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Doctor was the second, and was born in and here he passed many of his leisure King.street, in September, 1745. His hours, with the books which he carried father died when he was scarcely four thithér in his pocket. years old; and when the family'affairs When his clerical career commenced, were settled, the widow found herself left I either never learned, or do not remeniin very narrow circumstances. This inight ber; but he was recommended to his have been fatal to the plan which tie bishop by a large and most respectable parents had intended to adopt for their number of clergy, to whom he was well son—but genius will force its way. llis known. I recollect to have seen his father was one of the first adherents 10 papers, and among the subscribed names, the methodists, (then a new sect);, and were those of Dr. Sumner, the master of had he lived, it would have been his Harrow; Mr. Gibson, a relative of the highest ambition, and dearest delight, to bishop of London; Dr. Burdett, and Dr. have seen his son a faining methodistical Mill, of Guildford ; Dr. Wilson, of Deptdeclaimer. But herein be would pro- ford; and an unusual number of others. bably have been disappointed; for as soon He was well known to, and much as the boy began to think, he began to esteemed by, Dr. Secker, the archbishop; doubt about their peculiar tenets, to Dr. Terrick, then bishop of London ; hold religious whimsies in dislike, and to and Dr. Thomas, bishop of Winchester; be disgusted with every thing that was with the latter, he had a considerable enthusiastic.
degree of intiinacy, and spent many As his mother's finances would not pleasant hours with his lordship in allow her to spare enough for adopting his study, at Chelsea. the plan which her late husband had Yet, notwithstanding all this, I think designed for their son), by sending him to he did not continue inany years in the one of the English universities, she was establishment. He soon began to doubt obliged to give him only a private edu- of many things, and strongly to dislike cation. His first rudiments were re- many others. He repented bis subscripceived from a very judicious old woman, tion to the articles, and would not, on who taught liiin to read'correctly, and so any account, repeat it. Whether he fitted him for his future school. At five ever undertook any stated clerical duty, years old, he was placed under the care while in the establishment, I know not.; of a clergyman, who was a friend of his but I should think it likely that he did mother; and before he reached his sixth not. I recollect he was offered a gramyear, he began learning Latin. With this mar-school in the weald of Kent, ta wbich gentleman, who was an excellent clas- two good curacies were annexed; but the sical scholar, he continued ten or twelve water of the place was bad, and le years, no doubt to his great advantage. would not accept the offer. I know lie. I do not recollect what he has told me of was afterwards offered a comfortable the interniediate time till 1766 ; but then rectory, which conscience would not he was classical assistant at a considerable allow him to accept. Seeing, or thinkboarding-school at Guildford, and after. ing he saw, great defects in the constiwards at a grammar-school, somewhere tution and daily services of the church, in kent. . The natural turn of his mind, he became very uneasy and dissatisfied. led him at this time to critical theology, The more he read, the more he thought; and to medical studies, which might be the more his difficulties encreased. Oire called his bobbyhorse. He attended object afier another arose in his mind, medical lectures in London, during the vill at length he was very bitterly einvacations. Ile rose early, and sat up barrassed. He had prejudices hanging Jate at bis studies. He never allowed about bien respecting schism, and was himself an idle bour. Eren his walks therefore not clear, that to secede from for exercise were usually solitary, and his the church was innocent. Ile was unacpockets were always stutred with books. quainted with dissenters, and thought Ile was fond of siuing in Catharine-hill that the great majority of them were chapel (a fine piece of ruins near Guild. merely ranting enthusiasts, or rigid calford) where he could be for hours undis- vinists, with very few, if any, rational turbed; and afterwards, when in Kent, men among them. His views opened he had some sequestered retirement on but by little and little; and therefore the bank of the Medway, to which he he then thought, Dr. Priestley went too used to find bis way through a wond, wide. I have often heard him say, at where there was no path. There he' this time, that the state of his mind was could be entirely free from interruption; severely painful. But at length, by the 1
