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NATIONAL WATER SUMMARY PROGRAM
The U.S. Geological Survey has established the National Water Summary Program in response to recent concerns about an impending water crisis and an increased public interest in the condition of the Nation's water resources. In addition to preparing a national water summary report annually, the Program will describe the geographic extent and severity of water issues and will develop and maintain maps and statistics that describe the condition of water resources in the context of specific issues.
In January 1984, the Survey published National Water Summary 1983— Hydrologic Events and Issues, WaterSupply Paper 2250, the first in the planned series of reports to discuss changes and trends in the availability, quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources. These reports have been designed to organize and present water information to aid in the analysis and development of water policies, legislation, and management actions by the Congress and Federal and State officials and to increase public understanding of water resources.
National Water Summary 1983 consists of four parts: A discussion of the hydrologic cycle and how man influences the movement and quality of water as it moves through the cycle; a review of recent hydrologic conditions-precipitation, streamflow, flooding, and droughts—from January 1982 through August 1983; a hydrologic interpretation of four categories of water issues-water availability, water quality, hydrologic hazards and land use, and institutional and management issues; and a State-by-State discussion of water issues in each of the four categories, highlighted by color-coded maps that show the location and extent of the issues.
A number of water issues that have nationwide significance emerged from the State summary section: • Short-term vulnerability to drought of
surface-water supplies and shallow
ground-water supplies; • Concerns about the reliability of
water supplies as competition for
water increases; • Declining ground-water levels
associated with increased use of
ground water; • Need for improved control of surface
water pollution, especially nonpoint sources of pollution, such as runoff
from agricultural and urban areas; Prevention of ground-water
contamination and the mitigation of existing sources of pollution, such
as hazardous waste sites; • Potential effects of acidic
especially coal mining and low-
sources; and • Development of water allocation and
reallocation procedures. More than 8,000 copies of National Water Summary 1983 have been distributed to Federal, State, and local agencies, the Congress, the Water Resources Research Institutes, and other members of the water-resources community. News coverage of the Summary was nationwide, and reviews appeared in local, State, and national newspapers and newsletters and on national network television. The favorable response to the report was due, in part, to the State-by-State presentations that one newspaper referred to as “an unprecedented Stateby-State assessment of U.S. water supplies.” The National Water Summary also was displayed prominantly as part of the Geological Survey's exhibit at the Louisiana World Exposition.
The U.S. Geological Survey has conducted international activities as an extension of its domestic programs since about 1940. Authority for Survey participation in foreign studies derives from the revised Geological Survey Organic Act, the Foreign Assistance Act, and related legislation. Principal objectives of the activities are
example, institutional development, exchange of scientists, training of foreign nationals, and representation of the Survey or the U.S. Government in international organizations, commissions, or associations.
During fiscal year 1984, the Geological Survey continued its formal training courses for foreign nationals. Course title Number of attendees 22nd International Remote
Sensing Workshop ----- 10 23rd International Remote
Sensing Workshop ----- 7 Techniques of Hydrologic
Investigations --------- 24 Geologic and Hydrologic
Hazards Course ------- 42
• To help achieve domestic research
objectives through the comparative study of scientific phenomena abroad and in the United States;
• To obtain information about existing and
potential foreign resources of interest to the United States;
• To develop and maintain relations with
counterpart institutions and programs which will facilitate scientific cooperation and exchange; and To provide support for the international
programs of other Federal agencies including those of the U.S. Department of State that contribute to foreign policy objectives.
MAJOR PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES
In addition to the scheduled training courses, the Survey provided or arranged for on-the-job or academic training for 167 people either at Survey facilities or at other organizations on behalf of the Survey. The 250 trainees (including those in the formal courses) represented 55 countries; 66 trainees were from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Survey also continued to arrange programs for visiting scientists. Through these programs, 106 scientists from 25 countries conducted cooperative research at the Survey or Surveyselected institutions; 25 scientists were from the People's Republic of China.
Programs active during fiscal year 1984 are summarized in the accompanying table. The more significant highlights of fiscal year 1984 are described below.
International programs of the U.S. Geological Survey are usually of two general types. The first is technical assistance to other countries and international organizations utilizing funds from other Federal agencies, from international organizations, or from foreign governments as authorized under the Foreign Assistance Act and related legislation. The second is bilateral or multilateral scientific cooperation with foreign counterpart organizations under Governmentapproved cooperative agreements to achieve common research objectives utilizing funds appropriated for Survey research and funds or other financial resources made available by the cooperating countries or organizations.
Many related activities that form integral parts of the programs commonly stem from the international work; for
During 1984, the Survey developed a program supportive of the President's Caribbean Basin Initiative. The program proposes cooperative scientific research with counterpart agencies in Caribbean nations that will enhance the economic conditions and improve the health and safety of the people. The proposals are largely extensions of domestic studies such as the Strategic and Critical Minerals Program, the Geologic Frame
International scientific activities conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal year 1984, listed by country or
Technical Assistance Activities
Latin America ---
-- Training of Geological Survey personnel.
- Reconnaissance of Jayaco concession.
Earthquake hazards reduction.
Seismic systems; ground-water resources; geothermal resources. ---- Regional remote sensing facility; Landsat imagery.
Geologic mapping and mineral-resource assessment; hydrologic
studies; Landsat image quadrangle maps.
- Mineral-resource project development.
Earthquake hazards reduction.
natural gas symposia.
Global seismic network; geologic and hydrologic training programs;
conventional energy-resources identifications.
Southeast Asia ---
Tunisia ----Venezuela ---Worldwide --
Scientific Cooperative Activities
---- Topographic mapping; marine geological and geophysical surveys.
geophysics; continental deep seismic reflection.
Mineral-resources assessment; geochemical exploration.
margins; radioactive waste; petroleum-resource assessment;
mineralogic, paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies.