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chants are resident in this capital, or painting, may have suggested to the resort to it. These lanes, or passages, Abbe's Du Bos and Winkelmann their for the security of their property, are absard notion, that the influence of a closed every night, at both ends, with northern or cold climate is unpropi. thick doors, plated with iron, and filled tious to the efforts of genius; an absurwith nails, so that though the town be dity, which, both in his paintings and his unfortified, it would, prove a work of writings, has been abiy refuted by the some difficulty to penetrate into its in- late Professur Barry.* terior parts. From the upper stories of Previous to the formation of the Royal many opposite houses, communications Academy, there existed a society of are inade by small bridges,
painters, who held their academy in St. Benares is the principal mart for dia. Martin's lane, and who were denomimonds, on the eastern side of India. It nated “The Incorporated Society of possesses also a manufactory of gold and Artists.” But as they had neither pasilver tissue, atlass, silks, and ganzes, tent, exclusive privileges, nor the sanckeemcaub, mushroo, and gulbuddun. tion of royal authority, they could be
Like other places of fanatic or super- considered, in fact, no better than a mere stitious enthusiasm, it is notorious for club of painters. In this society, which unrestricted gallántry, and licentious in. was racher numerous, there were soine trigue.
good, and many inferior artists, a selecFrom hence to Dehly, the women tion from whom, with the addition of above the vulgar class, are generally per. Bartolozzi, Cipriani, and some other sonable, many eminently beautiful, and foreigners, formed the first body of Royal few deformed. Neither France nor Italy Academicians and Associates of the can boast of courtezans more expertly Royal Academy of Arts. skilled in the cosmetic art, or in decoy The institution of the Royal Academy, ing allurements to captivate, to influence, under the auspices of our present most to fascinate, and to fleece, their para- gracious Sovereign, inay be hailed as the mours.
dawn of that bappy era, which brightens
as it advances, and which, we may fairly For the Monthly Magazine. predict, will shed a lasting lustre on our
ANECDOTES of PAINTING. national character, and class the efforts FORACE Walpole, whose literary of British artists with those rare pro
character stands deservedly high, ductions which adorn the civilized has already given the world, “ Anec- world. dotes of Painting in England.". This, I cannot introduce, in more approhowever, should be no motive why the priate language, the commencement of subject shonld not be taken up by ano- ibis brilliant period than by adopting a ther, particularly as Walpole may be couplet from Dr. Johnson's moito to said to bave ended when the Fine Arts the Works of our immortal Bard : began to flourish in this country, namely, “When Painting's triumph o'er her barbarous at the establishment of the Royal Aca foes demy.
First rear'd the arts, immortal Reynolds The reigns of the two first Georges, rose.” may be considered the Gothic night of
It was a fortunate circumstance for the the Arts in England; for those monarchs, arts, that the Roval Academy should whatever may have been their virtues, have had for its first president a man of had no tasie: and it was not till the aus- such classic taste, and consuminate skill, picious period commencing with the
as Sir Joshua Reynolds; a man, whose present reign, that Painting may be said whole mind seemed devoted to the higher to have reared her head in the British excellencies of his profession, and whose nation, lo former periods, the artists of any Greek and Roman names, whose prac
great ambition was to cread upon the celebrity who resided amongst us, were
tical excellence, and theoretic know. generally foreigners : suci were Torigiano, Anthony More, Hans Holbein, Rú
• Barry's book, or rather pamphlet, on this bens, Vandyke, Lely, Verrio, &c. &c. subject, is an able production ; and borne out and except Dohson, Isaac Oliver, and
as he is by the splendid talents for painting Cooper, who gave some indications of which have been recently exhibited in this genius, we had very little cause for ex. country, we niay consider the question reultation on the score of native talent. specting the influence of climate, as irrefra. This dearth of excellence amongst us in gably answered in our favour.
ledge, went Irand in hand, and whose from whom eight members are chosen, zeal and patriotisin peculiarly calculated who form a council
, and who may be him for ibe high and honourable oflice considered the executive government. to wilich he was elected. The endow. The members of this council are annually ments of Sir Joshua were such as fall lo 'elected, or rather come in by rotation, the lot of few individuals; and except in from the Academic body. The Assothe single instance of Rubens, painting ciates derive neither advantage nor could bever before perhaps boast of so eclat from their immediate situation ; aceumplished a professor. lie was save only their standing in that grada. profound scholar, a finished artist, and a tion, which is the next step to the rank polished gentleman.
of Royal Academician, and being comWith such a man at its head, it was "plimented with a diploma, and a ticket Datural to expect that the Royal Aca- for the dinner, or annual gala, given at demy of London would at least have Somerset Place, previous to the opening kept pace with the other seminaries of of the exhibition. But they have neither painting then existing; but it did more: vote at its elections, voice in its courcils, it soon surpassed them.
