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120 Lyceum of Ancient Literature.
No. XXVII. [March 1, that were secretly virtuous, but who were injures me, and I Ay from what I know borne away by the torrent. He was too
would benefit me." He also confesses generous to flatter tyrants, too high-spi- that he had not power lo resist the temprited to solicit the suffrages of their ini- tations of the moment, and that he suited nisters or slaves. Panegyrics are ge- his principles to the different circumnerally given in the expectation of some stances in which he was engaged. We return; and this was a traffic he despised. may hear him, by turns, exalung bis wo. His love for mankind was too sincere to deration of mind, and his active pursuit permit liin to flatter them; he was in- of honours; sometimes espatiating on dignant at every attempt to injure their the pliancy of Aristippus, and soinefaine or their virtue; and to this noble times on the inflexibility of Cato; and, as principle we ove the finest and most if the heart could at once suller the most considerable part of his worki; I mean, contrary affections, approving in the that which is the most sententious, and same work, the modesty that courts rethe inost generally useful in every age and treat, and the vanity that pants to display. in every country. Aller combating itself in public. If it te true that the what was acknowledged to be vice, he human race declines and grows deprared saw that he must ascend higher to reach in proportion as it becomes polished, the source of evil, and dissipate the illu- the majority, at the present day, will sion of false virtues; for as it is observed preler the writer who amuses the mind by an old French writer, “it is as neces- and flatters indolence of disposition, sary to strip the mask from things, as without appearing to derogate from the trom persons.” Hence proceeded liis essential qualities which constitute the satires, or rather those fine declamations man of worth. against the prejudices of mankind, which, It is principally from these causes that unfortunately, are always inore powerful Horace never can cease, from age to age, than reason itself.
to be the friend and confident of a pos. It is easy however to perceive the terity, which by new arts, and consecause that has produced more partizans quently by new ivants, will be led farther to Horace, than to Juvenal. It is a and farther from the simplicity of nature. well-known truth that virtue without But the freeman, if the character still alloy has no currency; and that those exist, he who is thoroughly convinced whó profess it in all its purity, have that true happiness resides only in our. always had more adversaries than disci- selves; and that, except the relations of ples. If the rich, who are almost always duty, benevolence, humanity, and reliinsatiable, were to attempt to increase gion, all others are either chimerical or their wealth without regard to character pernicious; he, who has fixed his princi. or humanity; if money, mstead of circu. ples, and knows only of one thing, which lacing through all the members of the is good, and one thing to be avoided, state, and carrying life along with it, which is evil; and who is ready to meet only served to foment the insolent luxury death and reproach, rather than betray of those who possessed it; the orator, bis conscience, the testimony of which who should plead the cause of super- alone is sufficient to content him; such a fuity, would soon triumpha with these man will certainly, without hesitation, imitators of Cræsus, over the orator, who prefer the rigour of an invariable mora. should plead the cause of the mere ne- lity, to all the palliatives of a complaisant cessary; and the latter find none to listen author. Juvenal then would he the first to him but the unfortunate. The great of satirists, if liberty were the first object talent of a writer, among nations which of man; but, as he biinself has told us: begin to decline in manners and public virtus laudatur et algel. virtue, is not so much to speak the truth, To conclude: Horace wrote like an as what shall be grateful to those in adroit courtier; and Juvenal like a zeapower. Ambitious and sensual men, lous citizen: and while the one leaves noand those wbo fluctuate in principle ac- thing to be wished for by a refined and cording to the prevailing fashions, are voluptuous character, the other gives the but too much interested to prefer to the fullest satisfaction to a strict and many cutting censures of Juvenal, the softness mind. and urbanity of a more indulgent poet; who, not content with embellishing the For the Monthly Magazine. otject of their taste, and with palliating. On the means of PETTERING the conditheir caprice, proceeds to the length of
TAON of the POOR. authorising their foibles by his own exam- THERE are three great wants of the ple, "I porsie,” says Horace," what poor in most parts of this Island, which, as times are, and are likely to be, fore to adopt the example of Mr. Parry, it is impossible for their industry to sup- and to obtain a clause, both in the ply :-the want of education, the want of Scanton and Trosion Bills of Enclosure. habitations, and the want of firing. And now, in hoth parishes, and in War.
Food and clothing, while an industri- pington, and in some others, the poor ous labourer in busbandry or manufac- have been, and will continue to be, suptures is in health, he can generally sup- plied with coals out of the rent of lands, ply for himself and his family.
which, previously to the enclosure, were The Bill of Mr. Whitbread, though it hardly of any value. seemed to me to want many improve- This benefit has been diminished, by what ments and corrections, in order to make it is considered as an exceeding misconstrucpracticable throughout England, under the tion of the Property Act, by taxing the truspresent state of the public burthens, had tees of such lands, wholly applied to the an excellent object : that of providing use of the poor, with the ien per cent. bethe means of education, so as to place its sides what is of course paid by the tenants, first necessary clements within the reach who have a considerable beneficial inje of all. The successful progress of the terest, for which they are indisputably plan of Mr. Lancaster has most wone taxable. And although the reason of the derfully reduced the expense and time thing, the express terms of the Act, and requisite for this purpose; and has made a highly respectable legal authority, are the education of all its inhabitants, in all against the tax, such is the constitureading, writing, and common arith- tion of the Buard of Appeal, in London, metic, practicable in every city and that hitherto no redress has been obe even middle-sized town.
Your's, &c. The' want of habitations is in niany Tros!on-hall,
CAPEL LOFFT, places a very great evil to the health, Dec. 31, 1809. comforts, industry, and morals of the poor. The present laws are ineffectual For the Monthly Magazine. to the relief of this evil, When the Bill OBSERVATIONS on certain MUSICAL TERMS, of Mr. Whitbread was depending, I used by the ANCIENT GREEKS; in a wrote to him, and proposed a plan for LETTER to a FRIEND. enabling the parish-officers to hire, or
I build, or purchase, houses solely for the
recollect your mentioning, some
years ago, the impropriety of the occupation of the poor inhabitants, (not term interval, as it is used in music. I work-louses, or poor-houses,) and to perfectly agree with you in opinion. I make a special rate, on a principle dis- told you at the time you raised the obtinct from the cominen rate, for that jection, I supposed the ancients took purpose;
with power to justices to enforce their idea from the distance between the the building of such houses where ne strings on the lyre, and the bules on the cessary: with power also of letting, where Aute. You well know, that the word cottagers should be able and willing interval is used to deooie the difference to pay:
At present, a justice cannot of pitch between two sounds. And that order habitations to be found, nor the this difference of pitch is occasioned by overseers make a rate for that purpose. the difference of the vibrations of the two With regard to fuel, an act has been sounds. I will now refer to some paspassed during this reign, to encourage sages of Greek writers, to be found in the raising of it, by enabling the Dr. Smith's Harmonics. inhabitants to consent to enclose a certain Ptolemy Says, Αρμονική μέν εςι δυναμις portion of waste land, and to vest it in καταληπτική των εντόις ψόφοις, περί το οξύ και the lord of the manor and the parish. Beni, drapepær. " Harnonics is a power of officers, for the purpose of raising un- apprehendmg the differences of sounds, derwood for fuel, to be d.stributed among with respect to gravity and acuteness. the poor. I endeavoured to carry that Would it not be more philosophical to act into effect soon after it passed, bosh say, with respect to the pitch of cach at Stanton and Troston; but the other suund? owners were discouraged by the length “ As the ideas of acute and high, grave of time, before much could be raised by and low, have in nature no necessary it, (sixteen or twenty years, the expense connection, it has happened accordingly," and difficulty of protecting it while as Dr. Gregory las observed in the
e face young, and even afterward. I know not to his edition of Euclid's Works, “ that whether that act has any where been the more ancient of the Greek writers adopted in practice; I was obliged there looked upon grave sounds as high, and
MONTILY MAG. No. 196,
acute onės as low, and that this connec- rived, or of what substances it is com. tion was afterwards changed to contrary, posed. by the less ancient Greeks, and has since I will try to apply this process to some prevailed universally, Probably this of the terins in music." A sharp, the jatter connection took its rise from the character employed to raise any note a formation of the voice in singing, which seini-tone, I would call an“accelerator," Aristides Quinctilianus thus describes: because it increases the vibrations; and Siverai dè in rèv Bapólns, rétw@ev 'avaRepojnéve a flat, which is used to depress any note, τα πνεύματος, ή δοξύτης, ε'πιπολής προϊεμένα. I would call a retarder,” because it Gravity takes place, if the breathi is car- renders the vibrations slower; and a ried upwards from the lower part of the natural, because it restores a note to throat, but acuteness if it rushes forth its original state, a restorer.” from the higher part."
