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INTERIOR COLONIZATION OF THE COUNTRY.

now the state of that name, together with the days of fine packets, or of large and the territories since comprised in the well-appointed merchant vessels, the voyStates of Arkansas and Missouri, and an ages had to be made in small and crowded almost indefinite tract lying westward of ships. The inconveniences, to say nothing these last two, was purchased by the Uni- of the sickness that attended them, were ted States for fifteen millions of dollars. but ill calculated to nerve the heart for And in 1821, the Spanish colony of Flori- coming trials; and as the colonists apda, comprising the peninsula which used proached the coast, the boundless and solto be called East Florida, and a narrow emn forests that stretched before them, strip of land on the Gulf of Mexico, called the strangeness of every object that filled West Florida, was purchased by the same the scene, the absence of all tillage and government for five millions of dollars. cultivation, and of a village or house to Both purchases now form, of course, part give them shelter, and the uncouth and of the great North American Republic. even frightful aspect of the savage inhabi

tants, must have damped the boldest spirits. In the case of Plymouth and some

others, the settlers arrived during winter, CHAPTER V.

when all nature wore her gloomiest attire. The rudest hovels were the only abodes

that could be immediately prepared for After the short account we have given their reception, and for weeks together of the first planting of the thirteen original there might only be a few days of such provinces, by successive arrivals of colo- weather as would permit their proceeding nists from Europe, on the seacoast and with the operations required for their comthe banks of the larger streams, we pro- fort. Not only conveniences and luxuries, ceed to say something of the progress of such as the poorest in the mother-country colonization in the interior of the country. enjoyed, but even the necessaries of life,

A hundred and twenty-five years, it will were often wanting. Years had to be be observed, elapsed between the found passed before any considerable part of the ation of the first and the last of these forest could be cleared, comfortable dwellprovinces; also, that, with the exception ings erected, and pleasant gardens plantof New-York and Delaware, which received. Meanwhile, disease and death would ed their first European inhabitants from enter every family ; dear friends and comHolland and Sweden, they were all origi- panions in the toils and cares of the enternally English ; but that, eventually, these prise would be borne, one after another, to two were likewise included in English pat- the grave. To these causes of depression ents, and their Dutch and Swedish inhabi- there were often added the horrors of sav. tants merged among the English.

age warfare, by which some of the coloAll these colonies were of slow growth, nies were repeatedly decimated, and duten, and even twenty years being required, ring which the poor settler, for weeks and in several instances, before they could be months together, could not know, on retiregarded as permanently established. That ring to rest, whether he should not be of Virginia, the earliest, was more than once awakened by the heart-quailing war-whoop on the point of being broken up. Indeed, of the savages around his house, or by findwe may well be surprised that, when the ing the house itself in flames. Ah, what colonists that survived the ravages of dis- pen can describe the horror that fell upon ease and attacks from the Indians were many a family, in almost all the colonies, still farther reduced in their number by the not once, but often, when aroused by false return of a part of them to England, the or real alarms! Who can depict the scenes remainder did not become disheartened in which a father, before he received the and abandon the country in despair. The fatal blow himself, was compelled to see Plymouth colonists lost, upon the very his wife and children fall by the tomahawk spot where they settled, half their number before his eyes, or be dragged into a capwithin six months after their arrival; and tivity worse than death? With such deterrible, indeed, must have been the sor- pressing circumstances to try the hearts rows of the dreary winter of 1620–21, as of the colonists-circumstances that can endured by those desolate yet persevering be fully understood by those only 'who exiles. · But they had a firm faith in God's have passed through them, or who have goodness; they looked to the future; they heard them related with the minute fidelifelt that they had a great and a glorious ty of an eyewitness — who can wonder task to accomplish, and that, although they that the colonists advanced but slowly? themselves might perish in attempting it, Still, as I have said, they gradually gainyet their children would enjoy the prom- ed strength. At the Revolution in England ised land.

of 1688, that is, eighty-one years after the Stout hearts were required for such en- first settlement of Virginia, and sixty-eight terprises. Few of the colonists were after that of Plymouth, the population of wealthy persons, and as those were not the colonies, then twelve in number, was

estimated at about two hundred thousand, provinces that reach thus far, and their which might be distributed thus : Massa- whole population was confined to the strip chusetts, including Plymouth and Maine, of land interposed between those mountmay have had forty-four thousand ; New- ains and the Atlantic Ocean.