reasonings of a very intimate friend, the on which he supported his large family, curate of a neighbouring parish, he was with economy, for several years. The freed from his apprelension of guilt in late Dr. Buchan, with whom he was separation; and from that time he de- very intimate, spoke to me with great termined on seceding. Eınolument was as respect of his medical abilities, of his nothing to him, when conscience forbad. abhorrence of medical cant and conse"Go, (said his libcral-minded friend,) quential ignorance, of his disinterested if your conscience cannot be satisfied honesty ; but, said he," he loves to be with us, let not your talents lie idle; too much in the shade, he is too fond of go hear Kippis, Price, Farmer, Pickard. a hack-ground.” About this time, he Join that body of Christians; for other had a tempting offer if he would returu disseniers will not suit you. Among to the establishment, but his views were chem you may be useful.” He went and not altered, and the offer was made ią was delighted. Ile souglit acquaintance vain. with these gentlemen, and an intimacy Al length, a most infamous and bitter commenced with them, which lasted persecution was commenced against liima, many years; more especially with Dr. by a set of the vilest miscreants on earth, Kippis. That gentleman's great urbanity acting in a large confederacy. This and friendship, afforded him one of his compelled him, with a broken spirit, at greatest pleasures. He now decidedly the age of sixty, to quit a confortable renounced the establishment; and the situation, and all his connections. Now, · first time he preached among the dis body knew to what part he retired. senters, was for Dr. Kippis, in March, Sonie said to Holland, others to Ireland, 1777. He, after this, became intimately others to Yorkshire. But I think they acquainted with all those London minism were all mistaken, and that he went ters who were called presbyterian, and westward; for in the spring of 1805, I saw all their pulpits were occasionally open bin from my window, at Bridport; and a to him.
short time after, I saw him again at At this time, he kept a boarding.school Exeter, purchasing a horse. As I judged in London ; but about the year 1779, he that I might hurt his feelings, if he removed it to Stoke Newington, and wished for concealment, I did not speak soon after to Edmonton. When there, to himn; and from that time I knew no he warried a Miss Gregory, the daughter more of him, till I read his death in the of a Russia merchant, deceased, by daily papers ; I suppose between two and whom he has since had a very large three years ago. family. In a few years he gave up bis I greatly pitied his undeserved sufferschool to her brother, himself accepting ings, for I know him to have been a very an invitation to a congregation some valuable and worthy man; unassuming in where in the west, through the medium his disposition, bland in his manners, of Dr. Savaye. But whether ise found and strict in moral principle. As a son, things disagreeable there I cannot say, a husband, a father, and a minister, he for his stay in that part was not long. 'commanded esteem.
His heart was He returned to the metropolis. Here is truly friendly, and he was sympathy itself again a break in the inforınation I can towards all kinds of distress; ever ready give, as I then left England for near five to render any kindness, or make any years. At my return, in 1791, he was sacrifice, to assist or sooth the sorrowful. practising medicine in London, (and a I could tell such instances of this kind, most intuitive and able physician he as are very rarely to be met with, but was.) I suppose his diploma was from they would lengthen this narrative tờo Scotland, or America. How long he much. Perhaps I may give them in continued the practice of that profession some future leiter. I know not; but as his own health was He was an able, classical scholar; a always tender, he could not then bear good biblical critic, a very pleasing poet, residence in town, and therefore lived at and deep read from his youth in medical a liule distance. I suppose he was never lore, which was his peculiar delight. extensively known as a physician. lle But nove but his immediate and very could not push bimself into notice. lle intimate friends could know all this; for haled all little arts. And as he spent he made no display of his knowledye or but a few hours daily in town, that cir- talents; and rather seemed to aim at con. cumstance was against himn. Never- cealment. I have some sweet pieces of theless, when he declinest practice, he his poetry by me, which I inay some time bad acquired some confortable property, transcribe and send you. As a preucher,
he was clear in his instruction, and pow. suited by the prudence of Moses, as a wise lea érfully impressive. There is a sermon gislator, to the Jewish people at that time. against drunkeness, in a volume which 7. That the story of Balaan's ass was only he published many years ago, which is an impressive dream of the prophet, but per. the most masterly ihing of the kind that haps under divine direction. I have ever seen.