nor any influence whatever in the interHogarth, who was hostile to this in- 'nal regulations of the Royal Academy. stitution, predicted, that the establish. The president, professors, and different ment of a school of painting, to whieh officers of the Royal Acadeiny, are chosen there was such easy access, would be 'from among the Royal Academicians, ruinous to the prolession; as painters who all, except the president, hare sawould then be as nuinerous as mechanics, laries annexed to their appointments. and print-shops as plenty as porter. The professors are those of painting, houses. It is needless to inform the perspective, architecture, and anatomy, reader of the total failure of Ilogarthi's who each deliver six annual lectures in prediction, and that the arts, instead of their several departments, to the students being ruined, have risen to a degree of of the Royal Acadeniy. importance, and the professors to Besides those professors, there are beight of respectability, which, in their other officers attached to this establishi. most sanguine moments, they could ment, such as the "keepers or master tiever have hoped to attain..
of the drawing-school, the secretary, auAlthough the advantages of the Royal 'ditors, secretary for foreign correspon. Academy may be suficiently obvions; dence, &c.” yet it may not be amiss to inform the There are also a number of inferior general reader, in what its superiority to officers, servants, porters, &c. on this alle former institutions in this country grand national establishment; the whole more particularly consists. First then, expenses of which are defrayed out of the academic body is composed of sixty those foods accumulated from the annual artists, who are chosen from among the exhibitions. Those exhibitions of late annual exhibitors, most distinguished for years have been eminently productive; ebeir superior merit. These members and instead of "gaining two thousand are divided into two classes; Acadenjpounds a-year from shillings,"
they cians, and Associates: the Academicians, often now det four thousand pounds. of whom there are forty, form the higher Having gone thus far into the consticlass, and the Associates, of whoin there tution of the Royal Academy, it may not are twenty, the inferior. The first ad- be amiss to point out the various advance to academic honors, is that of vantages which the students in painting Being elected an Associate; and the derive from being admitted into this -next, or higher, that of Royal Acade- Temple of the Muses. mician. The Associates, as before re The first and most obvious advantage lated, are selected from the mass of ex- arising !o the student of the Royal Acahibitors; and when a vacancy occurs in denıy, is the access to so extensive and the higher class, it is filled up by an grand a collection of Casts from the Anelection from the Associates. The go- tique, (many of which are no wise into vernment of the Royal Academy is ferior to the originals,) which in any wholly vested in the Academicians, other than a national institution must be
unattainable. He has also the advantage Leonardo da Vinci was certainly a very of studying from the living models; of learned painter: but his theory surpassed his lectures on painting, perspective, annpractice; his science was greator than his execution.
times attributed as an invention to Mr. ALLOW me to request of your core 1810.] On Perfecting the Scale of Keyed Musical Instruments. 127 tomy, and architecture; and of triennial to spend paper in rain,) with his finger discourses, delivered by the president; on the ground, the pavement being for all of which lectures, discourses, &c. that purpose strewed all over with very contain an ample and impressive theory fine sand; after the first had writ what he of his profession. Besides all this, the sung, all the rest sung and writ down the student has free access, at stated periods, same thing together. Then the first buy to a vast and luminous library, containing sung and writ down another part
of the every thing that has been written on the lesson, as for example: “Two by itself art, of which he is at full liberty to avail make two,” which all the rest repeated in hiinself; besides an extensive range of the same manner; and so forward in port-folios, filled with the choicest prints, order: when the pavement was full of after the most celebrated masters. In- figures, they put them out with the hand; dependent of all this, the student who is and, if need were, strewed it with new 80 fortunate as to receive the gold me sand from a little heap which they had dal (which is given every three years) before them, wherewith to write further: for the best historical composition, is and thus they did as long as the exercise sent to Rome for three years, at the ex- continued; in which manner likewise pense of the Academy, with an allowance they told me they learnt to read and of a hundred pounds per annum.
write without spoiling paper, pens, or is, Wben it is considered that the student which certainly is a pretcy way. I asked of the Royal Academy has all the above them, if they happened to forget, or be advantages, free of expense, and that inistaken in any part of the lesson, who except in such an academy he could no corrected and cavyht them, they being all possibly have those advantages, we vie scholars without the assistance of any brate between astonishment and con master; they answered me, and said fempt at llogarth's presumption, in pre- true, that it was not possible for all four dicting, that the “establishment of the of them to forget or mistake in the same Royal Academy would be ruinous to the part, and that they thus exercised toge
iber to :he end, that if one happened to (To be continued.)
be out, the ouers might correct taim:
indeed a pretty easy and secure way of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. learning."