All such indefinite expressions as Dr. Smih says, “The Greek musi- adagio, largo, andante, allegro, &c. cians rightly describe the difference be- I would entirely expel : and say, tween the manner of singing and talking; many inches." Because so sinple & they considered two motions in the voice, machine as a Bullet, would give the LIVÁCEIS dúo: the one continued and used in precise time in which a composer intends talking, s puer ourexńs 5: xabayss; the his piece should he played or sung. other discrete and used in singing, Anda person who has attended to it for και δε διας ημαθική τε και μελωδική. In tlie
a very short time, will recollect, with continued motion, the voice never resis
great accuracy, the difference between at any certain pitch, but waves up and eight or nine inches, or any other down by insensibie degrees; and in the number. discrete inotion it does the contrary, fie- If composers disdain the use of such quently resting, or staying, at certain very simple means to convey their ideas places; and leaping from one to another with precision they are not to be pitied by sensible intervals.”—Euclid's Inl10- for having the time of their compositions, ductio Harmonica, p. 2.
I need not
and consequently in some measure the observe, that in the fornier case, the vi- effect, so frequently mistaken. brations of the air are continually acce- Had Mr.Handel made use of this not very lerated and retarded by turns, and by complicated, or expensive, but very port: very small degrees ; and in the latter by able instrument, there would not be such large ones.
continual disputation as to the time of Now, Sir, we come to the subject upon his various movements. But my pen which I began.
niores at a rate sufficiently fast to 'exEuclid savs, An, interval is to teplexo haust your patience: so I shall subscribe μένον υπο φθόγγων ανωμένων οξύτηλι Βαρύτλι, τηyself,
Your's, &c. What is contained by two sounds diltering Noruich,
C. I. SMYTI. in gravity and acuteness,
January, 1810. Aristoxenus defines a musical sound thus, påvns alãous 'erà perser vás • Eerros, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. A sound is the falling of the voice upon one tension: and an interval thus, Alasaga
f your active and intelligent correδε εςι το υπό δύο φθόγων ώρισμενον, μή την aunt táow 'exólov: An 10erval is that SENSE, page 479, for December last, has which is terininated by two sounds, not
discovered that the “art of printing was having the same tension. I know not any one word in the Eng vention," and derives the origin of block
only a new application of an ancient inlish language, which we could substitute for interval, which would philosophically printing, that intant effort of the modern explain its nature. I should define an
art, from the impression of those broad
seals on the charters of the eleventh and interval, “the dilference between two sounds, as to the number of their vibra- of " joking tbe impression on paper,
twelfth centuries, by the simple change tions, or pulses, in a given time.” The
instead of wax." fillowing definition is expressed rather Darbarously; An interval is the pitch- transition from stamping on paper in
The idea is ingenious; but though the difference of two sounds,
stead of wax, appears to us extremely Chymistry, you well know, my dcar Sir, his changed its nomenclature, in
simple, it will not sufficiently account for order that the name of a substance may simplicity, had it not arisen from some
the oriyin of the invention; with all its express from what substances it is de fostunaic accident, or been discovered
by some ingenious contrivance, the art mode of spelling a man's name, if he himof printing might, even at the present self is not? Yet look at any of Linne's moment, hare been unknown to us. works, and you will find that even in the The present age of experimental philo- Latin tongue he constantly terms hin. sophy, is no doubt approximating to self Carolus a Linné, never Linnæus. many valuable inventions; and when Indeed it would be strange if he sbould some of them shall appear, we shall be have done otherwise; when we know astonished, from their extremne simplicity, thăt the termination aus, in Sweden, is that they had 1100 been discovered before. deemed a mark of plebeian origin; and In respect to the art of printing, the that though. Linné's