It is true, Hampshire and Rhode Island, including that immcdiately after the treaty of Paris, Providence, six thousand each ; Connecti- in 1763, by which England acquired the cut, from seventeen to twenty thousand; Canadas and the Valley of the Mississippi making up seventy-five thousand for all excepting Louisiana, which remained with New-England : New-York, not less than France, or, rather, was temporarily ceded twenty thousand ; New Jersey, ten thou- to Spain-a few adventurers began to pass sand ; Pennsylvania and Delaware, twelve beyond the mountains, and this emigration thousand ; Maryland, twenty-five thou- westward continued during the war of the sand; Virginia, fifty thousand ; and the Revolution. But when peace came, in two Carolinas, which then included Geor- 1783, I much doubt if there were twengia, probably not fewer than eight thou- ty thousand Anglo-Americans in Westsand souls.

ern Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, KenAfter having confined their settlements tucky, and Tennessee. These were but the for many years within a short distance, advanced posts of the immense host about comparatively speaking, from the coast, to follow, and, for many years after the the colonists began to penetrate the inland peace, the colonization of the interior was forests, and to settle at different points in slower than might be supposed. The popthe interior of the country, in proportion ulation of the thirteen provinces at the as they considered themselves strong commencement of the Revolution is not enough to occupy them safely. Where positively known, but it certainly did not hostility on the part of the Aborigines was exceed three millions and a half, slaves indreaded, these settlers kept together as cluded. No doubt the population of the much as possible, and established them- seaboard increased with considerable raselves in villages. This was particularly pidity, and Vermont was not long in bethe case in New-England, where, from the ing added to the original thirteen states, soil being less favourable to agriculture, making fourteen in all upon the Atlancolonization naturally assumed the com- tic slope. They amount now to fifteen, pact form required for the pursuits of trade Maine, which was long a sort of province and the useful arts, as well as for mutual to Massachusetts, having become a sepassistance when exposed to attack. As arate state in 1820. After the establishthe New-England colonists had all along ment of Independence, danger from the devoted themselves much to the fisheries Aborigines ceased to be apprehended and other branches of commerce, their set throughout the whole country situated betlements were for a long time to be found tween the Alleghany Mountains and the chiefly on the coast, and at points affording Atlantic Ocean. The remains of the nuconvenient harbours. But it was much merous tribes, its former inhabitants, had, otherwise in the South. In Virginia, in with some exceptions in New-England, particular, the colonists were induced to New-York, and the Carolinas, retired to settle along the banks of rivers to very the West, and there they either existed considerable distances, their main occu- apart, had become merged in other and pation being the planting of tobacco and kindred tribes. trading to some extent with the Indians. But it was far otherwise in the great reIn the Carolinas, again, most hands being gion to the west of the Appalachian range. employed in the manufacture of tar, tur- There, many of the Indian tribes occupied pentine, and rosin, or in the cultivation of the country in all their pristine force, and rice, indigo, and, eventually, of cotton, the were the more to be dreaded by settlers colonial settlements took a considerable from the Eastern States, inasmuch as range whenever there was peace with the they were supposed to be greatly under Indians in their vicinity. Where there the influence of the British government in was little or no commerce, and agricultu- Canada, and as unkindly feelings long subral pursuits of different kinds were the chief sisted between the Americans and their occupation of the people, there could be English neighbours, each charging the othfew towns of much importance; and so er, probably not without justice, with excimuch does this hold at the present day, ting the Indians, by means of their respectthat there is not a city of twenty-five ive agents and hunters, to commit acts of thousand inhabitants in all the five South- violence. Excepting in some parts of ern Atlantic States, with the exception of Western Pennsylvania and Eastern TenBaltimore, in Maryland, and Charleston, in nessee, there was little security for AmerSouth Carolina.

