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PRICES OP STOCKS, from the 28th of January, to the ??d of February, 1810, bath inclusive,

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sv. B. Iu the 3 per Cent. Consuls the highest and lowest Prices are given; in the other stucks, the highest only.

W.. TURQUAND, Stock and Exchange Broker No. 9, St. Michael's Alley, Cornkill.

THE

MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

No. 197.]

APRIL 1, 1810.

[4 of Vol. 29.

As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving their Oplolons : Maximum er

Influence and Ce.ebrity, the mot extensively circulated Mifcellany will repay with the greateft ifted the
Curiolity of those who read cither for Amusement or Indrudion. -JOHNSON.

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ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. some have called him Linné, but hitherto
SIR,

wiih litele success. I presune no one N

Monthly Magazine for last month, Linny; and yet that, nowever ridiculous, p. 123, I big leave to give my reasons would be the only correct and consistent for continuing to write the name of Liv. measure, unless we retain the von, the næus in its original form, rather than de, or the d. Linné. The Swedes did not adopt the I have therefore always used his origiuse of regular surnames till the early nal name, without any design, or surely part of the last century. When each fa- any suspicion, of slighting the honours mily took a name, literary people, in ge- which his sovereign conferred upon him, neral, chose one derived from Greek or and wbicli, I will venture to say, reflected Latia; bence arose the family-names of glory on his royal patron in return,

Ву Mennander, Melander, Sulander, Dryan. such a disposal of honours their lustre is der, Aurivillius, Celsius, &c. Some preserved, as in the cases of a Marlbogave a Latin termination to names of rough, a Newton, and a Nelson, froin barbarous origin, as Bergius, Retzius, that deterioration to which, from human Afzelius, Browaliius; and these became imperfection and error, they are, in their Swedish names, even with that termina- very nature, otherwise prone, but from tion entire. The name of Linnæus was which it is ihe interest of every good ci in this latter predicament. Its termi- tizen to guard them. I do not conceive nation therefore is by no means boorish, however, at any one needs to be reor plebeian, or vile, but of classical ori- ininded of the various dignities, whether gin; and these na: es have the peculiar courtly or academical, conferred on the felicity of being transferable into any illustrious Swede. His simple name LinJanguaye without inconvenience, and es- næus recals their all.

We have no ocpecially of entering spontaneously into casion to say the emperor Julius Cæsar, Latin composition. If your correspond- king llenry the 4th of Frunce, Mr. secreent be in the habit of writing or reading tury Milton, or the right honourable Joseph many scientific books in Latin, he will Adilson, Neither is it necessary to say duly appreciate this last consideration. sir Charles Linnæus, or the chevalier de With respect to English writing, as we Linné, to remind us that he was knight mention Titus, and Marcus Aurelius, in of the polar star; and the first person their original orthography, without fol- who ever received that honnur, equal to lowing the French, who call them Tite the garter with us, four literary merit. I and Marc Auréle; no one has found any must therefore protest against any interdifficulty in making an English word of pretation of an intended slight in this Linnæus.

case, for my nieaning is the very reverse, When this great man became ennobled, I believe the practice followed in Enge I am well aware that, in conformity to land, has decided the conduct of other the court ceremonies of the day, which nations. In Latin he is now always calle were all French, a termination borrowed ed Linnæus, even by the Swedies; and from the language of that people was, in what is still more striking, the French his case, as in others, adopted, with the now write Linnæus, even in their own Strange jumble of a Gothic prefix; and he language. became in Swedish von Linné, as in I presume your correspondent had French de Linné, and in barbarous Latin never a design of recommending for Latin

Liine, No one, that I know of, has composition any thing but Linnæus; and adopted any of these in English; thoug! I hope he will got bereafter veink me MONTHLY MAG. No. 197,

