Page images
[ocr errors]

.casion; and adds that (with the French ation of it) for the report of a pistol : it
pronunciation) it“ is certainly an imita- is poue. *
tion of asinine braying.” The line is My last example has but lately come

to my knowledge, and very unexpectedly; Ilex va! bez va! bez va bez !

but as an explanation concerning it may

help to illustrate some texts of Scripture Eustathius, it scems, remarks that which I am sure must occasionally be s blops is a sound in 'imitation of the clep- liable to misconception, I shall employ sudra.* As the clepsydra was a water- a few lines on the subject. There is a clock, I suppose this refers to the noise Latin verb pipio, given in some of our of the fluid in issuing froin the vessel. I school dictionaries with the translation do not know in what manner it ran; but, merely " to peep," and in others more to judge from the foregoing expression, fully,' “ to peep like a chicken;" and as it was not in a smooth stream. I shall the word hardly ever occurs, this intero therefore place as parallel to this, a pretation might pass without causing any French wood-cutter's tern for the sound practical blunder. · The idea, however, of the liquor emptying from his battle (! which the Latin verb really significs, is, imagine, what we call a leathern-boltle) “ to cry Peep!" this last word being intu his mouth:t

merely an imitation of an inarticulate Qu'ils sont doux,

sound; and we have an obsolete verh Bouteille jolie,

to peep,” formed in the same manner Qu'ils sont doux

as “10 luzzo, to whoop, and to hem and Vos petits glow.glou ! &c. I

ha."| This verb is very appropriately

applied to young birds in the nest, in
In my former letter, I presented you Isaiali, chap. 10, ver. 14: " There was
with a curious and most valuable state- none ihat jnoved the wing, or opened
ment, exhibiting the sounds of the strings the mouth, or perped.” In chap. 8, ver,
of a violin m being put into tune. I have 19, of the same prophet, it is coupled
now the good fortune of being able to with mutter;" and in the inargin of
lay before your readers, from the author chap. 29, ver. 4, is made equivalent to
whom I have last quoted (Molière), ano- "whisper," and "chirp." - The word
ther article, almost equally valuable, in then may be supposed to have been
a similar display of the sounds produced formed' from the cry of young birds, and
by the strings of a lute, in undergoing in this view it is suited to my present
precisely tlie saine operation (of being purpose.
put into tone). It is, of course, neces. I conclude with my hearty commenda-
sary to remember that the instrument is tions to all ingenious projectors, whether
oui of (unc at the time ; and that the fol- in words or deeds; and am, Sir,
lowiny example should be read with the

Your's, &c.
Frencia pronunciation of the words: Januury 12th, 1810.
"plan, plan, plan; plin, plin, plin :
plin, plin, pliii ; plin, tan, plun ; plin, For the Monthly Magazine,
plin :-plin, plan."||

The same work supplies me also with On the scale of certain MUSICAL IN, an expression (in the French pronunci

STRUMENTS, which are said to be with. out TEMPERAMENT.

THE letter of your respectable corre* In his note on the Iliad, book 1, ver. 499, his words are, Baót isto tãs als túspecs 387 ofilic November Magazine,i aduces me

spondent, Capel Loft, esq. at page έχoς μιμήλικώς κατά τις παλαίες.


to trouble according to the ancients, is a sound in imi


herewith, in order to mene tation of the clepsydra,'- From Walker's Key,

* Le Malade Imaginaire : première entrée + Molière; Le Médecin malgré Lui; acte

de ballet. The passage is this : “ Polichi.

nelle, faisant semblant de tirer un coup de 1. scène 1.

pistolet. Poue !"
# “ My pretty bottle, how sweet is your
little giu-glu!

+ Johnson, under " to peep," gives only Il Le Malade Imaginaire; premier inter

(besides the most common meaning, of mède, scène 4. The passare is as follows:

" looking slily,”) “ to make the first appear. " Polichinelle prend son luth, dont il fait

ance ;” and then explains " peeper?' by semblant de jouer, en imitant avec les lèvres

young chickens just breakir:g obe sbell." Here

seems evidently some confusion or mistake, ti la langue le son de cet instrument. Plan.

from a comparison with the signification &c. Voi à un tems fâcheux pour mettre un luth d'accord.”

given in the upper part of this page.