father was called following circunstance confirins the Linnæus, as well as himself up to the statement of Common Sense; at the same period of his being ennobled, immediately time it shows, how it is possible to pos- ipon this event, he changed his name tu sess the knowledge of an art withont Linné,which of course he ever afterwards practising it. “ That the Romans did used as his signature. It strikes me, not practice the art of printing, (says a that our pertinacious retention of the old modern writer) cannot but excite our vulgar name must be considered by the astonishment, since they really possessed Swedes as a designed insult upon their the art, and may be said to have enjoyed illustrious countryman, just as we should it, unconscious of their rich possession. deem it an insult upon our immortal I have seen Roman stereotypes, or hero, Lord Wellington, if some ill-inan. printing immoveable types, with which nered foreign nation should persist in they stamped their pottery. llow, in calling bin by his plebeian title, Sir A. daily practising the art, though confined Wellesley; or as Sir C. Flower would to this object, it did not occur to so in- think hiniself insulted, if his correspon. genious à people to print their literary dents were to persist in directing their works, is not easily to be accounted for. letters and notes to plain Charles Flower, That wise and grave people, perhaps esq. Our clownish behaviour in this dreaded those inconveniences which ac- point, in fact, says to the Swedes, " You tend its indiscriminate use, and dangerous are proud of having had your great naabuse."-Curiosities of Literature, fiftb turalist's blood ennobled, but resolved we edition, vot. i. p. 118.
are that he shall be no noble to us; CaThe Roman "stereotypes above-men- rolus a Lioné you may pompously call tioned, exist in very curious collections hiin; but, by plain Carolus Linnæus, the of antiquities. An eminent collector, only name he ever merited, we are dewith one of these, stamped in my pre- termined to designate him.” sence, on paper, a complete inscription I can see no answer to this reasoning, in Roman capitals; the letters were dis- but that it would be inconvenient to tinct and well cut. I have preserved the alter a name, to which we have been so iropression, but cannot readily find it. long accustomed; a plea which it is evi. It may perhaps be worth giving a facdent would go to deprive Sir Arthur of simile
, as a specimen of what may be his barony; Sir Charles of his well. called Roman printing.
earned dignity; and many a lucky legalee Lincoln's-inn,
Your's, &c. of a large fortune. Surely if we can Jan. 10th. 1810. CRITO. metamorphose a name,
“ familiar to us
as household-stuff," like Sir Arthur's into To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. a title so unlike it as Wellington, we SIR,
should experience no migbry difficulty in wist! to enquire of some of your transforming Linnæus into Linné.' In the great Swedish naturalist, who on the who studies botany, would set the fashiContinent is always called Linné, is, in on, there is not a naturalist but would this country, almost universally called blush before the year's end, if the vile Linnæus? Por my own part, I think it aus were to escape bin. would be absurd in us to persist in wri- I am aware of only one other objecting and calling a name different from the tion, viz. thai, in fact, Linné's name to be rest of the world, even if strictly the given correctly, should be called, Von majority were in the wrong; but in the Linné, or a Linné; and this I adinit to present instance, the contrary is so evi- be valid: but in trivial matters of this denty true, that I cannot figure to my- kind, the onmipotence of custoin is adself one plausible reasou for our vicious mitted; and as by common consent, practice.' Who is to be the judge of the foreign naturalists have dropped the awx
I , ,
[March 1, ward prefix, I do not see why we should are few, Hindoos, indeed, of distinction, set up for such rigid models of exactness, who have not their small pagoda at Beas to object to follow their example.' nares, in charge of a Brahmin entertained Yet if we must be precisely correct, by them, for the purpose of offering up : I etter adopt Von Linné, than the boorish prayers and sacrifice, and of distributing Linnæus.