2

pertinacious,

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On the Plated Coins of the Ancients. (April i, pertinacious, or in any degree blame- time, many persons who cultivated the able, if, for the above reasons, I continue study of numismatics. This opinion is the same practice in English ; leaving contirmed by plated medals ; amongst every one to follow me or not, at his dis- which are found some that never were, cretion, and trusting to time and expe- perhaps, in general currency as legal rience for a final decision. I must ex- coin. 'Such is a denarius of Tiberius, press my regret that the title of the Line with the reverse of the children of Au. nean Society, as I would always write gustus, and the legend “ C. L. Casures it, has in its charter been spelt Linnean. Augusti F.Cos.desig. Princ. Juventutis." The latter had in view the name of Linné, Other coins esteemed, on whatever acand was so far proper; but I have always count, must rare, are discovered amongst conceived the diphthony to be more clas- the plated, especially those of the Roman sical, and, if we preserve the word Line empresses; and to a fraud directed næus in English, undoubtedly more cor- against the ancient collectors, M. Waxrect. In this point, inost certainly, every ell is willing to attribute those handsome writer may judge for himsell, and in counterfeits, whilst the more coiamon speaking there luckily is no ambiguity. were probably made from the same moNorwich,

JAMES EDWARD Smith. tives which inhuence the coiners of base llarch 10, 1810.

money in our own times : and this ap

pears from the beauty of the former, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. which bespeaks the hands of excellent SIR,

artists; whilst the others are coarsely exeWIOSE coins which the French de- cuted, and often exbibit errors in thie plated medals, are generally of brass, the only object in making them, was that covered with a coat of gold or silver, they might circulaie in place of the cure Some few have been discovered of irop rent and legal money. and of lead, but hitherto this branch of We are authorised in supposing that numismatic antiquity has been neglected; the plated medals are of the most remote which consideration induced M. Waxell, period of coinage. The oldest are found a very learned and ingenious Russian, amongst the Grecians, of which the relately in this country, to communicate, verses are impressed with four strokes of in a liule French work, (elegantly printed the punch, probably because the art of and published by Bootto, in Duhe street,) striking both sides was not known in the result of his enquiries, which he those early ayes ; or perhaps froin the hopes may lead to interesting discoveries circumstance of the medal being placed on tlie subject of ancient Greek and Ro- on a block or supporter, whilst il received suan coinage. From his work we learn, the blow of the hammer. that, in alınust all nations, necessity or In M. Waxell's collection, is a medal poverty, and we might perhaps add, ava- of Macedon, considered as of the most sice, occasioned the counterfeiting of le- ancient kind; this proves that the art gitimate coin, although death was the of plating, coins was practised about five punishment of this crime.---See Ulpian: hundred years before the Christian æra. Jeg, digest. ad leg. Cornel ile fubsis; and Ainong the Roman medals, some are Cod. Theod. fuls. montiá.

found of the first consular classes, plated; As merely counterfeits of current mo- and from the workınanship of these, it ney, the collectors of genuine medals appears that the art was introduced with have thought the pluted beneath their no- that of coinage in a certain degree of tice; but perhaps the principal origin of perlection, and that the Romans were these base coins snay be attributed to a indebted for it to the Greeks. desire of imposing on the amateurs, or vir- Pliny, speaking of those counterfeirs, usi, of early times. From tbe age of informs usibat in his time, some of iben Angustus to that of Gordian the Third, were purcha-ed at a higher price than the the sciences flourished, and the emperor's true medals; a proof that they were col. protected and encouraged artists of dis. lectei by persons desirous of completing tilignisired abilities. Marcus Aurelius certain series, or of poosessing curious patronized the ingenious; and, as Pliny and uncommon coirs. Even at this time, informs us, Indrian had formed a fine it a plaicd medal exhibits a rare reverse, collection of merials. This example or interesting device, it differs very little kvold naturally intiuence bis subjects; in price tiom ile genuine une; but those and in all probability there were, in his of common devices are not esteemed by

cullcctuss,

Collectors, unless the perfect state of their Herennius Etruscus Messius; from their preserv ation should render them some time none are found but a very few mbat valuable.