[ocr errors]

P. X


Large Crops of Fiorin Grass, [March 1, tion, that Mr. Maxwell, in his “ Essay on. In the tuning of the twelve notes in Tune," printed at Edinburgh 1781, has each octave, that are in common use, demonstrated, page 194, that forty-four some authors and tuners advise, the ma. strings or pipes are required, in each oc- king certain chords or intervals perfect, tave of a piano-forte or organ, that shall and others very nearly so; throwing the be capable of performing in all the twen. imperfection or temperament, wholly or ty-four keys, in which modern composi- in great part, on certain other intervals, tions, are wrote, or into - which they free called the bearing.notes, wolves, &c. quently modulate, without temperaments; So in like manner, when seventeen notes that is, without introducing concords as above, twenty-one which the late Dr. that are imperfect or tempered, and Robert Smith used, or any other number which consequently are somewhat out of of notes, are introduced in the octave tune, and would he sensibly noticed as (short of the whole number which Mr. such, if these imperfect intervals were Maxwell has shown to be necessary for held out, or occurred in the long notes of perfect vse) bearing notes or wolves must a piece of full music,

unavoidably be introduced, somewhere The organs to which Mr. Lofft allodes, in the scale. as I suppose, are those made by Mr. Tho- I have not yet been able to learn the mas Elliot, No. 12, Tottenhan-court, un- exact mode adopted for tuning each note der the Rev. William Hawke's patent, on Mr. Ilawke's patent instruments, or wirich instruments I have not yet secn; to obtain a table of bis seventeen interbut I hastily examined last spring, some vals, expressed by the major-tone , the of the piano-fortes constructed under the minor-tone jó, and the hemitone 13 (or same patent, by Mr. Robert Bill, No. 49, by any other musical notation), otherRathbone-place, which, as far as I recol- wise, I would point out the particular lect, had forty-eight strings in each oc- chords which are imperfect or tempered, tave, viz. four unison strings to each of in the use of these pateut instruments, the seven long finger keys, two unisons and the exact quantity or degree of temfor each of the five short finger keys, con- perament in each case. Mr. Hawkes, sidered as sharps, and two other unisons the patentee, or some other person acfor each of the same keys, considered as quainted with his mode of tuning, will, I flats; or without the double strings to hope, oblige me and others of your readeach note, merely for giving strength of ers, by giving an account thereof, and tone, twenty-four strings in each octave such a table as I have mentioned, in a are necessary in these patent instruments, future Number of the Monthly Magazine. for obtaining only seventeen intervals in P.S.Since writing the above, a musical the octare; the unrison on the natural friend has put into my hands a printed quarto notes or long keys, admitting of the whole copper-plate pige, describing the use of the clavier or range of finger-keys being grand patent harmonic piano-forte, lately in. shifted to the right or left, by means of vented by D. Loeschman, of No 28, New. a pedal, without altering the pitch of man-street; Oxford-road, which, by the help any but the short or half-notes.

of six pedals, produces seven scales of twelve The expedient proposed by Mr. Lofit, for others, by the use of the pedal helonging

notes cach (two only of them being changed of dividing each of the short finger-keys, to each respective scale), making twenty-four has in part been adopted long ago, in the notes or intonations in each octave of these Temple Church and Foundling Hospital instruments, which are pretended to produce organs, in london, as I believe with per- eighteen major and fifteen minor keys in tune. fect convenience to the performer: and Should these be the instruments to which were the same extended to every short Mr, Lotit has alluded, I beg to inform him, kay, seventeen strings or pipes in an oc

that the calculations necessary for showing tave, or such an instrumeni, would alle

how well their pretentions to perfect tune swer all tlie ends of Bir. Ilawke's tweniyo intricate for the Monthly Magazine ; and

are formed, would be far too technical and four, besides avoiding the danger of either would best appear in Mr. Tilloch's Philosostraining the instrument by accidentally phical Magazine, where a series of similar demoving the pedals and keys at the same

tails have ot late been inserted, and to whom I . time, crof striking both the flat and sharp shall probably, ere long, make a communicanotes at the same time, in rapid mo- tion on these patent instruments. dulations. The accidental sharp or flat notes, which occur in some music, might also be readier introdnced on such an in- Your correspondent, at page 462 of strument as Mr. Lofft alludes to, than vol. 28. who enquires about Fiorin Grass, on Mr. Hawke's instrument,

