Ukrainians in Canada: The Formative Period, 1891-1924
Covering the initial phase of Ukrainian immigration, settlement and community-building in Canada, this history goes beyond existing accounts in three important respects. First, the Ukrainian experience in Canada is placed firmly within the context of Canadian history, as well as the history of immigrants and immigration. The social and economic forces that "pushed" Ukrainian peasants out of eastern Galicia and northern Bukovyna and "pulled" them to Canada are examined. The efforts of French-Canadian Roman Catholic primates in western Canada to subordinate the immigrants to their authority are analyzed. Attempts by Anglo-Protestant social reformers to "Canadianize" the immigrants through the medium of Protestant missions and the public school system are also discussed. The book's second major subject is the impact of the Ukrainian national movement, which penetrated the villages of eastern Galicia and northern Bukovyna during the last quarter of the nineteenth century and shaped the outlook of the men who assumed leadership within the Canadian immigrant community. In particular, it demonstrates how the national movement's radical, secular and populist precepts fueled anticlericalism, sustained opposition to machine politics and heavy-handed methods of "Canadianization," and promoted self-reliance and resistance to economic exploitation. Ukrainian Canadian attitudes to the First World War, the Russian Revolution and the struggle for independence are also considered. Martynowych's account also delves into the everyday lives of ordinary Ukrainian immigrants in rural bloc settlements, urban colonies, frontier construction camps and one-industry towns from coast to coast. An attempt has been made to survey material conditions of life, to examine occupational structures and entrepreneurial activity, and to consider social differentiation and the emergence of class divisions. The formation, proliferation and activities of local institutions such as parishes, reading clubs, drama groups, co-operatives, national homes, socialist circles and labour temples are also analyzed, as are the efforts of Ukrainian nationalists and socialists to transmit their ideologies and mobilize popular support through such institutions.
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Galicia and Bukovyna on the Eve of Emigration
Canada at the Turn of the Century
Immigration and Settlement
Conflicting Visions of Canada and the Immigrants
The Catholic Clergy
The War Forces the School Issue
The War Intensifies Ukrainian Catholic Religious Turmoil
The Great War 19171919
Ukrainian Immigrants and Ukraine
A Divided Community
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Alberta April August Austrian Basilians bilingual schools Bishop Budka Bodrug Bolshevik Borshchiv British Bukovyna Bukovynians camps cent clergy Crath cultural December districts eastern Galicia Edmonton Edna-Star emigration English established February Ferley frontier Galicia and Bukovyna German Greek Orthodox church Ibid Independent Greek church intelligentsia Ivan Ivan Franko January Jewish July June Kanadi Kanadyiskyi rusyn Kolomyia Labour Temple land Langevin Liberal Lviv Manitoba Free Press March missionaries Montreal Mykhailo narod nationalists North November October Ontario organized parishes Petrushevich Polish political prairie Presbyterian Prosvita Protestant radical railway Ranok reading clubs Robochyi narod rural Russian Orthodox Russian Orthodox church Russophiles rusyn Ruthenian Saskatchewan Saskatoon secular priests September settlers Sheptytsky society Soviet Stechishin Stuartburn Svoboda Swystun Toronto Ukraine Ukrainian Canadians Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Ukrainian immigrants Ukrainian Labour Ukrainian national movement Ukrainian Social Democratic Ukrainian socialist Ukrainian teachers Ukrainians in Canada Ukrainskyi holos urban Vegreville Wasyl western Canada Winnipeg workers