Ukrainians in Canada: The Formative Period, 1891-1924

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CIUS Press, 1991 - History - 562 pages
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Covering the initial phase of Ukrainian immigration, settlement and community-building in Canada, this history goes beyond existing accounts in three important respects. First, the Ukrainian experience in Canada is placed firmly within the context of Canadian history, as well as the history of immigrants and immigration. The social and economic forces that "pushed" Ukrainian peasants out of eastern Galicia and northern Bukovyna and "pulled" them to Canada are examined. The efforts of French-Canadian Roman Catholic primates in western Canada to subordinate the immigrants to their authority are analyzed. Attempts by Anglo-Protestant social reformers to "Canadianize" the immigrants through the medium of Protestant missions and the public school system are also discussed. The book's second major subject is the impact of the Ukrainian national movement, which penetrated the villages of eastern Galicia and northern Bukovyna during the last quarter of the nineteenth century and shaped the outlook of the men who assumed leadership within the Canadian immigrant community. In particular, it demonstrates how the national movement's radical, secular and populist precepts fueled anticlericalism, sustained opposition to machine politics and heavy-handed methods of "Canadianization," and promoted self-reliance and resistance to economic exploitation. Ukrainian Canadian attitudes to the First World War, the Russian Revolution and the struggle for independence are also considered. Martynowych's account also delves into the everyday lives of ordinary Ukrainian immigrants in rural bloc settlements, urban colonies, frontier construction camps and one-industry towns from coast to coast. An attempt has been made to survey material conditions of life, to examine occupational structures and entrepreneurial activity, and to consider social differentiation and the emergence of class divisions. The formation, proliferation and activities of local institutions such as parishes, reading clubs, drama groups, co-operatives, national homes, socialist circles and labour temples are also analyzed, as are the efforts of Ukrainian nationalists and socialists to transmit their ideologies and mobilize popular support through such institutions.
 

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Contents

Galicia and Bukovyna on the Eve of Emigration
3
Canada at the Turn of the Century
34
Immigration and Settlement
59
Rural Settlers
78
Frontier Labourers
109
Urban Immigrants
129
Conflicting Visions of Canada and the Immigrants
155
The Catholic Clergy
182
PART FOUR
307
The War Forces the School Issue
342
The War Intensifies Ukrainian Catholic Religious Turmoil
381
The Great War 19171919
419
Ukrainian Immigrants and Ukraine
453
A Divided Community
486
Epilogue
521
Bibliographical Note
527

Protestant Missionaries
214
The Ukrainian Intelligentsia
237
Ideologies and CommunityBuilding
265

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About the author (1991)

Orest T. Martynowych studied history at the University of Manitoba (BA Hon, MA) and the University of Toronto. He is the author of Ukrainians in Canada: The Formative Period, 1891-1924 (1991), The Showman and the Ukrainian Cause: Folk Dance, Film, and the Life of Vasile Avramenko (2014).

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