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ingly, that relate to this agency and its results in the experience of the churches in the United States, are those in which he himself feels most interest, and to which he would specially direct the attention of the reader.

The author has divided his work into eight Books. The First is devoted to preliminary remarks intended to throw light on various points, so that readers the least conversant with American history and society may, without difficulty, understand what follows. Some of these preliminary remarks may be thought at first not very pertinent to the subject in hand, but reasons will probably be found for changing this opinion before the reader comes to the end of the volume.

The Second Book treats of the early colonization of the country now forming the United States; the religious character of the first European colonists. -their ecclesiastical institutions and the state of the churches when the Revolution took place by which the colonies became independent of the mother-country.

The Third treats of the changes involved in and consequent upon that event-the influence of those changes the character of the civil governments of the States

and the relations subsisting between those governments and the churches.

The Fourth exhibits the operations of the voluntary system in the United States, and the extent of its influence.

The Fifth treats of the discipline of the churches-the character of American preaching-and the subject of revivals.

The Sixth is occupied with brief notices of the evangelical denominations in the United States their ecclesiastical polity and discipline-the doctrines peculiar to each-their history and prospects.

The Seventh treats in like manner of the unevangelical sects.

The Eighth shows what the churches are doing in the way of sending the Gospel to other lands.

From the very nature of such a work, it was requisite that the author should consult many authorities. In order to procure the requisite materials, he visited his native country last year, and so abundantly was he supplied with what he needed, that, in the actual execution of his task, he found himself in want of only one or two books and documents, and these of no essential importance.

But he would be guilty of great injustice were he not to acknowledge his obligations to many distinguished friends in America for their kind co-operation and aid. Without naming all who have anywise assisted him by furnishing necessary documents, or in communicating important facts, he cannot forbear to mention the names of the Rev. Drs. Dewitt, Hodge, Goodrich, Bacon, Anderson, Durbin, Emerson, and Schmucker, and the Rev. Messrs.. Tracy, Berg, and Allen.* To the secretaries of almost all the Religious Societies and Institutions in the country he is also greatly indebted for the Re

* These gentlemen belong to the Reformed Dutch, Presbyterian, Congregational, Methodist, Lutheran, German Reformed, and Baptist churches, and are among the most distinguished ministers in the United. States.

1

PREFACE. ports, and in many cases, also, for the valuable hints they have furnished. Nor can he omit to acknowledge the kindness of Dr. Howe, Principal of the Institute for the Blind at Boston, the Rev. Mr. Weld, Principal of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Hartford, in Connecticut, and Dr. Woodward, Director of the Hospital for the Insane at Worcester, Massachusetts.

For the invaluable chapter on Revivals, the reader, as well as the author, is indebted to the Rev. C. A. Goodrich, D.D., who has long been a distinguished professor in Yale College, at New-Haven, in Connecticut, than whom no man in the United States is more capable of treating that subject in a judicious and philosophical manner.

Nor should the names of the Honourable Henry Wheaton, the Minister for the United States of America at the court of Prussia, and of Robert Walsh, Esq., now residing in Paris, be omitted. Among other obligations, to the former of these gentlemen, the author is indebted for some views which the reader will find in the Third Book; and he has to thank the latter for many important suggestions which he has found much reason to appreciate in the course of his work. He makes this acknowledgment with the more pleasure, because Mr. Walsh is a Roman Catholic, and yet, with a kindness and liberality in every way remarkable, he tendered his assistance with the full knowledge that the author is a decided Protestant, and that his work, however liberal the spirit in which it is written, was to be of a thoroughly Protestant character.

One word more to the English reader. The author deems it right to say that his work was originally designed and primarily written for Germany and other countries on the Continent of Europe. Accordingly, it is fuller on some points than was absolutely requisite for British readers, these being, no doubt, better acquainted with the United States than are the inhabitants of the Continent.