8. That the books which compose the se. Ile was always candid and kind to fernt times, and upon very ditferent occa
cred volume, having been written at very difpeople of every creed ; not believing, sions, may sometimes de difficult to be underthat any human opinions can make the stoods but that no part of scripture has a dousmallest difference in our allotments ble ur hidden meaning. herearier; unless it be such as are pre 9. That the psalms were written by seve. judicial to morais here. Ile would smile ral persons, and on particular occasions. at bonest enthusiasm, and what he Thai chę sublimest devotion, and all the termer religious whimsy; but he was de beauties of fine writing, are to be found in cidedly bosiile to, and zealous against, them. But he denied them any inspiration, all those systems of divinity which he except it be what is called poetical inspira. thought represelit the Creator in an
tion. That no one of them can be found unamiable light, or which lead to moral wholly applicable to the Messiah; and that, depravity.
therefore, (notwithstanding what Jews or
Christians may have thought to the contrary,) Whery young, he had some peculiarities of opinion; it is probable, that as he was ference to Jesus Christ.
no one of them is prophetical, or has any re
The passage in a thinking man, he might either drop Luke xxiv. 44, "and in the Psalms,” he some of them, or adopt more as he grew thought he could prove to be an interpolaolder. From former conversations with tion. Duim, and from what I have since heard, 10. That what are called types in the Old I have reason to think, that, though be Testament, were never intended as such ; but did not lightly adopt any peculiarity of are only fancitul applications by the Jews and sentiment, he held the following opinions: Christians. 1.' That the inspiration of scripture was
11. That the Canticles were merely love. parlial only; for that divine inspiration was poems ; adıniruble indeed for their tender not necessary to diciate the narration of beauties. That they were not written by Sofacts, or those historical books which appear lomon, but by some one of his courtiers; and to be extracts from the Jewish registers.
that they were placed in the sacred canon, by 2. That the Mosaic' account of the fall of Ezra, to please the Jews, and in compliment man is probably allegorical; but it not, that
to their favourite Solomon. in that, and ihe History of Creation, the
12. That tbe book of Jonah is probably a facts were collected by Moses froin tradition; Jewish legend, like that of Tobit.' That our and embellished in a way something like the
Lord's notice of it, did not establish the machinery of poetry, by the fancy of the facts in it; but only spake to the general writer. It could not be supposed, (he would belief, and current opinion, of the Jews. say) that God actually walked in the garden, The impossibility of a man being so long and chuse the cool of the day, as if he could in the stomach of an animal, where he 'be affected hy heat. Many other similar could not ireathe, and must have been ground matters he considered as embellishment. to chyle, he thought an insurmountable ob.
3. 7 liat Adam was asleep when Eve was jection. That it was miraculous, was not to placed by him ; and that he had dreamed she be supposed; because miracles was taken out of his side.
wrought, but for sonie weighty reasons, and 4. That there is no provf that Abel killed to answer some great ends ; but no such rea. his cattle for sacrifice; but that it is more sons or ends are apparent. If, therefore, the :probable, he only brought them on a day ap narrative be true, he supposed there must
pointed tor solead worship by his father, and have been some hill near the shore, compresented them verore the Lord, as a grateful monly called the Great Fish, perhaps from acknowledgment; and, perhaps, poured out a
some resemblance in its form, (as the long libation of the milk or cream, which Dr. P.
hill between Guildford and Farnham is called thought is mistran:lated, fat.
the Hug's Bach), and that under or in this 5. That human sacritices were not uncom
hill was a cavern, where Jonah might be mun prior to the days of Abraham; and that confined for the whole time mentioned. But having them familiar to his mind, by report, be judged the former supposition the most he dreamed he was commanded to sacrifice probable. his son, which supposed comniand, judging
13. That history affords the best comment the dieam to be divinely impressed on his on ths, writings of the prophets; for that niod, he hastened to obey.
though there are many clear predictions re0. That the ceremonial part of the Jewish specting the Messialı, given, ni doubt, by the . law, & c. was not given by God, but only highest inspiration; yet, that many other
passages, supposed by some to be such also, tice of multitudes of Christians, it is idolatry have nothing to do with that subject, but only to worship as God any being except the Great relate to other persons and things.
