational explanation Durocobrius, called also Durocobrite, cannot be drawn from them. The old

Dunstable is the Durocofoundation of this city is traced in Mait- brius of the Itinerary; but many writers land's Ristory of London: it was fifty feet conceive, that it hath been transposed by lower than at present at St. Paul's; and some early copvists, and that it should inust, from his account, have been marshy, follow Mugio-vinnio. Nagiovinnio hath and often overflowed by the tides. Lon, then been supposed Dunstable; and

or Lun, implies in the Gaelic, a lake, a from Mues and Guin, two Welsh words, · pond, or marsh; and even a stream, as in it hath been rendered the White Camp, the rivers Lone and Lune. Din, trans- or the Ilhite Field. Our old antiquaries, lated Don by the Saxons, implies, as acquiescing in this translation, consi. will hereafter be shown, Lund. Among dered themselves obliged to fix Megintun the Fons of Lincoln, on Boston Dyke, on the chalk-hill, or plain, of Dunstable; we have London Eastcute, a territory but where to place Durocobrius was a similar to our London in its ancient difficulty. Mr. Gale, making a traverse state; and this name implies, from the fron the direct road, carried it to llertabove, the Fen Lani. London will, from ford; but in doing this, his distance from hence, be rationally explained by, the Dunstable was too great: Dr. Stukeley Stream or Ivarsh Land.

therefore departed from the main road to Sullonacis, or Sulloniacis, the next Berkhamstead. Later writers, consi. station, is derived by Mr. Baxter, Dr. dering the White Field, and the White Stukeley, and others, from Cussibellanus; Plain, of not suflicient authority to overand Mr. Sharpe, who lived on the spot turn ibe Itinerary in its different routes, at Brockley Hill, erected there an obe- and finding Richard's Itinerary to corroJisk, with inscriptions to this purport. To borate the statements in Antoninus, bave Cassibelianus I also could swish to give the again followed these authors; whilst honour of naming this station; but the oihers still suppose, that these names derivation of Sullonacis from Cassibel- have been transposed: so liuile have an. lanus, brings to remembrance the deri- tiquaries attended to this necessary part vation of Hurtland Point from Hercules. of their task, the analysing of old Hill has often been written in old names for the features of nature, that Dames, Hull; as at full. Bishop, in So. the roots and serviles in these names merset, called also Hill Bisbop. In the bare been unknown for aves; nor bave Gaelic there is no H; and where other they generally understood, that many of languages began with an H, the Gaelic the present names are translations of often used an S; bence Sil, or Sul, in older ones.—But to return : Durocobrius old names, implied Hill.*

On meant

is derived from Du, Land, Roc, Plain, Land, and Ac Ridge, or Border, as shown and Bri, a Hill. All our writers have in a former letter: Sillorucis will there- been at a loss to account for Brius, which fore imply, the Ilill Lund Ridge or hatli evidently been changed in the Border settlement. Brockley is the dative case ro Brire ; and ihty have unie present name, derived fron Brrighe, a versally rendered it a Bridge, or a Furd. Hill, changed to Braiche, Broicht, and But no proot more is necessary, than the Brock: Ley implies Land; and Brock- explanation bere given, to show that they ley, thill Land.

have beeis, in this word, all inistaken: So much has been said by authors, of anni it will be sutlicient, it more proof be the jinport of the word Cassilellanus, required, to say, that at Dunstable, no that there seems no room for more wo he later, no Bridge, nor Ford, is to be introduced: but Cassicuchlan, C'assis found; and that the before-mentioned bellan, and Cassivellan, are synonymes. appellation of the Plain Lund Hill suits I have explained the first in a funner exictly its situation. letter. Euch there is the saine as Vel, Of the translation Dunstable we

must next speak; but of Dun, i'ch has * In the word Siluris, Ur is Border, and lately been writien : much more, Mr. the name implies the Itiil Burderers. Editor, than necessary for any purpose,

except

except to show, that authors and critics In like manner Mon has, in composia have misunderstood it. I must therefore tion of names, been supposed to imply examine this term; and this, because bill; but in this too, Mon-udh, or Munia other words for Bill come in the same uis, lidl land, or great hill, is onderstood, questionable shape.