Deeply sensible that the work is far from perfect, he commends it, nevertheless, to the blessing of Him without whose favour nothing that is good can be accomplished.

GENEVA (SWITZERLAND), September, 1843.

CONTENTS.

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THE NATIONAL ERA.

rise

BOOK I.

Chap. XI.--Religious Character of the early

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

Colonists of America.--Emigrants from Scot-

CHAP. I.-General Notice of North America 9 land and Ireland

71
CHAP. II.-The Aborigines of North America ii Chap. XII.- Religious Character of the early
Chap. III.- Discovery of that Part of North Colonists.-Huguenots from France

75

America which is comprised in the Limits of Chap. XIII.-Religious Character of the early

the United States. The early and unsuc-

Colonists.- Emigrants from Germany

80

cessful Attempts to Colonize it

15 CHAP. XIV.- Religious Character of the early

Chap. IV.- The Colonization of the Territo- Colonists.-Emigrants from Poland

81

ries now constituting the United States at CHAP. XV.- Religious Character of the early

length accomplished

17 Colonists.-Emigrants from the Vallies of

CHAP. V.-Interior Colonization of the Country 20 Piedmont

82
CHAP. VI.-Peculiar Qualifications of the An-

CHAP. XVI.—Summary

82

glo-Saxon Race for the Work of Coloniza- Chap. XVII.-Relations between the Churches

tion

23 and the Civil Power in the Colonies of Amer-

CHAP. VII.-On the alleged Want of National ica.-1. In New-England

84

Character in America

25 CHAP. XVIII.-Relations between the Church

Chap. VIII.—The Royal Charters

27

and the Civil Power in the Colonies.-2. In

CHAP. IX.-How a correct Knowledge of the the Southern and Middle Provinces

88

American People, the Nature of their Gov. CHAP. XIX.—The Influences of the Union of

ernment, and of their National Character may Church and State, as it formerly existed in

best be attained

29 America.-1. In New-England

91

Chap. X.-How to obtain a correct View of the Chap. XX.-The Influences of the Union of

Spirit and Character of the Religious Institu- Church and State.-2. In the Southern and

tions of the United States

31

Middle States .

96

CHAP. XI.-

A brief Notice of the Form of Gov: CHAP. XXI.- State of Religion during the Co:

ernment in America

33 lonial Era

99

CHAP. XII.-A brief Geographical Notice of the

United States.

35

BOOK III.

CHAP. XIII.-Obstacles which the Voluntary

System in supporting Religion has had to en-

counter in Ainerica: 1. From the erroneous

Chap. I.-Effects of the Revolution upon Reli-

Opinions on the Subject of Religious Econo- gion.-Changes to which it necessarily gave

my which the Colonists brought with them 37

102

CHAP. XIV. - Obstacles which the Voluntary

CHAP. II.-The Dissolution of the Union of

System has had to encounter in America: 2. Church and State not effected by the General

From the Newness of the Country, the Thin- Government, nor did it take place immediately 104

ness of the Population, and the unsettled state Chap. III.-Dissolution of the Union of Church

of Society

39 and State in America, when and how effected 105

Chap. XV. - Obstacles which the Voluntary Chap. IV.- Effects of the Dissolution of the

System has had to encounter in Arnerica : 3. Union of Church and State in the several

From Slavery

40 States in which it once subsisted

112

Chap. XVI. - Obstacles which the Voluntary CHAP. V.-Whether the General Government
System has had to encounter in America : 4.

of the United States has the power to pro-

From the vast Emigration from Foreign Coun. mote Religion

116

tries

42 CHAP. VI.- Whether the Government of the

United States may justly be called Infidel or

BOOK II.

Atheistical

118

CHAP. VII. — The Government of the United

THE COLONIAL ERA.

States shown to be Christian by its Acts 120

CHAP. I.--Religious Character of the early Col. CHAP. VIII.-The Governments of the Individ.
onists.-Founders of New England

44 ual States organized on the basis of Christi.