ican settlers in the West from 1783 until Even at the commencement of the war 1795. The first emigrants to Ohio suffered of the Revolution, in 1775, the colonies greatly from the Indians; two armies sent had scarcely penetrated to the Alleghany against them, in the western part of that or Appalachian Mountains in any of the state, under Generals Harmer and St. Clair,

were defeated and shockingly cut to pie- / was laborious and tedious beyond concepces; and not until they had received a tion. dreadful defeat from General Wayne, on Far different are the circumstances of the River Miami-of-the-lake,* was there those colonists now! The mountains, at anything like permanent peace established. various points, are traversed by substanBut, as a prelude to the war between the tial highways; and, still farther to augUnited States and Great Britain, which ment the facilities for intercourse with the commenced in 1812 and ended in 1815, the vast Western Valley, canals and railroads Indian tribes again became troublesome, are in progress. It is accessible, also, from particularly in Indiana and in the southeast- the south, by vessels from the Gulf of ern part of the Valley of the Mississippi, Mexico, as well as from the north by the forming now the State of Alabama. The lakes, on whose waters from fifty to a hunCreeks, a powerful tribe of the Muskho- dred steamboats now pursue their foaming gee race, then occupied that country, and way.* As for the navigable streams of the it was not until defeated in many battles Valley itself, besides boats of all kinds of and skirmishes that they were reduced ordinary construction, nearly, if not quite, to peace. In point of fact, perfect secu- four hundred steamboats ply upon their rity from Indian hostilities has prevailed waters. And now, instead of being a throughout the West only since 1815; boundless forest uninhabited by civilized since that there have been the insignifi- men, as it was sixty years ago, the West cant war with Black Hawk, a Sioux chief, contains no fewer than eleven regularwhich took place a few years ago, and the ly-constituted states, and two territories still more recent war with the Seminoles which will soon be admitted as states into in Florida-exceptions not worth special the Union, the population having, meannotice, as they in nowise affected the coun- while, advanced from ten or twenty thoutry at large.

sand Anglo-American inhabitants to above It is now (1844) about sixty years since six millions.t the tide of emigration from the Atlantic Generally speaking, the various sections States set fairly into the Valley of the of the Valley of the Mississippi may be said Mississippi, and though no great influx to have been colonized from the parts of took place in any one year during the first the Atlantic coast which correspond with thirty-five of that period, it has wonder- them as nearly as possible in point of latifully increased during the last twenty-five. tude. This is easily accounted for: emiWhen this emigration westward first com- grants from the East to the West naturally menced, all the necessaries that the emi- wish to keep as much as they can within grants required to take with them from the the climate which birth and early life have East had to be carried on horseback, no roads for wheeled carriages having been the Mississippi, Ohio, or any other river in that reopened through the mountains. On arri- gion, when the water is very high. It is this: inving at the last ridge overlooking the stead of keeping in the middle of the stream, the

boat is made to go along close to one of the banks, plains to the west, a boundless forest lay and the men who guide it, by catching hold of the stretched out before those pioneers of civ- boughs of the trees which overhang, the water, are ilization, like an ocean of living green. enabled to drag the boat along: It is an expedient Into the depths of that forest they had to resorted to more by way of change than anything plunge. Often long years of toil and suf- the rivers, to go along for miles in this way. Even fering rolled away before they could es- to this day the greater portion of the banks of the tablish themselves in comfortable abodes. rivers of the West are covered with almost uninterThe climate and the diseases peculiar to rupted forests. the different localities were unknown.

* There are more than sixty on Lake Erie alone.

+ It may be worth while to give the names of Hence, fevers of a stubborn type cut many these states and territories, their extent in English of them off. They were but partially ac- square miles, and their population according to the quainted with the mighty rivers of that census of 1840. They are as follows: vast region, beyond knowing that their common outlet was in the possession of

Sq. miles. Pop. in 1840. foreigners, who imposed vexatious reg

Ohio

40,260 1,519,467 Indiana

36,500 685,868

The ulations upon their infant trade.

Michigan

59,700 212,267 navigation of those rivers could be car Illinois

57,900 476,183 ried on only in flat-bottomed boats, keels, Kentucky

40,500 779,828 and barges. To descend them was not

Tennessee

40,200 829,210

Missouri unattended with danger, but to ascend by

63,800 383,702 Arkansas

60,700 97,574 means of sweeps and oars, by poling, Alabama

52,900 590,756 warping, bush-whacking, and so forth, Mississippi

47,680 375,651 Louisiana

49,300 352,411 * Or the River Miami which flows into Lake Erie, and so called to distinguish it from the Miami that falls into the Ohio.

Wisconsin.

30,945 + The word bush-whacking is of Western origin,

Iowa.

43,112 and signifies a peculiar mode of propelling a boat up

Total

6,376,972

STATES.

TERRITORIES.

ana.

rendered familiar and agreeable, though a guished that race, admirably fit a man for regard to their health may compel some of the labour and isolation necessarily to be them to seek a change by passing to the endured before he can be a successful south or north of their original latitude. colonist. Now, New-England, together The New-England tide of emigration, in its with the States of New York, New Jersey, westward course, penetrated and settled Delaware, and Pennsylvania, with the exthe northern and western parts of the State ception of Dutch and Swedish elements, of New York, and advancing still farther in which were too inconsiderable to affect the the direction of the setting sun, entered the general re were all colonized by peonorthern parts of Ohio, Indiana, and Illi- ple of Anglo-Saxon origin. And assuredly nois, extended over the whole of Michigan, they have displayed qualities fitting them and is now stretching into the Territory for their task such as the world has never of Wisconsin. That from the southern witnessed before. No sooner have the counties of New-York, from New Jersey, relations between the colonies and the and Eastern Pennsylvania, first occupied Aborigines permitted it to be done with Western Pennsylvania, and then extended safety (and sometimes even before), than into the central districts of Ohio and Indi- we find individuals and families ready to

The Maryland and Virginia column penetrate the wilderness, there to choose, colonized Western Virginia and Kentucky, each for himself or themselves, some ferand then dispersed itself over the southern tile spot for a permanent settlement. If parts of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois ; while friends could be found to accompany him that from North Carolina, after having and settle near him, so much the better; colonized Tennessee, is reaching into but if not, the bold emigrant would venture Missouri and Iowa. The South Carolina alone far into the trackless forest, and surcolumn, mingling with that of Georgia, mount every obstacle single-handed, like a after having covered Alabama and a great fisherman committing himself to the deep part of the State of Mississippi, is now ex- and passing the livelong day at a distance tending itself into Arkansas.

from the shore. Such was the experience This account of the progress of coloni- of many of the first colonists of New-Engzation westward, as a general statement, is land ; such that of the earliest settlers in remarkably correct, and it furnishes a bet- New-York, New Jersey, Delaware, and ter key to the political, moral, and religious Pennsylvania; such in our own day has character of the West, than any other that been the case with many of the living occould be given. The West, in fact, may cupants of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michibe regarded as the counterpart of the East, gan, Wisconsin, and Iowa; and thus is after allowing for the exaggeration, if I may colonization advancing in all those states so speak, which a life in the wilderness and territories at the present moment. tends to communicate for a time to man- Living on the lands which they cultivate, ners and character, and even to religion, the agricultural inhabitants of the Newbut which disappears as the population England and Middle States are very much increases, and the country acquires the dispersed; the country, far and wide, is stamp of an older civilization. Strag- dotted over with the dwellings of the landglers may, indeed, be found in all parts holders and those who assist them in the of the West, from almost all parts of the cultivation of the soil. For almost every East; and many emigrants from Europe, landowner tills his property himself, astoo, Germans especially, enter by New- sisted by his sons, by young men hired for Orleans, and from that city find their way that purpose, or by tenants who rent from by steamboats into Indiana, Illinois, Mis- him a cottage and a few acres. Field souri, Wisconsin, and Iowa. But all these work in all those states is performed by form exceptions that hardly invalidate the men alone; a woman is never seen handgeneral statement.

ling the plough, the hoe, the axe, the sickle, or the scythe, unless in the case of foreign emigrants who have not yet

adopted American usages in this respect. CHAPTER VI.

Now it is in this isolated and independent

mode of life that our men best fitted to QUALIFICATIONS

penetrate and settle in the wilderness are SAXON RACE FOR THE WORK OF COLONIZA-trained; and from this what may be em

phatically called our frontier race has Arart altogether from considerations of sprung, and is recruited from time to time. a moral and religious character, and the in- Take the following case as an illustrafluence of external circumstances, we may tion of the process that is continually going remark, that the Anglo-Saxon race possess on in the frontier settlements. A man rees qualities peculiarly adapted for success- moves to the West, he purchases a piece ful colonization. The characteristic per- of ground, builds a house, and devotes -severance, the spirit of personal freedom himself to the clearing and tillage of his and independence, that have ever distin- ) forest acres. Ere long he has rescued a

PECULIAR

OF

THE

ANGLO

TION.