Your's, &c. SIR,
D. R. INCLOSE to you an extract from the I ,
For the Monthly Magazine. East Indies, by which it will appear that On PERFECTING the scale of KEYED the method of instruction introduced by Dr. Bell, from Madras, and some.
respondent, Capel Lofft, a com. Lancaster, was in common practice two plete development of his plan for im centuries ago, upon the coast of Ma- proving the tune of keyed instruments, Jabar.
such as the piano-forte, organ, &c. In a letter from Ikkerie, dated Novem From the incomplete account of it ber 22, 1623, he says:
which he has given, in Number 191 of "In the mean time, while the burthens your valuable Magazine, it appears to were getting in order, 1 entertained mye 'consist, principally, in a new arrangeself in the porch of the temple, (atment and division of the keys, or touches; Gavarada Naghar, not far from Onor,) for, by “ semi-tones, a quarter of an beholding little boys learning arithinetic, inch shorter than at present," I suppose after a strange inanner, which I will here he means the keys of those instruments. relate. They were four, ard having all To the young student in harmony, it taken the same lesson from the master, may be a useful caution, never to call a to get that same by heart, and repeat single sound a semi-tone: it would be as likewise their former lessons, and not for- correct to call a mile a mile-stone: for a get them, one of them singing musically semi-tone is a certain small interval, or with a certain continued tone, (which distance, between two sounds that ditfer hath the force of making a deep inpres- in pitch. sion in the memory,) recited part of the Grassineau, in his Dictionary of Mu. lesson, as for example, one by itself makes sick, (1740,) nientions, that a Mr. Bal. one; and whilst he was thus speaking he jouski had invented a new sort of keys, writ down the same number, not willi which could furnish "all the sounds in any kind of pen, nor on paper, but, (not musick, and, by consequence, all the 3
198 On a Criticism of the Columbiad, in the Edinburgh Review. [March 1, imaginary intervals and chords; whereas shifting the hammers under different the conimon keys do but furnish some wires. The finger keys are exactly the of them."
same as those in general use. I have In Rousseau's Dict. de Musique, heard it, and have played on it myself, plate I. fig. 3. exhibits an arrangement wiih great pleasure; and Mr. Loesche of the keys different from that in common man boasts that it has received the apuse at present, and too widely different probation of Dr. Burney, Dr. Crotch, ever to be generally adopted. Under Mr. Salomon, Mr. C. Wesley, and other ibe head Clavier, he remarks, that, " for- eminent musicians. merly, the twelve kevs in every septare Mr. Maxwell, (Essay on Tone, 1781) answered to fourtee:1 sounds; and that proposes that every finger-key should the two additional sounds were played have the command of “ never less than by means of two divided keys, (touches three, but oftener four degrees of tune;" brisées ;) but that these two have been p. 184. According to his calculations, retrenched, because our rules of modu. instead of twelve degrees of tune in the lation would require additional sounds to common computation of the octave, be put every where. Many years ago, there must be no less than forty-four instrument-makers divided all the short furnished, to complete a system of twentykeys, and by that means seventeen four keys, tuned by the true intervals of sounds could be played in every sep- the diatonic scale; or if both extremes of tave; but this method of supplying in- tbe octave be included, instead of thirstruments with more sounds, was laid teen, there must be no less than fortyaside on account of the difficulty of five." playing upon so many keys." However, Afier all, whatever may be Mr. Lofft's it is not entirely laid aside, for the Tem- improvement, I think the generality of ple organ has at present two additional performers will rest satisfied with the sounds in every septave of the choir and common imperfect scale. full organs, except the lowest. The
Your's, &c. organ in the Foundling Hospital has Junuary, 1810.
A. MERRICK. four additional sounds, but they are inanaged by stops, or slides, and not by To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. divided keys.
SIR, G. B. Doni (Trattato sopra gl'instru HE observations in the last Edine menti di tasti) mentions that the long burgh Review, intended as a cri. keys of some instruments bave been di- tique. upon the adınirable, though not vided as well as the short ones; and, to absolutely faultless, poem, "The Columrender some particular keys conspicuous, biad,” are conceived in a style at once so he recommends their being made round superstitiously illiberal, and unworthy the at the end, longer or shorter, and placed character of genuine criticism, that a higher or lower than the others; or else candid and impartial survey of its claims to be of different colours. A curious to the approbation of the public, will, I arrangement of keys, for the use of the trust, tend to obliterate those false irngenera and tones, is represented on pressions, which the animadversions of page 53, tom. 2. fol.
our northern literati are calculated, by Perhaps Mr. Loffi is unacquainted their gencral diffusion, and the homage with the recent attempts to insprove paid to their opinion, to produce on the piano-fortes.
