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Missions, Organization, and Budget


information systems, intergovernmental affairs, and engineering geology.


The U.S. Geological Survey was established by an Act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to answer the need for a permanent agency at the Federal level to conduct, on a continuing, systematic, and scientific basis, investigations of the "geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.” Although a number of laws and executive orders have expanded and modified the scope of the Survey's responsibilities over its 104-year history, the Survey has remained principally a scientific and technical investigation agency as contrasted with a developmental or regulatory one. Today, the Survey is mandated to assess onshore and offshore energy and mineral resources; to provide information for society to mitigate the impact of floods, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, and droughts; to monitor the Nation's ground- and surface-water supplies; to study the impact of man on the Nation's water resources; and to provide mapped information on the Nation's landscape and land use. The Survey is the principal source of scientific and technical expertise in the earth sciences within the Department of the Interior and the Federal Government. This Yearbook provides highlights of the wide range of earth science research and services in the fields of geology, hydrology, and cartography.

In fiscal year 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey had obligational authority for $579.9 million, of which $367.1 million came from direct appropriations, $30.3 million came from transfers of the unobligated balance ($24.0 million) from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska account as required in the appropriation language and from the Office of Water Policy for the Water Resources Research Institutes ($6.35 million), $8.5 million came from estimated receipts from map sales, and $174.0 million came from reimbursements. The Survey also received funds for reimbursable work performed under agreements with other Federal agencies, State and local governments, international organizations, and foreign governments. The Survey performs services under these agreements when earth science expertise is required by other agencies and their needs complement Survey program objectives. Work done for State, county, and municipal agencies is almost always done on a cost-sharing basis.

Most of the appropriations and reimbursements received by the Survey in fiscal year 1984 are distributed through

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The U.S. Geological Survey is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. Its activities are administered through the major program divisions of National Mapping, Geologic, and Water Resources. These program operations are supported by the Administrative and the Information Systems Divisions. The Survey conducts its functions through an extensive field organization of offices located throughout the 50 States and Puerto Rico. At the national level, the functions of the Survey are coordinated through assistant directors for administration, program analysis, research,

Percentage allocation of funds, by Division

Energy Geologic

30,389 11,283

budget activities that roughly correspond to its mapping, geologic, hydrologic, and administrative areas of responsibility. U.S. Geological Survey budget authority for

fiscal year 1984, by appropriation (Dollars in thousands)

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Surveys -----------Coal Investigations -----Onshore Oil and Gas

Investigations ------Oil Shale Investigations -Geothermal

Investigations ------Uranium-Thorium

Investigations -------
World Energy Resource

Offshore Geologic

Surveys ----
Offshore Geologic

Water Resources Investigations ---
National Water Data System-

Federal Program --
Data Collection and

Analysis ------------
National Water Data

Exchange -----------
Regional Aquifer Systems

Analyses ------
Coordination of Water

Data Activities --------
Core Program Hydrologic

Research ---
Improved Instrumentation -
Water Resources

Assessment -------
Supporting Services -------
Toxic Wastes-Ground

Contamination ------Acid Rain -------------Environmental Affairs ----Water Resources

Scientific Information

Center ------
Federal-State Cooperative

Program -------
Data Collection and

Analysis, Areal
Appraisals, and

Special Studies -------
Water Use (Cooperative) ---
Coal Hydrology

(Cooperative) --------Water Resources Research

Institute -----------------
Energy Hydrology ------------

Coal Hydrology ----
Nuclear Energy Hydrology -

Oil Shale Hydrology -
General Administration --------

Executive Direction ----------
Administrative Operations --
Reimbursements to the

Department of Labor -------
Facilities -------
National Center-Standard Level

User's Charge ---------
National Center-Facilities

Management ------
TOTAL, Surveys, Investigations,

and Research ------Barrow Area Gas Operation -----TOTAL, U.S. Geological Survey --

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Surveys, Investigations, and

National Mapping, Geography,

and Surveys --------
Primary Quadrangle

Mapping -----------
Primary Quadrangle

Mapping ------
Modernization of


Map Revision and

Orthophotoquads --
Revision ----------
Orthoquads --------
Digital Mapping ---------
Small, Intermediate, and

Special Mapping ----Intermediate Scale

Mapping ---------Small-Scale and Other

Special Mapping ---Federal Mineral Land

Information -------Land Use and Land Cover

Mapping ---------Airborne Profiling of

Terrain System -----Earth Resources

Observation Systems -Cartographic and


Information ----
Receipts for Printing and

Distribution ----- --
Side-Looking Airborne

Radar -------------Geologic and Mineral Resource

Surveys and Mapping ------
Geologic Hazards Surveys -
Earthquake Hazards

Reduction ---------
Volcano Hazards -------
Ground Failure and


Hazards -
Reactor Hazards

Research ---
Land Resource Surveys ---
Geologic Framework ----
Geomagnetism ------

Climate Change -----
Mineral Resource

Surveys ------
Alaska Mineral Surveys --
Conterminous U.S.

Mineral Surveys ---
Wilderness Mineral

Surveys --
Strategic and Critical

Minerals -------
Development of


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At the end of fiscal year 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey had 7,911 permanent full-time employees on board. The Survey's diversified earth science research programs and services are reflected in its workforce which is composed of personnel in over 170 disciplines, with more than 50 percent possessing a Bachelor's or higher level degree. More than one-half of the Survey's staff are professional scientists, and approximately one-fourth are technical specialists. Hydrologists, geologists, and cartographers predominate among the professional group which includes members of more than 30 other disciplines, such as geophysicists, chemists, and engineers.

The permanent employees are supported by other than full-time permanent employees which include many students and faculty members from colleges and universities as well as parttime personnel. The Survey has profited greatly from its relations with the academic community. The expertise of many eminent specialists has become available to the Survey in this manner and has provided great flexibility in solving problems and meeting surges in workload, especially during the field season. Those associations also have been an invaluable channel for recruiting young professionals of demonstrated ability for permanent full-time positions upon the completion of their studies.

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National Mapping Program


orders for cartographic, geographic, earth science, and remotely sensed data.


In support of the National Mapping Program, the Division concentrates its efforts on the following major activities:

The National Mapping Division conducts the National Mapping Program, which provides graphic and digital cartographic and geographic products and information for the United States, Territories, and U.S. possessions. The products include several series of topographic maps, photoimage maps, land use and land cover maps and associated data, geographic names information, geodetic control data, and remotely sensed data.

The products are generated by four regional mapping centers and the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center. The Division's Printing and Distribution Center prints, stores, and distributes all Geological Survey maps and texts. The Division also operates Public Inquiries Offices and National Cartographic Information Centers which, along with the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center, provide information about and fill

Primary quadrangle mapping and

revision, including the production and revision of 7.5-minute 1:24,000- and, in selected areas, 1:25,000-scale topographic maps in the conterminous United States and Hawaii and the 15-minute 1:63,360scale topographic maps in Alaska. During fiscal year 1984, about 1,300 revised and 1,600 new primary quadrangle maps were published, mostly in the 7.5-minute series. Published topographic maps

Figure 1. Status of primary

quadrangle mapping and revision program. [Reduced version of 1984 status map. Full-size map available from Public Inquiries Offices.]

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