CHAP. II.--Religious Character of the Founders anity

122

of New-England.-Plymouth Colony 47 CHAP. IX. - The Legislation of the States
CHAP. III. - Religious Character of the early shown to be in favour of Christianity

Colonists.--Founders of New-England.-Col. Chap. X.—The Legislation of the States often
ony of Massachusetts Bay

51 bears favourably, though incidentally, on the

Chap. IV.- Religious Character of the early cause of Religion

126

Colonists.-Founders of New-England.-Col. CHAP. XI.-In what cases the action of the

onies of Connecticut, Rhode Island, New- Civil Authority may be directed in reference

Hampshire, and Maine.--General Remarks 56 to Religion

127

Chap. V. - Religious Character of the early CHAP. XII.-Review of the ground which we

Colonists.-Founders of the Southern States 60 have gone over

129

CHAP. VI. - Religious Character of the early

Colonists.-Colonists of New York

64

BOOK IV.

CHAP. VII.-Religious Character of the early

Colonists.-Founders of New Jersey

66

THE VOLUNTARY PRINCIPLE IN AMERICA ; ITS

Chap. VIII.-Religious Character of the early

ACTION AND INFLUENCE.

Colonists. — Founders of Delaware, at first CHAP. I. - The Voluntary Principle the great
called New Sweden

68 Alternative.-The Nature and Vastness of its

CHAP. IX.-Religious Character of the early Mission

129

Colonists.-Founders of Pennsylvania 69 CHAP. II.- Foundation of the Voluntary Princi.
CHAP. X. - Religious Character of the early ple to be sought for in the Character and
Colonists. - Emigrants from Wales

71 Habits of the People of the United States 131

124

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CHAP. III.--How Church Edifices are built in CHAP. X.--Concluding Remarks on the Church

the Cities and large Towns

132 and the Pulpit in America

218

CHAP. IV.-How Church Edifices are built in

the New Settlements

134

BOOK VI.

CHAP. V.-The Voluntary Principle developed

-How the Salaries of the Pastors are raised 136

THE EVANGELICAL CHURCHES IN AMERICA.

CHAP. VI. - How Ministers of the Gospel are Chap. I.-Preliminary Remarks in reference to

brought forward, and how they become set. this Subject

219

tled Pastors

138 CHAP. II. –The Protestant Episcopal Church 220

CHAP. VII.—The Voluntary Principle developed CHAP. III.-The Congregational Churches

223

in Home Missions.-American Home Mission- CHAP. IV.- The Regular Baptist Churches 229

ary Society

140 Chap. V.—The Presbyterian Church

233

Chap. VIII.- Presbyterian Board of Domestic CHAP. VI.-The Methodist Episcopal Church . 245

Missions, under the Direction of the General CHAP. VII.-The Moravian Church .

250

Assembly

142 Chap. VIII.-Smaller Baptist Denominations 251

CHAP. IX.-Home Missions of the Episcopal, CHAP. IX.-Smaller Presbyterian Churches.-

Baptist, and Reformed Dutch Churches 144 Cumberland Presbyterians

252

CHAP. X. - Home Missions of the Methodist CHAP. X.-Smaller Presbyterian Churches.

Episcopal Church

145 Reformed Dutch Church

253

CHAP. XI.-The Voluntary Principle developed. CHAP. XI.-Smaller Presbyterian Churches.--

-Influence of the Voluntary Principle on Ed- The Associate Church.--The Associate Re.
ucation.-Of Primary Schools

146 formed Church, and the Reformed Presbyte-

CHAP. XII.-Grammar-schools and Academies 148 rian Church

255

CHAP. XIII.-Colleges and Universities 150 CHAP. XII.-Smaller Presbyterian Churches.-
CHAP. XIV.-Sunday-schools.-American Sun. The Lutheran Church

257

day-school Union, and other Sunday-school CHAP. XIII.-Smaller Presbyterian Churches.