The tirst of these is often written Mona; The words In, En, An, On, and Un, the second is contracted in Mons. Va in the language which gase names to the the contrary, Coi, 10 Collis, implies will, features of nature, imply Land; neither or head; but is being a diminutive, of which, it must be observed, are roots Collis implies the little Head, or little for Jill. They often take D and T as Hill. prefixes, and mean Land: and if D and Moreover, Pen, or Pin, is said to T'imply Inclosed, as some authors have imply hili; and if P mean convexity, asserted, they will then imply Inclosed elevation, &c. as some authors have as Land only. In Devon there is some serted, this may find claim thereto; and hill land named Maldon. Tlie term yet the ancients added, even to this Hal is Hill; and Don the Land. On one word, A, the Gaelic for a hull, in Pinna. side of the bill lies Childley, written in The Saxons pronounced and wrote this Doomsday Book Chiderlciu; derived word Pinhuu, Pinhou, and Pinhoe : their from Ceide, or Cheide, a Mill, Er, Bor- word Hoe being derived from A, the der, and Loy, Land. On an end of this Gaelic for bill, pronounced clu; and writhill, is Penhill. The old name of the parish ten as pronounced with the aspirate on which it lies, is Dunchidic; in which h, llau: bence Hau, Hou, How, and Chid, is also hiil; Ic, is a diminutive; and Joe, for lill. To this we may add, that Dun, the land: and the little Hill Land we have the name Penhill in various describes exactly the district. In these places, all of which show, that Pen was words then, as well as in Dunhill, Dun not considered as generally implying ald, Dunbury, Dunbar, Dunkeld, Dun. bill; but only bead, point, or end; and kellin, and other names, the words Don that biil was added to distinguish it from and Dun may be reckoned Land only. lower grounds, forming points or ends of But when Dun is written for Hill, which lands. it often is, Dun-u, or Dun-uis, is, I con llaving spoken of the word Dun, I ceive, understood: the first, as in Dun. will now compare Durocobrius with acombe, Dunaford, &c.: the second, as Dunstable ; and here must observe, that conti acted in Duns, in Scotland, a ter Bri was translated Dun, or Duns; and ritory which stands on rising ground, in Duroc, Stable, or Table; you will

, Mr. the midst of the county of Vers. But Editor, judge which. Dun, as a contraction, is often put for A market, or a place for the public Hill; and as U was often pronounced as exposure of goods, was, by a northern I in old terms, Din has been rendered nation, named a Stapel; and che Saxons Ilill also. Further, hills were often for- are supposed to have used the word in tified, and the names for bills were often this sense, in translating names of places adopted for the names of forts. Din, ending in Stable, or Staple. But in old and Dun, have therefore been rendered names, I know not of a more ridiculous fort, or fortified bill. Thus Dun, in supposition; and yet it hath passed as Dunbarton, is applied as a fort; Bar, is truth for ages. It is my fortune, Mr. head or bill; and ton, the land. Cain- Editur, to attack vulgar errors; and den says, that this place was c'ed whatever I have written on this subject, Dunbritton; and le derives it from the may well be accounted disquisitio Butons, because, he says, “ The Bri- upon them. A stable for a horse is tona he d it longer than any other place derived from Sła, a stand, and Peull, a against the Sects, Picts, and Sissons: horse; and it literally implies a Horse for both by natue ausi situation, it is the Stand, or a llorse House. In like man. strongest casile in all Scotland," Kic. ner Buile, a tribe, i town, a place, a Thus far I quote Camden; but he mis. Station, or seulement; or Balla, a will, took : for Bri and Bur are synonymes, a rampart, or tort; and S!, a stand; may and cach means bill or head. Ii were imply the tribe liabitation, the town, or an easy matter to prove, that Britain also the station; or the walled place, or fort. implies the Hill Lund. General Vala Bur iurther, Tabh, Tuv, or it may lancey says that in the Eastern languages, imply the oceani, or water; and by a islands are termed bill lands. In the comparison of surface, it level, or plain, Gaelic, I is an island, or clevated sur may be inferred. This obtains also in face; and si in a hill: and this last the word Aquor, wherein from a level wurdimplies nearly perhaps the same as I. the sea is inftirsd. In my last, i showed

that

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