Your's, &c. alms, on their account, at the conseDec. 1, 1809.
A LINNEAN. crated city.
A pagoda, called Visswishor, or Vio To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. shishor, is the principal place of wor
ship. Though sinall, it is a handsome OUR
quence of my having quoted two 'a red colour, and sculptured, both inside very amusing definitions of Bailey, under and out, in an elegant manner. Tbe the words Gregorian and Thunder, las idol within the temple is a black cylina called upon me to specify the editions. drical stone, called Seeb, or Mah Deeon, To this I reply, that I shall not take such (the Phallus of the ancient Ægyptians,) trouble, because I have been informed, that is, the Great God. Both men and that the author was the father of Miss women resort in crowds every morning Bailey, whose ghost so baunted Captain and evening, to the adoration of this Smith, as we find in a well-known dole- image, to which they are summoped by ful ballad, and I may get haunted too, if I the ringing of bells. To the hoinage of meddle too far in the family af &c. this curious divinity, they bear with E. adds, that the information of Grego- them Ganges water, rice, beetle, planrian being a fashionable wir in the eigh- tains, sugar, flowers, and frankincense, as teenth century, is curious information. . an offering. They carry also a small If so, Catalani bonnets, and Nelson's lamp filled with ghee (or grcase) and a chip-hats, with Hobies for buots, and little bell. On their entering the temple, Woydons for pistols, are not properly they light the lamp, and fire the franko contined to Dictionaries of English Cose incense, and place them both, with setume, but ought to be extended to Dic. veral other articles of the offering, before tionaries of the English language, toge- the idol. They then sprinkle the idol ther with Grose, the Slang, &c. &c. with water, and part of the rice, and
I agree with E. that John Bailey, and crown the top of it with flowers. After Miss Bailey, have both amused the the oblation they pray, and in the interval public, and I have not the smallest wish of every prayer, tinkle their little bell. to prevent their continuing to do so. When the hour of prayer is ended, the Your's, &c. F. Brahmins carry away their offerings,
which are considered as their subsistence. For the Monthly Magazine. There is a stone figure of a bull within ACCOUNT of BENARES, written in 1785. the pagoda, and usually a consecrated
stands on the northern side of the teinple. Ganges, and is reputed the most holy Fire is not only a sacred offering of city of the Hindoo sect. Regarded with the Hivduos, but is itself also worshipped the same veneration as Mecca_by the by them, as is its prototype, the sun. Mussulmans, a pilgrimage to Benares As in other sacred places of Indostan, absolves every sin, and secures to the devotee Fakeers are here seen, with their Pagai a settlement in heaven. A nuin- limbs distorted by voluntary acts of peber of rajahs, and opulent Hindoos, nance. have contributed to its celebrity by Besides the Visswishor, there are a monastic institutions for Fakeers and multitude of smaller pagodas in Benares, Brahmins; by establishments for pago- and a celebrated observatory, erected das; by fine flights of stone steps down near a century ago, by a rajah of Jogto the Ganges, for the convenience of nagur. But the mosques are few only. Justration ; by gardens contiguous to the The largest was erected on the highest town; by long avenues of trees; and by part of the bank, by the emperor Akbur; extensive tanks. Some of these bene- hut it is remarkable for nothing more factions they were enabled to bestow at than its lofty miparets. a moderate expense, on account of All the principal houses are built of several stone quarries within the moun. stone, in streets, (or rather alleys) so very tains, at no great distance either from narrow, that a palanquin has barely room the place, or from the river side. There to pass, Abundance of wealthy mere
da kept within the court of the