of the lower empire, plated in goid : of However, after a very accurate calcu

these latter M. Waxell had seen one of lation, it will be found that among one Honorius, and one of Zeno. huodred and fitty or two hundred me- From Augustus to Trajan Decius, some dals, one plated will be discovered. The of the Cesars and tyrants are found, but Grecian of this kind are more rare than rarely; very few also are discovered of the Roman, and those of the kings more Pompey, Mark Antony, or Julius Cesar. rare than those of the cities. ! Of Phe- The Roman empresses are more rare nician, or Punic, or that class called on plated coins than the emperors; and disconnoscidas (or unknown), M. Waxell it is a curious circumstance, that those days, he has not yet found any.

empresses which are niost rare on the The proportion of Greek to Ro- true medals, are most often discovered man plated, is as one of the former to amongst the counterfeit. M. Waxell twenty-five of the lalter.

has not met with any of Sabina, Faus. The age of Augustus was the most tina the elder, Crispina, Lucilla, &c. but abundant in plated coins; and to the he had several of Matidia, Marciana, length of his reign, and the great number Domitilla, Doinitia, &c. and in his cola of denarii which he struck, that abunda lection he was fortunate enough to posance may be attributed. We find a sess a piated medallion of Domitia; this great variety of curious reverses, besides coufirms his opinion, that it was to com. those of Agrippa, the rarity of which is plete the series of rare coins for ancient well known : the beauty of those plated amateurs, that those common medals were coins, in some instances, equals the origi- fabricated. Silver medallions are of nals. Some of Tiberius's time, but not such rarity, as all collectors know, that 80 namerous, are found of great value; the very few found plated, are considered such as the fine denarius of that emperor, of equal value: perhaps, as being more with the inase of his predecessor Aus scare than the originals, they ought to gustus on the reverse. Of Caligula, the be more highly prized. In the plated plated are as rare as the genuine medals; state, the Greek medallions of Roman but those of Claudius present several fine emperors are more rare than their Latin reverses, with portraits of Drusas and medallions. No plated quinarii of any. of Agrippina. Under Nero also a emperor have yet been discovered; if great imany are found, well executed, and such exist, they may be esteemed great of considerable beauty; especially those curiosities. which represent that emperor in his in- The art of fabricating those counterfancy; or with these legends, “ Equester feits, (as far as niedals are concerned) ordo principi juventutis," and “ Sacerd. may be considered as lost; for no inoderi coop. in omn. coni. suprà num. er s.c.” ingenuity, even in England, where the on the reverses; also those which exhibit current money is so frequently counterhiin with his mother Agrippina. Of feiter, can by any means equal the pere Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, the reigns fection of those ancient productions, eswere so short, that the plated inedals of pecially in their high relief. those emperors are very rare, especially Some have i nagined, that the ancients those of ihe last two; but under Vespa- placed a coat of silver over the brass inesian, Titus, and above all, Domitian, they dal already coined; and this opinion was appear in great numbers, and with a vas founded on the appearance of some meriely of reverses. Nerva's are rare. Of dals which retained scarcely any vestiges Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius, of the silver coating, whilst the impresthere are many; and these, we may al sion on the bronze was still sharp and most say, conclude the series of plated perfect : but the fact is, those medals medals. : M. Waxell had seen but one of had passed through the hands of Jews, Marcus Aurelius, struck under Antonia who, liy a simple process, had removed nus; and only one of Commodus; per- the silver, and by menns of some platina haps the wise administration of Marcus has improved the type of it on the bronze. Aurelius for some time succeeded in sup. But M. Waxell cannot believe that the pressing counterfeits. In M. Waxell's ancients could give so good a finish to collection, is a denarius of Philip the fa- thuse medals by this method of coining: ther, which, from the size, may be con- be rather thinks that the plated inedals sidered as a medallion. The latest of were, like the true, struck with the name the emperors found hitherto on plated mer. A piece of brass, covered on both euins oi silver, are Trajan Dccius, and sides with a leaf of silver, was placed in

the

JOHN FALSTAFF.