will tind that Dr. William Richardson


[ocr errors]


has repeatedly stated it to be the Agros- Horace, we shall endeavour to show, tis Stolonifera of Linnæus; and which, that these two poets, who have, in some he states, (strengthening the statement measure, divided the field of satire beby the evidence of the Right Flonourable tween them, pursued different objects, Isaac Corry, who weighed it,) produced and attained equal success, by contrary in one of his irrigated meadows in Ire- methods; the one possessing a pleasing, land, the enormous crop of eight tons the other a grave, manner. This method five cwt. two grs, twenty-four lbs. of hay, of viewing the subject, though it be rafrom an English acre of ground !! ther moral than literary, will not, we

The famous Wiltshire long grass meads trust, on this account be the less interat Orcheston, whose enormous crops of esting. In pursuing it, we must attend watered grass and bay, have so long at. to the circumstances under wbich each tracted attention, are of fiorin grass, as of these writers drew his picture of manappears from the late Mr. Thomas Da- ners, and observe the difference in their vis's account of them, in Mr. Young's characters. What we shall advance Aunals of Agriculture, 1794, vol. xxii. may, in some degree, apply to our mopage 127. Your's, &c. J. Faney. dern satirists, who have scarcely had Upper Crown-street, Westminster, any other merit than that of borrowing, December 5, 1809.

as their subject was gay or serious, ar, as

they proposed to flatter or instruct, the For the Monthly Magazine.

tone, the sentiments, and the ideas of LYCEUM OF ANCIENT LITERA- one or other of these great masters. TURE.-No. XXVII.

Horace, with equal sagacity, more HORACE AND JUVENAL.*

taste, but considerably less energy than

Juvenal, seemis to have been desirous of Sit has been usual, in order to depre- amusing rather than of reforming: It is * Since the publication of our last Num- liberty, had not yet gone the length of

just stilled the last efforts of Roman ber, it has occurred to us, that it would perhaps be better to close our observations upon Horace, than be compelled to return to him

was encouraged, by their applause, to hazard a once more, probably after a very considerable greater publication; the seventh satire, acinterval. By drawing a comparison between cording to the order in which they are usually him and Juvenal, the reader will be better publisiied. Put having severely reflected upon able to take a view of their respective merits, he was banished to Egypt, under the pretence

Paris, then the chief favourite ot Domitian, as satirists; and it will also render any future of giving him the prefecture of a cohort. separatg notice of the latter author, equally Upon the death of Domitian, he returned to unnecessary. We shall annex, therefore, to Rome, suficiently cautioned not only against this note, the few particulars that are known the characters of those in power, but against of his life. Juvenal was born about the beginning then living:

all personal reflections upon the great men of the reign of Claudius, at Aquinum, a town belonging to the territory or the ancient -Experiar quid concedatur in illos

Volsci, in Campania, and since celebrated Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina. * for having given birth to Thomas, surnamed

Sat. 1. Aquinas, the father of scholastic philosophy. But he continued his keen sarcastic remarks The poet's father appears to have been a rich upon the general vices of his times. He died freedman, who gave him a liberal education; about the niiddle of Trajan's reign, at an and, agreeably to the taste of the age, bred advanced age. That he lived to be an old kim up to the study of eloquence. In this inan may be collected from the 11th Sat. pursuit he is said to have been successful, and where he says of himself, and of Persicus, to is conjectured to have received some lessons whom he addresses it, from Quintilian, who probably aliudes to him when, speaking or the Roman satire, he Nostra bibat vernum contracta cuticula solem, says, sunt clari bodié quu-que et qui olim nomina. Effugiatque Togam. buntur. (Inst. Orat. lib. 10. cap. i.).From In his person, he was of large stature; on the testimony of Martial, it may be supposed which account he was supposed to be of that Juvenal had long been discinguished by Gallic extraction. We have no precise aca bis eloquence, and greatly improved his for counts of his moral character, or manner of tune and interest before he thought of poe- living; but from the punishment inflicted try. Subactum redoient declamatorem, (say the upon him by the profligate Domizian, and critics ;) and he was more than forty before from the whole tenor of his writings, we be ventured to recite some verses, to a smail may infer that lie was a real and uniform audience ur bis most intimate friends. He friend to sobriety and virtue.