Spirit, the Father of all. That our Lord never 14. That the book of Job is a poetical al. ordered divine worship to be paid to himself, legory, founded chiefly on some ancient facts, and that he is not the right object thereof, but tmbellished by the machinery of poetry; and only the Great Universal Parent. that it was written by Moses.
26. That in the present state of the Chris15. That the bodies of Adam and Eve tian church, ignorant, uneducated ministers were created mortal by nature; and that the are its disgrace, and never truly useful. That septence of death passed on them related to a distinct order, carefully educated and sepathe death of the soul.
rated from secular employmenis, is absolutely '16. That the inspiration of the New Tes necessary for promoting the true understandtament is partial also. That there was no ing of the gospel. Nevertheless such an ordoubt a superintendancy, according to the pro- der is not divinely appointed, and any one mise of our Lord, to bring all necessary facts, who understands Christianity may teach it : proper to be recorded, to the remembrance of any Christian may baptize another; and any the writers, but that there is no proof of any number of Christians may celebrate the Lord's thing more.
Supper, either with or without a clergy man. 17. That it is an injury to the Christian 27. That baptism of infants is absurd, bea cause, to assert more authority than can be cause they cannot repent or believe : and that proved. That its internal evidence is abun.. in the baptism of adults, it is immaterial in dantly sufficient to prove its divine origin. what way the water is applied, whether by
That the discourses and parables of our Lord immersion, pouring, or sprinkling. are so infinitely superior to any thing else in I believe Dr. Pike held most, if not the world, that they prove divine wisdom to all, of these sentiments. He was, pera have been given to him in abundance, be- haps, a Christian sui generis ; yet be cause he spake as never man before him spake. 18. That the orthodox doctrines of the certainly never embraced a novel notion
without deep thought, and what appearTrinity, the divinity of Jesus, original sin, the imputation of Christ's righteousness, his vi- ed to him to be substantial reasons. carial satisfaction, unconditional personal elec
Before I conclude, I must mention tion and reprobation, irresistible grace, ne. further, that I am in possession of some cessary final perseverance, and the eternity of letters, and other old papers, by which hell torments, were not his Bible.
it seems to me, that I know more of liis 19. That to suppose the Great Father of family and descent than he ever appeared all, furious and severe, till Jesus made him to know himself, as he never mentioned propitious, is contrary to the plain declara- his ancestors beyond his great-grandfations of the apostles, as well as to reason.
ther. 20. That there cannot be guilt in mistaken opinions ; and that to suppose God will put of Mirandula, a lordship in Italy, who
John Picus, the celebrated Ear nish his creatures for these, is furming most unworthy notions of the Great and Gracious was a very remarkable man in the life Father of all.
teenth century, and whose life was partly 21. That Christianity is entirely a moral translated from the Italian by a Thomas system, sanctioned by future rewards and More, (I suppose Sir Thomas,) could trace punishments.
his descent on the paternal side, froin a ne, 22. That the wicked and impenitent will phew of the Emperor Constantine. Be hereafter be punished, according, and in pro- that as it may, he was born anno 1463, portion, to their guilt, and then will be put and during his youth was most remarkaout of being.
ble for his intense application to his stu. 23. That the second death, and the destruc
dies, and rapid acquisition of all learntion, so frequently men:ioned in the scripture, is the extinction of a wicked soul ; and ing: He was not entirely prudent in the eternal life the great prize and gift of God to government of bis inclinations, for, (as
my papers say) before he was twenty the righteous.