204

Benefit Clubs.-Sir John Fulstaff. [April 1, the die, and received the impression; For the Monthly Magazine. the fractures on the edges would be a On SHAKSPEARE'S CHARACTER of sia sufficient proof of this, if there were not another still more incontrovertible. This “I have much to say in behalf of that Fal. is, the circumstance of M. Waxell's have staff.”—Henry IV. Part 1, Act 2, Scene 4. ing in his own collection two plated me. Fever genius "held the mirror up to dals, one of Domitian and the other of the Legion XV. which exhibit reverses tion of this character. He is a personage incuse or struck in, as intaglios: this the best kuown, the most conspicuous, may be ascribed to the carelessness of and the most original, in all the compothe coiner, who too precipitately substi- sitions of Shakspeare, or of any of our tuted the piece that was to be struck, other dramatic writers. The critic who dewithout removing that which had just lights in the motes that trouble the inind's been coined; and which, adhering to the eye, and in the search after difficulties hammer by the force of the descending which admit not of a solution, may find a biow, left the reversed inpression on the wide field for his lucubrations in that imnew piece. This proves that the pla- portant question, What gave rise to that ted coins of the ancients were struck in adınirable cliaracters and to him we the same manner as their denarii. leave the decision of a point equally im

To this curious little work, which is portant, namely, Whether the name of well worthy the notice of antiquaries and Oldcastle was that which was first asmedallists, M. Waxell has subjoined an signed to bim by his illustrious godfather engraved plate of several coins described the poet? For my own part, 'Davus in the course of his essay.

sum, non dipus.' Heaven avert such

disquisitions from an epistolary quill! To the Editor of the Monthly Alagazine. Those who are not thorough-bred blackSIR,

letter dogs, may content themselves with I

HAVE been much interested by the the account left us by the profound and

letters of your correspondent from erudite “Master Robert Shallow, justice Dunbartonshire, signed J. M, on the sub- of the peace and coram," that he had been ject of benefit.clubs; and still more with page to Thomas Mowbray, duke of Northe spirit of benevolence in which they folk; but as we believe little to be originate. There can be no doubt that, known of his birth, parentage, and eduamong all the methods devised of assist- catiou, we may without regret leave such ing the lower classes in an hour of sick- considerations to the descendants of ness and sorrow, no one can be compared Aristarchus, to these, when formed upon just and To reduce the conduct of mankind to accurate principles, and riglily con- some fixed principles, and to bring the ducted; taking also into the account, thousand shades of human character to their tendency at once to relieve the dis- one standard, has long since occupied tresses, and to improve the character, of men of speculative habits and confined the persons assisted by them.

experience. Every one howerer who That gentleman has favoured me with has examined bis own actions and their a letter, inclosing a well-written paper respective motives, can readily perceive from the Glasgow Herald of the 15th of that the aim of such theorists is a shadow December last, signed A. B. on the best of their own creating; and that they are, mode of making provision for funerals; a as Falstaff binself expresses it, “essensubject hitherto very imperfectly under- tially mad without seeming so." Can stood. This paper, in my opinion, inerits it be any thing but infatuation, to endeamore general circulation; but as J. M. vour to prescribe limits to that which is has not favoured me with his name, I ever changing, and to fix the most volahave no method of addressing him or listile of all things? What naturalists friend, to request they would adopt mea- affirm of a certain species of shells, sures to this end, but through the medium that there are not iwo alike, may be in of your

valuable Magazine. Will you an unqualified manner asseried' of the theni, sir, have the goodness to insert characters of men. The reason of this this letter; which may lead to the further must be, that the infinite number of indiscussion of a subject in which the wel pressions from contingent and external fare of inany is concerned, and which circumstances, which iend more inme, will much oblige an occasional correo diately to constitute individual character, spondent?

Слтн. CAPPE. cannot be the same in any cwo possible York, Feb. 10, 1810,

instances,

These

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