Societies

152 -The German Reformed Church .

260

CHAP. XV.-Bible-classes

. 156 Chap. XIV.-Smaller German Sects

261

Chap. XVI.-Maternal Societies

156 CHAP. XV.-Smaller Methodist Denominations 262

Chap. XVII.- Education Societies

157 CHAP. XVI.-The Friends or Quakers

263

CHAP. XVIII.-Theological Seminaries 159 CHAP. XVII.—The Summary

264

Chap. XIX. Efforts to diffuse the Sacred CHAP. XVIII.-Number of Evangelical Sects . 266

Scriptures

166 CHAP. XIX.-Alleged Want of Harmony among

CHAP. XX. Associations for the Circulation the Evangelical Christians of the United

and Publication of Religious Tracts and Books 167 States

267

CHAP. XXI.-The Religious Literature of the

United States

169

BOOK VII.

CHAP. XXII.- Efforts to promote the Religious

and Temporal Interests of Seamen

172 UNEVANGELICAL DENOMINATIONS IN AMERICA.

CHAP. XXIII.-Of the Influence of the Volunta-

CHAP. I.-Introductory Remarks

269

ry Principle in reforming existing Evils.- CHAP. II.-The Roman Catholic Church .

270

Temperance Societies

172 CHAP. III.-Unitarianism

CHAP. XXIV.-The American Prison Discipline CHAP. IV.-The Christ-ian Connexion

280

Society

174 CHAP. V.-The Universalists

Chap. XXV.-Sundry other Associations 176 CHAP. VI. Swedenborgians and Tunkers . 282

Chap. XXVI.-Influence of the Voluntary Prin- CHAP. VII.-The Jews

283

ciple on the Beneficent Institutions of the CHAP. VIII.--Rappists, Shakers, Mormons, &c. 283

Country .

177 CHAP. IX.- Atheists, Deists, Socialists, Four-

CHAP. XXVII. — Influence of the Voluntary

rierists, &c.

286

Principle on the Beneficent Institutions of the Chap. X.-General Remarks on the State of

Country:-Asylums for the Insane.

178

Theological Opinion in America

CHAP. XXVIII. - Influence of the Voluntary

Principle on the Beneficent Institutions of the

BOOK VIII.

Country.---Asylums for the Deaf and Dumb . 179

CHAP. XXIX.-Influence of the Voluntary Prin- EFFORTS OF THE AMERICAN CHURCHES FOR THE

ciple on the Beneficent Institutions of the

CONVERSION OF THE WORLD.

Country.-Asylums for the Blind

180

CHAP. XXX. - Concluding Remarks on the

CHAP. I.-Introductory Remarks

292

Development of the Voluntary Principle

CHAP. II.-Earlier Efforts to convert the Abori-

181

gines

293

CHAP. III.-American Board of Commissioners

BOOK V.

for Foreign Missions

299

CHAP. IV.-Board of Foreign Missions of the

THE CHURCH AND THE PULPIT IN AMERICA.

Presbyterian Church

307

Chap. I.-Importance of this part of the Sub- CHAP. V.-Missions of the Baptist Churches 309

ject.

183 CHAP. VI.-Foreign Missions of the Methodist

CHAP. II.—The Evangelical Churches in the

Episcopal Church

310

United States maintain Discipline. 183 Chap. VII.-Board of Missions of the Protest-

CHAP. III.— The Way in which Membership in ant Episcopal Church

311

our Churches is obtained

185 CHAP. VIII.- Foreign Missions of other Denom:

CHAP. IV.-The Relations which unconverted inations

312

Men hold to the Church

187 Chap. IX.-American Society for Ameliorating

Chap. V.—The Administration of Discipline . 189 the Condition of the Jews

313

Chap. VI. -Character of American Preaching 189 CHAP. X.--Foreign Evangelical Society of the

CHAP. VII.-Revivals of Religion

196 United States.

313

CHAP. VIII.--Supplementary Remarks on Re- CHAP. XI.-American Colonization Society : 314

vivals of Religion

213 CHAP. XII.-Summary

317

CHAP. IX.-Alleged Abuses in Revivals of Re: CONCLUSION

318

ligion

214

.