24. That the whole body which is laid into years old, he had a son by a young lady, the earth is not to arise, but only the original to whom, it was believed, he was privatestamina, which had been expanded by adven- ly married, notwithstanding he was intitious nourishment. That the matter of this tended for priesthood. She died, and Rourishment will be left beliind, and that the the marriage was never owned. Soon real original body will be expanded, and after, there appeared a wonderful change made, perhaps, as subtle as light itself, and in bis disposition and conduct. He forfilled with a glorious splendour, if the final sook all splendour and voluptuousness, allotment be happiness.
and became a rigid religionist, according 25. That, notwithstanding the corrupt prace to the notivis of those days. Ile burned MONTHLY Mag. No. 194.
he was clcar in his instruction, and powe, suited by the prudence o erfully impressive. There is a sermon gislator, to the Jewish against drunkenness, in a volume which 7. That the story of he published many years ago, which is an impressive dream of the most masterly ihing of tlie kind that haps under divine direct I have ever seen.
8. That the books v
cred volume, having be lle was always candid and kind to people of every creed: not believing, sions, may sometimes ė
fernt times, and upor that any human opinions can make the stoods but that no part smallest difference in our allotments ble or hidden meaning bereavier; unless it be such as are pre 9. Tbat the psalms judicial to mora's here. lle would smile ral persons, and on at honest cnthusiasm, and what he Thai che sublimesto termed religious whimsy; but he was de beauties of fine writing cided!y hostile to, and zealous against, them. But he denied all those systems of divinity which he except it be what is s thought represent the Creator in an tion. That no one o unaniable light, yr which lead to moral wholly applicable to t! depravity.
therefore, (not withst
Christians may have ch Wher young, he had some peculiarities
no one of them is pro; of opinion; it is probable, that as he was
ference to Jesus Ch a thinking man, he might either drop Luke xxiv. 44, "anı some of them, or adopt more as he grew thought he could pro, older. From former conversations with tion. him, and from what I have since heard, 10. That what are I have reason to think, that, though he Testament, were neve did not lightly adopt any peculiarity of are only fanciful appli sentiment, bie lield the following opinions: Christians. 1. That the inspiration of scripture was
11. That the Canti partial only; for that divine inspiration was poems; admirable i not necessary tu dicate the narration of beauties. That they facts, or those historical books which appear lomon, but by some to be extracts from the Jewish registers.
that they were placed 2. That the Mosaic' account of the fall of Ezra, to please the Ja man is probably allegorical; but if not, that
to their favourite S in that, and the History of Creation, the
12. That the book Jacts were collected by Moses from tradition; Jewish legend, like t' and embellished in a way something like the
Lord's notice of it, machinery of poetry, by the fancy of the facts in it; but only writer. It could not be supposed, (he would belief, and current say) that God actually walked in the garden, The impossibility and chose the cool of the day, as if he could in the stomach of 'be affected by heat. Many other similar could not breathe, an matters he considered as embellishment. to chyle, he thoug!
3. 7 hat Adam was asleep when Eve was jection. That it wa placed by him ; and that he had dreamed she be supposed ; beca: 'was taken out of his side.
wrought, but for 50 4. That there is no provf that Abel killed to answer some gre his cattle for sacrifice; but that it is more
sons or ends are api probable, he only brought them on a day ap- narrative be true, pointed for soleind worship by his father, and have been some yresented them veiore the Lord, as a grateful monly called the ack nowledgment; and, perhaps, poured out a some resemblance libation of the milk or cream, which Dr. P. hill between Guii thought is mistran: dated, fat.
the Hug's Back) 5. That huran sacrifices were not uncom- hill was a caves mon prior to the days of Abraham ; and that coulined for the having them familiar to his mind, by report, he judged the he dreamed he was commanded to sacrifice prohaule his son, which supposed comniand, judging 13. Tlack the dieam to be divin mind, hastened
6. That the cer .law, Kc, waar