farm from the wilderness, and has reared to the merchant, who has opened his store a family upon it. He then divides his land at'some village among the trees, perhaps among his sons, if there be enough for a some miles off

, and there laying out the farm to each of them; if not, each receives little money they may have left. With money enough to buy one as he comes of economy and health, they gradually beage. Some may settle on lands bestowed come prosperous. The primitive log-house on them by their father; others, preferring gives place to a far better mansion, cona change, may dispose of their portion and structed of hewn logs, or of boards, or of proceed, most commonly unmarried, to brick or stone. Extensive and well-fenced

the new country,” as it is called, that is, fields spread around, ample barns stored to those parts of the West where the pub- with grain, stalls filled with horses and catlic lands are not yet sold. There he tle, flocks of sheep, and herds of hogs, all chooses out as much as he can convenient- attest the increasing wealth of the owners. ly pay for, receiving a title to it from the Their children grow up, perhaps to pursue District Land Office, and proceeds to make the same course, or, as their inclinations for himself a home. This is likely to be in may lead, to choose some other occupathe spring. Having selected a spot for his tion, or to enter one of the learned profesdwelling, generally near some fountain, sions. or where water may be had by digging a This sketch will give the reader some well, he goes round and makes the acquaint- idea of the mode in which colonization: ance of his neighbours, residing within advances among the Anglo-Saxon race of the distance, it may be, of several miles. the Middle and New-England States of A time is fixed for building him a house, America. Less Anglo-Saxon in their oriupon which those neighbours come and gin, and having institutions and customs: render him such efficient help, that in a modified by slavery, the Southern States single day he will find a log-house con- exhibit colonization advancing in a very structed, and perhaps covered with clap- different style. When an emigrant from boards, and having apertures cut out for those states removes to the “ Far West," the doors, windows, and chimney. He he takes with him his wagons, his cattle, makes his floor at once of rough boards his little ones, and a troop of slaves, so as riven from the abundant timber of the sur-to resemble Abraham when he moved from rounding forest, constructs his doors, and place to place in Canaan. When he seterects a chimney. Occupying himself, tles in the forest he clears and cultivates. while interrupted in out-door work by the ground with the labour of his slaves. rainy weather, in completing his house, he Everything goes on heavily. Slaves are finds it in a few weeks tolerably comfort- too stupid and improvident to make good able, and during fair weather he clears the colonists. The country, under these disunderwood from some ten or fifteen acres, advantages, never assumes the garden-like kills the large trees by notching them appearance that it already wears in the round so as to arrest the rise of the sap, New-England and Middle States, and which and plants the ground with Indian corn, or is to be seen in the northern parts of the maize, as it is called in Europe. He can great Central Valley. Slavery, in fact, easily make, buy, or hire a plough, a har- seems to blight whatever it touches.. row, and a hoe or two. If he finds time, Next to the Anglo-Saxon race from the he surrounds his field with a fence. At British shores, the Scotch make the best. length, after prolonging his stay until his settlers in the great American forests. crop is beyond the risk of serious injury The Irish are not so good ; they know not from squirrels and birds, or from the growth how to use the plough, or how to manage of weeds, he shuts up his house, commits the horse and the ox, having had but little it to the care of some neighbour, living experience of either in their native land. perhaps one or two miles distant, and re- None can handle the spade better, nor are: turns to his paternal home, which may be they wanting in industry. But when they from one to three hundred miles distant first arrive they are irresolute, dread the from his new settlement. There he stays forest, and hang too much about the large until the month of September, then mar- towns, looking around for such work as ries, and with his young wife, a wagon their previous mode of life has not disqualiand pair of horses to carry their effects, a fied them for. Such of them as have been few cattle or sheep, or none, according to bred to mechanical trades might find sufficircumstances, sets out to settle for life in cient employment if they would let ardent the wilderness. On arriving at his farm, he spirits alone, but good colonists for the forsows wheat or rye among his standing In- ests they will never be. Their children dian corn, then gathers in this last, and may do better in that career. The few prepares for the winter. His wife shares Welsh to be found in America are much all the cares incident to this humble begin- better fitted than the Irish for the life and ning. Accustomed to every kind of house- pursuits of a farmer. hold work, she strives by the diligence of The perseverance and frugality of the her fingers to avoid the necessity of going | German, joined to other good qualities

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