.

RELIGION IN AMERIC A.

BOOK I.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

GENERAL NOTICE OF NORTH AMERICA.

CHAPTER I.

case. These mountains simply stand, as it were, on the plateau or elevated plain on

which those waters have their origin. RiThe configuration of the Continent of sing in the immediate vicinity of each other, North America, at first view, presents sev- and often interlocking, these streams are not eral remarkable features. Spreading out in the least affected in their course by the like a partially open fan, with its apex to- mountains, the gaps and valleys of which wards the south, its coasts, in advancing seem to have been made to accommodate northward, recede from each other with them, instead of their accommodating considerable regularity of proportion and themselves to the shape and position of the correspondence, until, from being separa- mountains. In a part of its northern exted by only sixty miles at the Isthmus of tension, this range of mountains seems to Darien, they diverge to the extent of 4500 detach itself entirely from the plain where miles; the east coast pursuing a northeast those streams have their source, and lies ern, and the west a nothwestern direction. quite east of it, so that the streams that

Parallel to these coasts, and at almost fall into the Atlantic, in making their way equal distances from them, there are two to the southeast, as it were, cut through ranges of mountains. The eastern range, the mountain range, in its entire width. called the Alleghany, or Appalachian, runs When first discovered by Europeans, and from southwest to northeast, at an average for a century and more afterward, the long distance of 150 miles from the Atlantic. and comparatively narrow strip of country Its length is usually estimated at 900 miles.* between the Alleghany range and the AtIts greatest width, which is in Virginia and lantic Ocean was covered with an unbroPennsylvania, is about 120 miles. Rather ken forest. The mountains, likewise, up a system, than a range, of mountains, it to their very summits, and the valleys that is composed of parallel ridges, generally lay between them, were clad with wood. maintaining a northeast and southwest di- Nothing deserving the name of a field, or rection. But as it advances towards its a prairie, was anywhere to be seen. northern extremity, and passes through the On the western side of the continent, as New-England States, it loses much of its has been stated, another range of mountcontinuity, and gradually runs off into a ains runs parallel to the coast of the Pachain of nearly isolated mountains. The cific Ocean. This range is a part of the imsouthern extremity gradually sinks down mense system of mountains running from into the hills of Georgia, unless, indeed, Cape Horn throughout the entire length we may consider it as disappearing in the of the continent, and seems as if intended, low, central line of the peninsula of Flori- like the backbone in large animals, to give da. The northeastern end terminates in it unity and strength. It is by far the longthe ridges of Nova Scotia. The whole of est in the world ;* and bearing different this range is within the limits of the Uni- names in different parts of its extent, it is ted States, excepting that part of it which the Andes in South America, the Cordillestretches into the British Provinces of New ras in Guatimala and Mexico, and the Rocky. Brunswick and Nova Scotia. We may re- Mountainst in the north. mark, in passing, that although this mount- The long, and, in many parts, wide strip ain range apparently separates the waters of land between the Oregon Mountains which flow into the Atlantic Ocean from and the Pacific Ocean, is claimed, on the those which fall into the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence, such is not really the be 9000 English miles.

* The entire length of this range is estimated to

+ The proper name of this portion of the range is * This is the length of the chain considered as a Oregon, a word of Indian origin, and which, whatevcontinuous range, from the northern parts of Geor- er may be its original signification, is a much better gia and Alabama io the State of New-York. Taken name than that which it has so long borne, and which in the extensive sense in which it is spoken of in the has nothing distinctive about it, for all mountains text, the entire range exceeds 1500 English miles. are rocky.

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