118 Lyceum of Ancient Lileralurc.-- No. XXVII. [March 1,
absolutely debasing the minds of indivi- with the views of Augustus and Mecenas,
duals; nor did manners exhibit that ciepra- who had declared themselves bis proiec-
vity, which they acquired asierwards in tors. It is said, indeed, that Augustus
che reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero, had intimated a wish to abdicare, from
The cruel, but politic, Angustus strened which the other had prudently dissuaded
yrithi Bowers the path he was silently him; for what success could the artificial
opening to despotism; and the fine aris character of the one, deprived of snillions
of Greece, transplanted round his eapia to execute his orders, or the useless
tal, flourished under' liis ruspices. The urbanity of the other, lave obtained
Tecollection of civil discords bad rendered among a people restored to their freedom?
jhe restorer of peace an object of allo- Such a design, perhaps never seriously
ration ; tie citizens of Rome were happy, entertained, was soon abandoned; and
that they could awake each day, without henceforth it was no longer permitied to
the apprehension of secing their names speak, but in the language and posture of
included in a proscription: and the Ro- a slave.
mans, in a state of pupilage, and, sha- Horace, convinced that future ages,
elowed by the laurels of their ancestors, enchanted with his poetry, would give a
forgot, in the amphitheatre and circus, passport to his name, saw that he could,
those civil rights for which their fathers with impunity, flatter, and become the
had shown such jealousy during almost accomplice of one, whose power no other
eight centuries. Tyranny had never so could resist. Hience, the encomiums lie so
seducing a commencement. The illu- freely distributed, liad a reference only
sion was general: or if any one ques- to the circumstances of the moment,
tioned the great nephew of Cæsar, con- which he could turn to his advantage,
cerning the tenure of his power, a single and to persons whose patronage he was
glahice of the emperor reduced him to anxious to obtain The names of many

great characters who were his contempoHorace, who excelled as much as a raries, are not to be found in his writings. courtier, as he was deficient as a soldier, That of Ovid, who was in disgrace; that and who was guided perhaps hy a sense of Cicero, " whom Rome, during hier of interest, and a consciousness of inca- freedom, had dignifica with the first of all pacity to fulfil the duties of a genuine tities--the father of his country," are alike republicans, in any way that could have omitted. But he never forgets to celes distinguished hin; was soos sensible, brate the favourites of fortune. These how far a refinement of intellect, a grace- had nothing to fear from his muse; gay, fal style, and a cultivated understanding, rather than severe, it indulged itselt only till then unknown amony an ignorant and at the expense of the lower classes, on turbulent people, ucre capable, with very whom neither his reputation nor his little effori, of advancing him. Polite pleasures depended. No one understood ness of manner's, the splendour of an

better than hunself the force of panegyimperial court, and above all, the security ric, low to apply it with address, or enjoyed during a long and peaceful reign, what were the arts most necessary to cuulii not fail to please one, whiae sole gain the favour of the great. With a morality consisted in a calculation of his character thus apparently so little entipleasures; and whose waiting, may be tled to our esteem, and a species of wriconsidered as one continued treatise on ting at first sight adapted only to please the art of enjoying ille préseni, without the bland and pliant courtier, how cɔmes regard to the evils which threaten postc- it that the works of llorace are perused fily. Tudillerent to the future, and with delight, by men even of the soundesc castly forgetting the past, bis only object understanding? Because, as we advanmos i remove every thing rivich could ced in a former paper, to these agreeable create melancholy, and disturbi ihe talents the client of Mecanas united charms of a lile, wlich he had ingeniously many solid and eminent qualities. Not reduced to a sys! (01.