Claggeit's piano-forte minds of their readers. bad pedals to alter the tension of the And here, Sir, it may not be esteemed wires, when different sounds were wanted irrelevant to give some idea of the phrato the same finger-keys: as might have seology adopied by those gentlemen in been easily foreseen, this i0:trument their quarterly lucubrations. The fole would never stand in tune. lu Dir. lowing elegancies of expression, “ this Han kes's orgau, by ineans of one pedal, goodly tirseling;" "they have all a little five sourds in every septare are changed Latin whipped into them in their youth;" at once for five others; so that the short “ before we proceed to lay before our keys are all sharps, or all flats : conse readers,” &c. are peculiarly felicitous : quently, a sharp and a dat cannot be but I am fearful their beauty, however played together.
Mr. Loesclunan's exquisitely it may be felt in their native ** grand harmonic piano-forte” is fure regions, will not be acknowledged by the nished with twenty-four sounds in every generality of cheir English friends. septare. It has six pedals to introduce It is indeed, Sir, difficult to conceive the aditional sounds, when required, by that the square and oblate cast of mind,
inherent in our neighbours of the North, verential regard for the purest principles can by any aid derivable from the study of morality; that in these a mind of native of classic literature, or the perusal of our strength, allied to a rich and inventive own immortal poets, assume that subli- imagination, will discover materials mity of intellect, which elevates the poet wherewith to erect a poetical structure and his enraptured reader, to an associa- of imperishable duration, and transmit tion with the glories and splendours of to posterity, a name, encircled with the empyrean :
wreaths of brightest verdure, and glowing “To rose the paths of Heaven, and strike the with the light and lustre of immortality. lyre,
The invocation to Freedom, in which “ Warm with the transports of celestial the poet, disdaining the custoinary form fire."
of imploring the assistance of the muse; They may be erudite; they may become places the whole of his reliance on the maaritheticians, mathemnaticians; they may the establishment of universal concord
jesty and interesting nature of his theme, be learned in the principles of mechanics, and amaze the world with their acquisi- and liberty, is delivered in a just and tions in the slow and painful march of highly-animated strain of confidence in abstract science; but they must not in the equality of his powers to the managevade the sacred regions of imagination ment of his subject:
f poetry, for the blight and the inildew Almighty Freedom! give my venturous are the inevitable attendants of their progress: they display an instinctive jea. The force, the charm, that to thy voice be. lousy of the rich and brilliant career of
long ; fancy (the wren and the buzzard cannot 'Tis thine to shape my course, to light my cope with the sunward flight and majes- To serve my country with the patriot lay ; tic' ascension of the eagle;) dazzled, To teach all men, where all their interest blinded by the magic hues and orient
lies, splendours of poesy, they are callous to How rulers may be just and nations wise : the Graces, the Elysian bloom,
Strong in thy strength, I bend no suppliant "And all the dread sublimities of song:”
knee, and the name of criticism is
Invoke no miracle, no muse but thee.
prostituted to the detection of a word 'not Mr. Barlow then proceeds to the incarstrictly concordant with grammatical ceration of Columbus in the dungeons of precision, or the dull censure of some Valladolid; describes the miscrable situa. novel or picturesque form of expression tion of the illustrious prisoner, and the -sofficicnt for thein that it is novel or consequent dejection of his inind. Co. picturesque.
lumbus soliloquizes on the base return But enough of these gentlemen-I his services to the Spanish monarch shall proceed to the consideration of the have met with; recurs to the perilous hijo merits of this beautiful production of cidents attendant upon his dariity enter"the infant Muse of America."
prize; the final success with which it was In the Columbiad are united an un- crowned; and closes with an impassioneci usual breadth and loftiness of language, and indignant appeal to the memory of with an immensity of conception, concor- his sovereign patroness, Isabella of Časdant with the vastness and originality of tille: imploring from death an immeiliate the subject; a continued splendour of release from the power of his oppressors. genius, a justness and novelty of siunile,
The surrounding gloom is surldenly ir. and a general harmony and mellifluous radiated by the presence of Ilesper, the arrangement of verse. It cannot, per- guardian genius of the New World, who haps, completely establish a claim to the soothes his agitated spirits with a pro. title of Epic; but the superior talents of mised view of the important conseits author have proved that a poem, not quences resulting from bis discoveries : strictly in unison with the rules of the the most prominent parts of bis speech [ epopee, may yet possess distinctions of shall select, for the gratification of the a superlative nature; and that in the reader: richly-varied and vigorous description Awed into slaves, while groveling millions of such a continent as America, united to the truths of history, the records of And blood-stained steps lead upward to a tradition, and blended with the noblest throne; precepts of universal philanthropy, the Far other wreaths thy virtuous temple judicious application of philosophical re twine, kearch, and the whole maintaining a re- Far nobler triumphs crown a life like thine; MONTHLY Mag. No, 196.