What indeed less a philosopher than a poe:, it was could be his inolives for a dillerent con. with equal ease that he dictated princinucu? Esteemed by the emperor, tlie ples of conduct, and laid down the rules friend of Virgil, caressed by the great, of taste. Disposed rather to give way and a partaker in all their pleasures, lie than to contend; attaching little impor. could not atiect the austeritv, vor regret tance to bis own hypo:beses, and adhethe rigid customs, of former tines. Such ring to his principles, so far only as they sentiments would have il corresponded favoured his Epicureau inclinations; this

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]


[ocr errors]

lax, but amiable poet, could reckon liar, flowed at the will of a voluptuous among his friends and admirers, even instinct. It was an incorruptible Certhose whose opinions or conduct he had sor, a Roman with the tone of the anci4100 scrupled to criticise.

ent Fabii, Mani, and Reguli; it was Let us now consider the rival satiri-t, an inflamed poet, wbo sometimes rose, I who commenced his career where the with his subject, to the sublime pitch of

oiher hand finished; performing bir mo- tragedy: Austere ani uniforin in his rals and for freedom, ulat Horace had principles, everything he uttered bart a effected for decency and good taste. character of gravity and importance. Hurace had learnt to bear the yoke of a

Ilis ridicule was inure severe than his master, and had not blushed to deity censuro; his daugh still more terrible than tyranny and usurpation: while Juvenal bis anger. It was the laughs of Cassius, never ceased to exclaim against both, as described by our inmortal Bard. and to recal to the Romans the glorious le could speak of nothing but vice and ages of their independance.

virtue, slavery and liberty, folly and wisa The poet of Aquinum had force and din. On thiese subjects, he declaimed passion in his character. llis object with animation, severity, and dignity. was inore praise-worthy than that of it may be said of him in his own words, IIorace. He wished to spread conster

" that lie siaked his lite on what was nation among the vicious, and externis true”-ritun impendere vero—having nate corruption, which had become the courage to sacritice all equivocal decus almost natural to the Romans. Bold, rums to it, and all those political consi. but uscless enterprize! He wrote at a derations, which are ot so much moment detestable period, when the laws of na- with those, whose morality consists in ture were violated with impunity; when exteriors. all patriotism was extinct in the hearts of Upon this point, however, let it not be his countrymen. Such an aye, brutified cousiviererl, that we are even attempting by servitude, by luxury, and all its ac. to defend him; on the contrary, we think companying crimes, required an executio hie deserves the reproaches which every oner, rather than a censor. This was a

age has cast upon him, not only for protime, when “the common ties of all claiming the dishonour of so many yicat being broken, all was crumbling to ruin.” wames, but for giving an alarm io moThe Roman character had become so desty which cannot be justified. It is degraded, that no one dared to speak of true, that Horace, a lose relinernent has liberty. Individuals were sensible only been perhaps too much extolled, was of their own misforturies ; and these they still more licentious, and has found unendeavoured to avoid by accusing others. happily tiic means of making vice anniParents, friends, “even what was inani- able; and by revealing borrors, at mate,” became the objects of suspicion. which reason shudders, and which nature The inost endearing ties were disregarded, abhors, has shown), that he designed, if the most distant idea of personal dan- like Juvenal, tomark ihe degree to which ger required they should be broken. It man might debase himseli, when left to was impossible to lament those who were the guidance of appetite and effeminacy. proscribed, for even tears were punished. With the exception of this defect, In a word, excepting some few monents which belonged to the age, rather than of respite, the history of that execrable to the author, there is little to censure in period is marked by the blackest cata- Juvenal. The spirit that dictated his logue of human crimes, written in cha- writinys, breathes only the public gooi. racters of blood; and presenting only a If he reprores what is ridiculous, it is disgusting series of murders effected by only because it is connected with, or the bow-striny, poison, or assassination. leads on to, vice. When he drags to the

This, then, was the time when Juve- allar of famy those whoin he wishes nal, despising the feeble weapon of rilie to expose, bis sictims are so truly odious cule, so familiar to his predecessor, himne and deformed, that we can neither pity self seized the dayger of satire, and run them, tior blame bim. He is accused of ning from the palace to thic tater, being tou sparing in his praises: but who struck, without distinction, all who de. that wiows the human heart, and wishes viated from the paths of virtue. It was neitier to deceive others nor himself, no longer, as with Hurace, a supple poel, can possibly be lavish of these? He has armed with philosophical indiference, präsert but little; the misery of the times who aiused himself with the follies of dispensed hiin from it. All that he the day, and whose style, easy and fani could du, was to compassionate a few


« PreviousContinue »